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MICROWAVE AND RADAR ENGINEERING PDF

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Since natural and artificial noise sources are less present at these frequencies, high-quality audio transmission is possible, using frequency modulation.

With Laboratory Manual

It transmits audio as a digital signal rather than an analog signal as AM and FM do. DAB has the potential to provide higher quality sound than FM although many stations do not choose to transmit at such high quality , has greater immunity to radio noise and interference, makes better use of scarce radio spectrum bandwidth, and provides advanced user features such as electronic program guides.

Its disadvantage is that it is incompatible with previous radios so that a new DAB receiver must be purchased.

Broadcasters can transmit a channel at a range of different bit rates , so different channels can have different audio quality. Digital Radio Mondiale DRM — is a competing digital terrestrial radio standard developed mainly by broadcasters as a higher spectral efficiency replacement for legacy AM and FM broadcasting. Mondiale means "worldwide" in French and German, and DRM, developed in , is currently supported by 23 countries and has been adopted by some European and Eastern broadcasters beginning in It is incompatible with existing radio receivers and requires listeners to purchase a new DRM receiver.

The DRM system is designed to be as compatible as possible with existing AM and FM radio transmitters, so much of the equipment in existing radio stations will not have to be replaced. Satellite radio — a subscription radio service that broadcasts CD quality digital audio direct to subscribers' receivers using a microwave downlink signal from a direct broadcast communication satellite in geostationary orbit 22, miles above the Earth.

It is mostly intended for car radios in vehicles.

Satellite radio uses the 2. Television receiver Television broadcasting — the transmission of moving images by radio, which consist of sequences of still images, which are displayed on a screen on a television receiver a "television" or TV along with a synchronized audio sound channel.

Television video signals occupy a wider bandwidth than broadcast radio audio signals. The current television standard, introduced beginning in , is a digital format called HDTV high definition television , which transmits pictures at higher resolution, typically pixels high by pixels wide, at a rate of 25 or 30 frames per second.

Microwave and Radar Engineering

Digital television DTV transmission systems, which replaced older analog television in a transition beginning in , use image compression and high efficiency digital modulation such as OFDM and 8VSB to transmit HDTV video within a smaller bandwidth than the old analog channels, saving scarce radio spectrum space.

Digital television receivers have a different behavior in the presence of poor reception or noise than analog television, called the " digital cliff " effect.

Unlike analog television, in which increasingly poor reception causes the picture quality to gradually degrade, in digital television picture quality is not affected by poor reception until, at a certain point, the receiver stops working and the screen goes black.

Terrestrial television , over-the-air OTA television, or broadcast television — the oldest television technology, is the transmission of television signals from land-based television stations to television receivers called televisions or TVs in viewer's homes.

The exact frequency boundaries vary in different countries. In most areas viewers use a simple "rabbit ears" dipole antenna on top of the TV, but viewers in fringe reception areas more than 15 miles from a station usually have to use an outdoor antenna mounted on the roof to get adequate reception.

Microwave and Radar Engineering_M. Kulkarni

Satellite television dish on a residence Satellite television — a set-top box which receives subscription direct-broadcast satellite television , and displays it on an ordinary television. The microwave signal is converted to a lower intermediate frequency at the dish and conducted into the building by a coaxial cable to a set-top box connected to the subscriber's TV, where it is demodulated and displayed.

The subscriber pays a monthly fee. Standard time and frequency broadcasts — Governments operate long range radio time stations which continuously broadcast extremely accurate time signals produced by atomic clocks , as a reference to synchronize other clocks. One use is in radio clocks and watches, which include an automated receiver which periodically usually weekly receives and decodes the time signal and resets the watch's internal quartz clock to the correct time, thus allowing a small watch or desk clock to have the same accuracy as an atomic clock.

Radio jamming — Jamming is the deliberate radiation of radio signals designed to interfere with reception of other radio signals. Since radio waves can pass beyond national borders, some totalitarian countries use jamming to prevent their citizens from listening to broadcasts from radio stations in other countries.

Jamming is usually accomplished by a powerful transmitter which generates noise on the same frequency as the target transmitter. During wartime, militaries use jamming to interfere with enemies' tactical radio communication.

Two way voice communication[ edit ] Main article: Two-way radio left Modern cellphone. A two-way radio is an audio transceiver , a receiver and transmitter in the same device, used for bidirectional person-to-person voice communication. An older term for this mode of communication is radiotelephony. The radio link may be half-duplex , as in a walkie-talkie , using a single radio channel in which only one radio can transmit at a time, so different users take turns talking, pressing a " push to talk " button on their radio which switches off the receiver and switches on the transmitter.

Or the radio link may be full duplex , a bidirectional link using two radio channels so both people can talk at the same time, as in a cell phone.

Cell phone — a portable wireless telephone that is connected to the telephone network by radio signals exchanged with a local antenna at a cellular base station cell tower.

All the cell phones in a cell communicate with this antenna on separate frequency channels, assigned from a common pool of frequencies. The purpose of cellular organization is to conserve radio bandwidth by frequency reuse.

Low power transmitters are used so the radio waves used in a cell do not travel far beyond the cell, allowing the same frequencies to be reused in geographically separated cells. When a user carrying a cellphone crosses from one cell to another, his phone is automatically "handed off" seamlessly to the new antenna and assigned new frequencies.

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Cellphones have a highly automated full duplex digital transceiver using OFDM modulation working in the UHF or microwave band using two digital radio channels, each carrying one direction of the bidirectional conversation, as well as a control channel that handles dialing calls and "handing off" the phone to another cell tower. Here a high voltage electron beam is formed, focused and sent down along the glass tube through an input cavity, Buncher.

Then it is sent down to a field free drift space and then to an output cavity, Catcher to anode.

The anode is kept at a positive potential with respect to cathode. The electron beam passes through a gap A consisting of two grids of the Buncher cavity separated by very small distance and two other grids of the Catcher cavity with a small gap B.

Operation: The RF signal to be amplified is used for exciting the input Buncher cavity thereby developing an alternating voltage of signal frequency across the gap A.

The electron beam is travel through a cylindrical drift tube in a straight path by an axial magnetic field.

Text from page-2 The situation is best explained by means of an Applegate diagram which is shown here. At this instant, the electric field across gap A is zero and an electron which passes through gap A at this instant is unaffected by the RF signal.

RF + Microwave

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You have entered an incorrect email address! Get New Updates Email Alerts Enter your email address to subscribe this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Join With us. Today Updates. Statics and Dynamics By R. Hibbeler Book April Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun April 8. April 7. Popular Files. January EasyEngineering team try to Helping the students and others who cannot afford buying books is our aim.

Older terrestrial radio and television paid for by commercial advertising or governments. Hibbeler Book The anode is kept at a positive potential with respect to cathode. Search inside document. Within these bands amateurs are allowed freedom to transmit on any frequency with a wide variety of modulation methods. Although the subject of Microwave and Radar Engineering is of particular interest to the specialists in that field, it is also of interest to persons, especially the military and civilian users of radar, satellite and navigational systems.

Current generation phones, called smartphones , have many functions besides making telephone calls, and therefore have several other radio transmitters and receivers that connect them with other networks: usually a WiFi modem , a Bluetooth modem, and a GPS receiver. Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

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