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Solar cell device physics / Stephen J. Fonash. — 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (alk. paper). 1. As was the case with the first edition of Solar Cell Device Physics, this book is focused cell structures for understanding and exploring device physics. Many of. "Solar Cell Device Physics Second Edition By Stephen J. Fonash book" is available in PDF Formate. Learn from this free book and enhance your skills.

Solar Cell Device Physics Pdf

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Examples from Solar Cell Device Physics (Stephen J. Fonash, 2nd Edition). Chapter 3 – Basic Structures for Photovoltaic Action. Case 1: Photovoltaic action . Request PDF on ResearchGate | Solar Cell Device Physics | This landmark new edition of Dr. Stephen Fonash's definitive work on solar cell physics has been. For example, devices can be designed to convert radiated heat (infrared light) into usable electrical energy. Standard spectra are needed in solar cell research, .

A—A, May Khan, P. Wang, M. Khan, J. Gray, M. Alam, and M. PP, no. Khan and M. Griddler : A tool to design complex grid for solar cells, such as Sunweb by J. Jordan, C. Deline, S. Johnston, S. Rummel, B. Sekulic, P. Hacke, D. Kristopher, X. Sun, M.

Alam, and R. Sinton, J. Chavali, Stefaan De Wolf, M. Alam, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Chavali, J. Wilcox, B. Ray, J.

Gray, and M. Photovoltaics, vol. Chavali, S. Khatavkar, C. V Kannan, V. Kumar, J. Photovoltaics, 5, , Banerjee and S. Guha, JAP, p. Otherwise, metal incorporation in a-Si degrades reflectivity. Morris et al. Current version analyzes the dark current-voltage IV characteristics of solar cells to extract the diode and shunt current parameters. PVpanel Sim : PVpanel Sim is a spice simulation utility for two dimensional simulation of thin film solar panels, using the conventional equivalent circuit for individual cells.

The tool incorporates the variability of shunt conduction from cell to cell, and effect of sheet resistance of contact material. Dongaonkar, K. Frei, S. Mahapatra, and M. Dongaonkar, J. Servaites, G. Ford, S. Loser, J. Moore, R. Gelfand, H. Mohseni, H. Hillhouse, R.

Agrawal, M.

High-Efficiency Solar Cells

Ratner, T. Marks, M. Lundstrom, and M. Alam , Journal of Applied Physics, vol. Mungan, X. Alam, Opt. Chung, X. Sun, A. Mohite, R. Singh, L. Kumar, M. Alam, and P. Bermel, Optics Express, Strzalka, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Sergei Tretiak, Mercouri G.

Mohite, Science, Science , , Nature , , Collection-limited theory interprets the extraordinary response of single semiconductor organic solar cell, B. Ray, A. Baradwaj, M. Khan, and M. Alam , Proc. National Academy of Sciences, 36 , , Alam, B. Ray, M. Khan, and S. Dongaonkar , Journal of Materials Research, Vol.

Khan, C. Black, and M.

Ray, and M. Self-assembly of single dielectric nanoparticle layers and integration in polymer-based solar cells J.

Solar cell device physics

Allen, B. Khan, K. Yager, M. Random vs regularized OPV: Limits of performance gain of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells by morphology engineering B. Can morphology tailoring improve the open circuit voltage of organic solar cells? Alam Applied Physics Letters, 1 , , Ray, P.

Nair, and M. A compact physical model for morphology induced intrinsic degradation of organic bulk heterojunction solar cell B. Alam Applied Physics Letters, 99, , Commercialization: Foldable organic solar cells InfinityPV 2. Asadpour, R. Chavali, M. Nature Communication.

Dongaonkar, E.

Sheets, R. Agrawal, and M. Dongaonkar, Y. Karthik, D. Alam, S. Karthik, S. Mahapatra, D. Morlier, F. Haase, and M. PV performance and reliability depend sensitively on temperature.

The physics of self-heating is important For a historical account of passive cooling of structures, see M. Bahadori, Sci. Baradwaj, Aditya; B.

Boudouris, M. Alam, Journal of Physical Chemistry, July IEEE Trans. Moore, S.

Dongaonkar, R. Lundstrom, M. Bring Solar Cell Efficiencies into the light the challenge of measuring efficiency of modern cells Editorial. Nature Nanotechnology, 9, , Analytical Microscopy. Improved intrinsic carrier concentration from 1. Improved value for the silicon intrinsic carrier concentration, A. Sproul, M. Green, and J. Zhao, APL, 57 3 , The missing 19 meV found b. Auger Recombination 9e to 1.

Recombination in Highly Injected Silicon ii. Kerr, P. Campbell, and A. Recombination lifetime i. While we find the spatial charge transfer across the junction to be very efficient, we also find a considerable accumulation of photogenerated carriers in the active device region due to poor electrical transport properties, giving rise to significant carrier recombination losses.

Our results are important to optimize future device architectures and increase power conversion efficiencies of atomically thin solar cells. Introduction Two-dimensional 2D semiconductors 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 provide a unique opportunity for the realization of ultrathin and ultralight photovoltaic solar cells, 6 owing to their strong optical absorption in the solar spectrum region, 3 , 7 high internal radiative efficiencies, 8 and favorable band gaps for both single-junction and tandem cells.

