THE FOUNTAINHEAD AYN RAND PDF
Many people have asked me how I feel about the fact that The Fountainhead has been in print for twenty-five years. I cannot say that I feel anything in particular. For further information on Ayn Rand and The Fountainhead, check out the CliffsNotes Resource Center. CliffsNotes provides the following icons to highlight . The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand. Penguin, Xiii, pages. Reviewed by David W. Gill ppti.info I am not drawn to reading novels but when I.
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The rest are no concern of mine; it is not me or The Fountainhead that they will betray: it is their own souls. AYN RAND New York, May CONTENTS PART . By DR. MICHAEL S. BERLINER, Executive Director of the Ayn Rand Institute The Fountainhead, published in , was Ayn Rand's first great success. Yet apart from the man- sought, is not to be found, and perhaps, also, is not to -- AYN RAND March 10, Part One: PETER KEATING 1.
Of course, much of the information would have to be made up, so allow your imagination free rein. Instead of making up a few quotes about your book, write a positive, three-line review of the story of your life.
The Fountainhead 5. This opposition is the source of much con- flict, and it is this conflict that moves the plot along. In your own life, what invisible antagonists do you face? What are the pressures that you face from day to day? Examples might be time con- straints, peer pressure, body weight, procrastination, bad habits, fear of failure, or family strife, among others.
If you could face one of your invisible antagonists, what would you say? Write a conversation that the two of you might have. The novel opens with the young architect Howard Roark, standing naked at the edge of a cliff made of granite. He has just been kicked out of his architecture school because of the individualism with which he approach- es his craft. He offers Roark readmission to the school, once Roark matures and can accept direction from others about his design work.
How do you think Roark reacts internally to this meeting? How would you have reacted? Write a letter from Roark to one of his friends, detailing both his response to the dean and his feelings about the confrontation.
When prized students at academic institutions are expelled, there is gener- ally a strong response from the student body. While some may favor the expulsion of the student, depending on the particular offense, the more common and usually more vociferous response comes from the support- ers of academic freedom. Write an editorial that would appear in the campus newspaper at the Stanton Institute of Technology, concerning the expulsion of Howard Roark. You may choose to support or argue against the expulsion, but be sure to give valid reasons that support your opinion.
The Fountainhead 8. Roark is conspicuously absent from the rows of graduates at the Stanton commencement exercises. However, Peter Keating does graduate, and Chapter 2 shows him sitting and thinking about how great he is and will become. This pride is gratified when the commencement speaker, Guy Francon, comes by and offers Keating a job. Keating has to decide between this job and a wonderful scholarship that he has won to go to graduate school. Ultimately, his mother cajoles him into accepting the job.
The first five chapters of the book contain a great deal of material about the academic backgrounds, relative levels of confidence, and organization of priorities of Roark and Keating. The reader comes away knowing a great deal about what makes both men tick, and what will motivate both men to accomplish great things.
Which of these architects do you think will achieve the greatest profes- sional and personal success? It concerns the way in which individuals choose to use their minds—whether they think and value independently or whether they allow their lives to be dominated, in one form or another, by the beliefs of others.
The story of innovative architect Howard Roark, and his lifelong battle against a society committed to traditional forms of design, The Fountainhead glorifies the great original thinkers of history. It shows what happens when the thinkers go on strike—when the Howard Roark types, the inventors, scientists, and men of independent judgment— refuse to practice their professions in a world that expects them to comply.
Introduction to the Novel 11 The history of The Fountainhead is like an example of its own theme. It was rejected by twelve publishers. Some thought that it was too intellectual, that there was no market for such a book among a reading public that was interested only in stories of physical action.
Others rejected it because it glorified individualism and repudiated the collectivist ideals so popular among modern intellectuals. But Ayn Rand refused to alter her story or dilute her theme. Finally, the book was read by Archibald Ogden, an editor at Bobbs-Merrill. Like an independent-minded Ayn Rand hero, Ogden loved the book and fought for it against dissenting thought in the company. Despite the opposition, Ogden staked his career on this book.
