MODERN ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY PDF
𝗣𝗗𝗙 | This paper starts with the basics of electric vehicle technology and introduces design principles of Modern control techniques like field-oriented control. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with . Nowadays, in the era of supersonic speeds and high technologies, when (and it's. Yimin Gao, Texas A&M University. Sebastien E. Gay, Texas A&M University. Ali Emadi, Illinois Institute of Technology. Modern Electric,. Hybrid Electric, and.
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Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) Fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). 4 .. https://www ppti.info Technology, Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont., Canada L1H 7K4 + The EV is a road vehicle based on modern electric propulsion. Abstract: Electric vehicles (EV), including Battery Electric Vehicle Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are.
In the USA a gallon is 3. The batteries also have a limited life, typically 5 years, which means that a further large investment is needed periodically to renew the batteries When one takes these factors into consideration the reasons for the predominance of IC engine vehicles for most of the 20th Century become clear.
Since the 19th century ways of overcoming the limited energy storage of batteries have been used. This has been widely used during the 20th century and allows quiet non-polluting buses to be used in towns and cities.
When away from the electrical supply Introduction 5 lines the buses can run from their own batteries. The downside is, of course, the expensive rather ugly supply lines which are needed and most trams and trolley bus systems have been removed from service. Modern inductive power transfer systems may overcome this problem. Early on in the development of electric vehicles the concept was developed of the hybrid vehicle, in which an internal combustion engine driving a generator is used in conjunction with one or more electric motors.
These were tried in the early 20th century, but recently have very much come back to the fore.
The hybrid car is one of the most promising ideas which could revolutionise the impact of electric vehicles. The Toyota Prius as in Figure 1. There is considerable potential for the development of electric hybrids and the idea of a hybrid shows considerable promise for future development. These are further considered in Section 1. They have certain advantages over combustion engines, mainly that they produce no exhaust emissions in their immediate environment, and secondly that they are inherently quiet.
This makes the electric vehicle ideal for environments such as warehouses, inside buildings and on golf courses, where pollution and noise will not be tolerated. Indeed, in Europe and the United States the type of vehicle shown in Figure 1. It can be driven on pavements, into shops, and in many buildings.
Another vehicle of this class is shown in Figure In some countries this has been helped by the fact that leaving an unattended vehicle with the engine running, for example when taking something to the door of a house, is illegal. Firstly there are increasing concerns about the environment, both in terms of overall emissions of carbon dioxide and also the local emission of exhaust fumes which help make crowded towns and cities unpleasant to live in.
Secondly there have been technical developments in vehicle design and improvements to rechargeable batteries, motors and controllers. Leaded petrol has already been banned, and there have been attempts in some cities to force the introduction of zero emission vehicles.
The state of California has encouraged motor vehicle manufacturers to produce electric vehicles with its Low Emission Vehicle Program. The fairly complex nature of the regulations in this state has led to very interesting developments in fuel cell, battery, and hybrid electric vehicles.
The important results of the Californian legislative programme are considered further in Chapter Also some or all the energy can be obtained from alternative energy sources such as hydro, wind or tidal, which would ensure overall zero emission. Of the technical developments, the battery is an area where there have been improvements, although these have not been as great as many people would have wished.
Commercially available batteries such nickel cadmium or nickel metal hydride can carry at best about double the energy of lead acid batteries, and the high temperature Sodium nickel chloride or Zebra battery nearly three times. This is a useful improvement, but still does not allow the design of vehicles with a long range. This is still expensive although there are signs that the price will fall considerably in the future.
So, for example, to replace the 45 litres 10 gallons of petrol which would give a vehicle a range of km miles , a mass kg of lithium battery would be required, an improvement on the kg mass of lead acid batteries, but still a large and heavy battery.
Battery technology is addressed in much more detail in Chapter 2, and fuel cells are described in Chapter 4. There have been increasing attempts to run vehicles from photovoltaic cells.
Vehicles have crossed Australia during the World Solar Challenge with speeds in excess of 85 kph 50 mph using energy entirely obtained from solar radiation. They may well become useful, particularly for recharging commuter vehicles and as such are worthy of consideration. There are effectively six basic types of electric vehicle, which may be classed as follows. Firstly there is the traditional battery electric vehicle, which is the type that usually springs to mind when people think of electric vehicles.
However, the second type, the hybrid electric vehicle, which combines a battery and an IC engine, is very likely to become the most common type in the years ahead. Thirdly there are vehicles which use replaceable fuel as the source of energy using either fuel cells or metal air batteries. Fourthly there are vehicles supplied by power lines. Fifthly there are electric vehicles which use energy directly from solar radiation.