The suitability of 2D materials for photovoltaic applications was first demonstrated in lateral p-n junctions, 10 , 11 , 12 defined by split-gate electrodes, and in lateral Schottky junctions. Vertical van der Waals heterostructures 14 can be obtained by manual stacking 15 , 16 or growth 17 , 18 , 19 of different 2D materials in a layered configuration. It has been shown that MoS2 and WSe2, when placed on top of each other, form a type-II heterojunction, 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 with the lowest-energy conduction band states spatially located in the MoS2 layer and the highest-energy valence band states in WSe2.

Relaxation of photogenerated carriers, driven by the conduction and valence band offsets, then results in a charge transfer across the 2D junction and a sizeable photovoltaic effect.

In addition, homojunction architectures have been explored, in which chemical doping is applied to form a vertical p—n junction in the same 2D material. Examples include plasma-induced p-doping of the upper layers in an n-type MoS2 multi-layer crystal 37 and mechanical stacking of few-layer flakes of n-type MoS2:Fe on top of p-type MoS2:Nb.

Open-circuit voltages are typically less than 0. Besides technological challenges, the lack of a clear picture of the device physics in 2D heterostructure solar cells hampers further progress. Optimization of device architectures, however, will require an in-depth understanding of exciton dissociation, carrier transport processes, and recombination losses.

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While we find the exciton dissociation to be very efficient, we also find a considerable pile-up of photocarriers in the device due to poor electrical transport properties, giving rise to carrier recombination and consequently low FF, ISC, and VOC-values. We finally provide guidelines to optimize future device layouts and increase PCEs. Both layers exhibit monolayer thickness, as verified by Raman spectroscopy.

S1a and details about the fabrication process in the Methods section. The corresponding band diagram under short-circuit conditions is schematically depicted in Fig. As demonstrated later, the charge transfer from one layer into the other occurs with high efficiency.

For the subsequent carrier transport to the contacts, driven by the lateral built-in field, it is hence justified to consider electron concentrations in MoS2 with quasi-Fermi level EF,e and hole concentrations in WSe2 with quasi-Fermi level EF,h only, as schematically depicted in Fig.

From the data reported in ref. CB conduction band, VB valence band. The arrows indicate the p—n regime, in which the device shows a photovoltaic response.

Dashed line: dark current; solid line: under optical illumination. The quasi-Fermi level splitting, expressed as voltage, is qVint.

EF,e and EF,h are assumed to exhibit the same constant tilt throughout the entire device. Note, that in an ideal solar cell with infinite carrier mobility, Vint is zero under short-circuit conditions illustrated by the black dotted line Full size image As reported previously, 20 the electrical characteristics can be controlled by electrostatic doping via a back-gate voltage VG, applied to the silicon substrate Fig.

For a large positive VG we find resistive n—n behavior, whereas for an appropriate choice of VG an atomically thin p—n junction is formed and the device current I as a function of external bias voltage V displays diode-like rectification behavior inset in Fig. All further measurements reported in this article were performed in the p—n regime, indicated by the arrows in Fig. Under optical illumination solid line , the curve then passes through the fourth quadrant, meaning that electrical power can be extracted.

Compared to traditional solar cells, the device exhibits some unusual behaviors. Iph also does not become fully saturated under reverse bias, which is an indication for insufficient carrier extraction. These characteristics have been consistently observed not only in all devices that we investigated, but also in many other van der Waals heterostructures reported in literature. Figure 2a shows I V characteristics of our device at different optical excitation powers symbols from which we can readily extract the open-circuit voltages VOC.

S2 , which indicates an involvement of both recombination mechanisms. The Shockley equation strongly overestimates short-circuit current, fill factor, and forward current. This is in contrast to lateral 2D semiconductor p—n junctions defined by split-gate electrodes, that can be well described by the Shockley model.

Symbols: experimental data; solid lines: fit of Eq. However, as shown in Supplementary Fig. S3 , an extended Shockley model does not either fit our data. Particularly, the strong illumination dependence of the forward current and the interception of the I V curves cannot be explained.

Another mechanism that can affect the electrical characteristics of solar cells is the build-up of space charge regions at the contacts or in the bulk, as a result of strongly unbalanced electron and hole transport. The current shows the usual linear dependence at low compensation voltages, due to the competition between drift and diffusion of photogenerated carriers, and then a smooth transition to the saturation regime for larger voltages.

Hence, we conclude that the carrier transport in our device is balanced. A third mechanism that can affect the I V characteristics of diodes are interface inhomogeneities. We rule out this possibility for the following reasons. First, the forward current in atomically thin p—n junctions is of different origin than in conventional diodes; it is governed by tunneling-mediated interlayer recombination, rather than carrier injection over a potential barrier.

In the following we will instead argue that the photovoltaic response is transport-limited. If we fit Eq. Under forward bias, the accumulated charge enhances the conductivity, resulting in the experimentally observed crossing of dark and illuminated I V curves. Dashed line: fit of Eq.Britain level. Characterizing and quantifying charge transport in p-i-n structures requires measuring the electron and hole mobilities, the recombination coefficient, the built-in potential, charge injection barriers and further parameters associated with charge trapping.

Sproul, M.

Vertical van der Waals heterostructures 14 can be obtained by manual stacking 15 , 16 or growth 17 , 18 , 19 of different 2D materials in a layered configuration.

Consequently, it is an excellent reference guide.

Alam Opt. Still, in literature conclusions on charge transport are often drawn by looking at illuminated JV-curves only [ 22,29—32 ].

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