It was published in and made history several years later by becoming a best-seller through word of mouth. To this day, it sells well over a hundred thousand copies every year. A poll conducted jointly in by the Library of Congress and the Book-of-the-Month Club showed that Atlas Shrugged was the second most influential book in the lives of the respondents behind only the Bible and showed The Fountainhead among the top twenty.
Today, The Fountainhead has achieved the status of a modern classic. It is taught in college literature and philosophy courses, as well as in high school English classes.
The Fountainhead continues to be an example of its own theme: the struggle for acceptance of great new ideas in human society. But, in principle and in the long run, truth wins out. Its theme of glorifying the independent mind not only captures the essence of the American spirit but, more fundamentally, expresses the deep human yearning for freedom. The Fountainhead is a theme and a novel that will live forever. It chronicles the struggles of the innovative architect Howard Roark in his effort to achieve success on his own terms.
After leaving Stanton, Roark goes to work for Henry Cameron, an elderly and cantankerous genius, whose ideas are far ahead of their time. Cameron is a commercial failure, but an uncompromising man of integrity. He is one of the first to design buildings that tower over others, and the first to insist that a tall building should look tall.
His hostility only increases the difficulty that a public fearful of progress has in recognizing his genius. After graduating from Stanton, Keating works for Guy Francon, the most successful and prestigious architect in the country. Francon is a phony, who teaches Keating only about manipulating and influencing people, not about building honestly and effectively. Francon has a beautiful young daughter, Dominique, who possesses a mind of her own.
Dominique writes a column devoted to design and interior decorating in The New York Banner, a daily newspaper owned by the powerful publisher, Gail Wynand. Dominique is a passionate idealist who recognizes and reveres the human potential for greatness. But finding little of it in the world— indeed, finding everywhere the triumph of vulgar mediocrity—she Introduction to the Novel 13 becomes disillusioned. Dominique believes that true nobility has no chance to succeed in a world dominated by the mindless and the corrupt.
She recognizes and loathes the unscrupulous pandering engaged in by Keating and her father—and states her convictions openly. But Keating, smitten with the way in which her beauty and elegance impress other people, proposes marriage. Though not adept at design, Keating knows someone who is: Howard Roark, whose love of buildings is so great that he cannot refuse any opportunity to improve one.
Roark helps Keating in his design work. Roark designs a brilliant and simple plan for his building, to which Keating adds his customary ostentatious ornamentation. Keating believes his eclectic hodgepodge of conflicting styles has no chance to win; he must get the partnership now, while Francon still trusts him. He berates Heyer, screaming at the old man to retire, causing the stroke the doctors had feared.
Heyer dies, having left the charming Keating his money. Keating wins the Cosmo-Slotnick competition. Francon makes him partner. For a long period of time, Roark cannot find employment with any architect. Eventually, he is hired by John Erik Snyte, an eclectic builder who is not wedded to any specific school of design.
Snyte is content to give the public whatever it desires. He employs specialists in various schools of design—Classical, Gothic, Renaissance—and wants Roark to be his modernist. Snyte allows his designers freedom to design in their specialties, but then combines their ideas into one finished product of clashing principles. Roark opens his own office, but his designs are too revolutionary, and he receives very few commissions. When Roark turns down the commission for the important Manhattan Bank Building rather than permit the adulteration of his design, he is destitute.
He closes his office temporarily and goes to work in a granite quarry in Connecticut. The quarry is owned by Guy Francon. That summer, Dominique vacations at the family estate bordering the property. Upon meeting Roark, Dominique notices immediately the taut lines of his body and the scornful look of his eyes.
Though at a conscious level, Dominique believes he may be an ex-convict like others of the work gang, at some deeper level she knows better. The way he holds himself and moves, his posture and mannerisms, his countenance and the look in his eyes all convey a proud dignity that would not stoop to the commission of crimes.
She is deeply drawn to him and initiates a pursuit that results in their passionate lovemaking. But despite her profound attraction and aggressive pursuit, she is afraid of a love relationship with him.
She ardently desires their sexual relationship, but almost as intensely fears it. Roark leaves the quarry and returns to New York. Even then, he finds himself thinking of Dominique.