Other vehicles that could be mentioned are railway trains and ships, and even electric aircraft. However, this book is focused on autonomous wheeled vehicles.
The vehicle consists of an electric battery for energy storage, an electric motor, and a controller. The controller will normally control the power supplied to the motor, and hence the vehicle speed, in forward and reverse. This is normally known as a 2 quadrant controller, forwards and backwards. It is usually desirable to use regenerative braking both to recoup energy and as a convenient form of frictionless braking.
When in addition the controller allows regenerative braking in forward and reverse directions it is known as a 4 quadrant controller. At the simplest there are small electric bicycles and tricycles and small commuter vehicles. This article is about battery electric cars. For the more general category of electric drive for all type of vehicles, see electric vehicle.
For cars with electric motors and internal combustion engines, see plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. For fuel cell cars, see fuel cell vehicle. Modern all-electric cars. Tesla Model 3. Nissan Leaf on the highway.
Renault Zoe on the street. BMW i3 charging on the street. Sustainable development portal. Renewable energy portal Environment portal. Main article: History of the electric vehicle. Environmental aspects of the electric car.
Electric Vehicle Technology Explained
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Electric car energy efficiency. Plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents.
Electric vehicle warning sounds. Electric vehicle battery. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. March Further information: List of electric cars currently available. Charging station. Hybrid vehicle. Solar vehicle. List of production battery electric vehicles.
Plug-in electric vehicle and List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles. Annual sales of plug-in electric passenger cars in the world's top markets between and    .
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The Edison Tech Center. Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that will Recharge America. New Society Publishers. Clean Technica. The Tesla Roadster becomes the first production electric vehicle to use lithium-ion battery cells as well as the first production electric vehicle to have a range of over miles on a single charge.
Alliance Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi. During the Global Meeting, the Alliance, which recently reached the historic milestone of aggregate sales of , electric vehicles worldwide Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi. Tesla Model 3". The Guardian. The cost gap that is holding Australia back". Business Insider. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. Archived from the original PDF on The New York Times. Green Car Congress. Internal Revenue Service.
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Build Your Own Electric Vehicle
Electric cars not as likely to catch fire as gas-powered vehicles". The Mercury News. The Wall Street Journal.
General Motors News. Fire Administration. Nissan North America. National Academies Press. Gay; Ali Emadi Fundamentals, Theory, and Design. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
October Consumer Reports. HorsePower Sports. Continental AG. Hybrid cars pose hazard". USA Today. The sound of silence". The Detroit News. Toyota Motor Company News Release. European Commission.
Sounds for Pedestrians". The article includes a sample of the two sounds. Don't Expect Ring Tones". Automotive News. Popular Mechanics. Department of Energy and U. Environmental Protection Agency and Tesla Model 3 vs. Chevrolet Bolt EV". IEEE, Retrieved 6 September Nature Energy". Nature Energy. Here's what you need to know about charging". Types, Time, Cost and Savings".
Union of Concerned Scientists. Machine Design. Oxford Robotics Institute. IEEE Spectrum. California Air Resources Board. ACEA Brussels. Renewable Energy Magazine. Reinventing the Automobile: Personal Urban Mobility for the 21st Century 1st.
The MIT Press. See Chapter 5: Clean Smart Energy Supply. James Woolsey and Chelsea Sexton Chapter 1: Geopolitical Implications of Plug-in Vehicles 1st ed. African Development Bank. Hybrid Cars. Bloomberg L. Move the pointing device over the graph "Models for sale Globally" - Figure reported is for 4Q Groupe Renault Media Press release. As of December , a total of , electric vehicles have been sold by the Alliance since See also detailed sales and cumulative global sales in the two graphs.
EV Volumes. Includes passenger and light utility variants. Sales figures includes passenger and light utility variants. January In Q4, we delivered 63, Model 3 vehicles to customers in North America. Tesla Press release. A total of 1, Model 3 vehicles were delivered in Q4 Mexico City: BMW Group. A total of 31, BMW i3s were delivered globally in BMW i3 sales increased by Discover the Top best-selling models!
Best Selling Cars Blog. A total of 1, i3s were registered in Includes press fleet vehicles and dealer demonstrators. A total of 16, i3s and 1, i8s were sold in A total of 29, BMW i brand units were delivered to customers worldwide in , up Market Wired.
TSLA ".That is why I believe in a pollution-free, oil-free form of transportation. For simplicity and reliability, many electric cars use fixed-ratio gearboxes and have no clutch. Oxford Robotics Institute. NK City EVs. As of December , a total of , electric vehicles have been sold by the Alliance since If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube.
But this book advocates the conversion alternative—you convert an existing internal combustion engine vehicle to an electric vehicle.
Oxford University Press.
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