The construction of the Enright House brings Roark recognition and further commissions. Anthony Cord, a successful Wall Street businessman, hires him to build his first office building, a fifty-story skyscraper in the center of Manhattan. Kent Lansing, a member of the board formed to build a luxury hotel on Central Park South, wants Roark and fights for him.
Eventually, he wins, and Roark signs a contract to build the Aquitania Hotel. Although construction of the Aquitania is eventually stopped due to legal wrangles, Kent Lansing vows to win control of the project and complete it.
Toohey, who seeks power over the architectural profession, attempts to end the career of this individualist who will not obey. He influences a wealthy lackey, Hopton Stoddard, to hire Roark to build a temple. Because Roark is an atheist, Toohey coaches Stoddard regarding the best means to approach Roark to build a religious structure. Roark— in your own way.
I can see that in your buildings. He designs a masterpiece for the Stoddard Temple, as Toohey knew he would. He hires Steven Mallory to do the sculpture for the Temple.
Mallory is a brilliant young talent, who sculpts in the Classic Greek style, emphasizing the nobility and grandeur of man. His relationship with Roark, however, inspires him. After his work on the Stoddard Temple, although still suffering from moments of despair, Mallory never again reaches the depths of torment he is in when Roark meets him. But Toohey, as was his plan, manipulates both Stoddard and the public. The Stoddard Temple is torn down, and Roark is condemned as an apostate.
Dominique, in agony at the attack on the hero she loves, marries Keating—the most despicable individual she can find—in an attempt to kill off in herself that greatness of soul that enables her to love only man at his highest and best. It convinces her that she was right in wanting to avoid entanglement in a romantic relationship with Roark. His creative work and uncompromising character have no chance in a world that merely follows the beliefs it has been taught.
He will be destroyed, just as Cameron was. This was, and remains, her deepest belief. Given her values, Dominique must love Roark and everything about the human potential that he represents. She loves man the noble hero. Therefore, the only choice, as Dominique sees it, is to kill off in herself her capacity for hero worship.
In so doing, she can escape her agony when presented with the destruction of greatness. The love of virtue and beauty, she hopes, cannot survive absorption into a life filled with corruption and ugliness. With full conscious intent, she marries Peter Keating. Keating and Dominique are married for twenty months. The powerful Wynand is a man of mixed premises. Like Dominique, he worships man the noble hero, but, unlike her, he has sold his soul, publishing The Banner, a yellow-press scandal sheet, gaining him wealth and influence.
But on her way to Reno to obtain the divorce, Dominique stops in the small town of Clayton, Ohio, where Roark is building a small department store.
She has not seen him since her marriage to Keating. Roark notices from her questions that she is still concerned with other people and their ability to hurt—or even observe—him. She tells him that she wishes to remain with him in this small town. She says they can marry, that she will wash his clothes and cook his meals, and that he will give up architecture and work in a store.
Out of consideration for her, he tries not to laugh. He tells her if he were cruel, he would accept her offer just to see how long it would take her to beg him to return to architecture. She understands. Roark knows that Dominique is not ready to stay with him. She boards the train for Reno and, after her divorce, marries Gail Wynand.
Holding the same basic premises as Dominique, it is logical that he loves her.
He becomes fanatically jealous of sharing Dominique with others. Wynand wishes to build a home in the country as an isolated fortress, so he will not have to see Dominique among the people of the city. So Wynand hires Roark to build his home.
Roark receives more commissions and becomes better known. One of the more prominent commissions he receives prior to his relationship with Wynand is for the Monadnock Valley Resort. The owners of the resort conceive it as a swindle.
They sell two hundred percent of it. They are certain it will fail. They want it to fail. They choose Roark as the worst architect they can find.
They hire him because of it. People come, and the resort is successful. The owners are arrested for fraud, but Roark is not involved in the legal case. The simple fact, however, that Roark made money for people who did not want to make money impresses businessmen, and Roark receives commissions. Keating knows he cannot solve the problems of design, and does not attempt to. Instead, he brings the specifications to Roark. Keating requests that Roark design it and allow Keating to take the credit for it.
Roark knows that he can do it and is eager to. He also knows that he could never get approved by Toohey, who is the behind-the-scenes power on the project. Roark agrees only on the condition that the buildings be erected exactly as he designs them; Keating agrees. Keating will receive the recognition, the money, and whatever other benefits society may confer on a man—but Roark will build Cortlandt. Roark designs a masterpiece, Keating submits it as his, and Toohey accepts it.
When Roark returns, he dynamites the defaced masterpiece and allows himself to be arrested. Whereas years earlier, she had been afraid that society would reject him, now she is not afraid to help Roark in an act for which society may imprison him. Roark knows that Dominique is now ready for their relationship. Believing that his papers mold public opinion, Wynand defends Roark vociferously in The Banner.
When Wynand is out of town in a desperate attempt to save an advertising contract, Toohey strikes. Toohey, who writes a column for The Banner, has schemed for years to take over the paper.
Gradually, he has maneuvered his followers into key editorial positions, and they all come out against Roark. When Wynand fires them, the union, controlled by Toohey, goes on strike. To save the paper, Wynand is forced to reverse his stand on the Cortlandt dynamiting. At his trial, Roark defends the right of the creator to the product of his effort. Roark points out that it was he who designed Cortlandt and that he was not paid for his work.
The only price—that it be erected as designed—was not paid. He points out that, down through the ages, creative men have often developed beneficial new ideas and products, only to be rejected by their societies.
Despite social opposition, the creators move ahead, carrying the rest of mankind with them. Cortlandt Homes is the product of his mind; it is his creation and belongs to him. If society wants it—as it does—justice requires that his asking price be paid. It must be built as he designed it. The jury understands his position and votes to acquit him. Roger Enright buys Cortlandt Homes from the government and hires Roark to build it; Wynand, as long planned, hires Roark to build the Wynand Building, the tallest skyscraper in the city.
Roark has achieved commercial success on his own terms. Roark sees his ideas finally winning in the field of architecture. After decades of the battle that he and Cameron fought, their new methods are ultimately gaining recognition. Dominique, seeing that she was mistaken in believing that a genius like Roark has no chance in a corrupt world, is liberated from her fears and is finally free to marry him. Wynand is psychologically and morally crushed by the realization that success did not require him to sell his soul to the masses, that his professional life was founded on a lie.
When Toohey emerges victorious from the strike, prepared to dictate editorial policy on The Banner, Wynand shuts down the paper rather than allow Toohey to control it. Keating, who once enjoyed acclaim, now finds that his career in architecture is finished. He is a rotted-out shell of a man. List of Characters Howard Roark The hero of the story. His independent functioning serves as a standard by which to judge the other characters—either they are like Roark or they allow others, in one form or another, to control their lives.
Roark is the embodiment of the great innovative thinkers who have carried mankind forward but are often opposed by their societies. He is an aged, bitter curmudgeon—and a commercial failure—but he is the greatest architect of his day. He is an early modernist, one of the first to design skyscrapers and a man of unbending integrity. Roark admires Cameron as he does no one else in the novel.
His life exemplifies the fate of many innovators who have discovered new knowledge or invented a revolutionary product, only to be repudiated by society. Dominique Francon An impassioned idealist who loves only man the hero.In private, he berates Heyer, verbally abusing him and demanding that he retire. So did your professor of mathematics. Although the book is not historical fiction, and the lives of Cameron and Roark are not based on the lives of Introduction to the Novel 9 real-life individuals, their struggles parallel the battles waged by Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright.
Keating stresses the importance of choosing the right wife for a successful career. Others rejected it because it glorified individualism and repudiated the collectivist ideals so popular among modern intellectuals.
It made the street darker and softer; it hung alone, like a gap, and left nothing to be seen but a few branches heavy with leaves, standing still at the gap's edges.
The Fountainhead. Write a conversation that the two of you might have. It would be impossible for me to discuss The Fountainhead or any part of its history without mentioning the man who made it possible for me to write it:
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