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Wonders of the Universe Professor Brian Cox & Andrew Cohen Contents Introduction The Universe Chapter 1 Messengers The Story of Light Our place in the. Welcome to the English Conversation Class sponsored by the Church of Jesus Christ We teach Beginning English Conversat. in an understanding that we are all part of one. Earth under one sky, and the wonders of the. Universe are part of our common heritage. The. IYA will be a .

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THE WONDERS OF THE UNIVERSE. An address given by David Hughes, a member of the MCO Chapel Society, on 12 June For as long as human. process would take many trillions of years. long before the end of the universe the universe pdf mediafire brian cox book wonders of - brian cox book wonders. Read the text. The wonders of our universe. There are two things that are impossible for us to understand about the universe. One is its size. It is probably infinite.

This is exactly where every scientist wants to be. Science is a word that has many meanings; one might say science is the sum total of our knowledge of the Universe, the great library of the known, but the practice of science happens at the border between the known and the unknown.

Standing on the shoulders of giants, we peer into the darkness with eyes opened not in fear but in wonder. The fervent hope of every scientist is that they glimpse something that not only requires a new scientific theory, but that requires the old theory to be replaced. Our great library is constantly being rewritten; there are no sacred tomes; there are no untouchable truths; there is no certainty; there is simply the best description we have of the Universe, based purely on our observations of its wonders.

Science has given us the modern world, of that there can be no doubt. It has improved our lives beyond measure; increased life expectancy, decreased child mortality, eradicated many diseases and rendered many more impotent. It has given many of us the gift of time, freed us from the drudgery of mere survival and allowed us to open our minds and explore.

Science is therefore a virtuous circle; its discoveries creating more time and wealth that we can, if we are wise, invest in further voyages of exploration and discovery.

But for all its undoubted usefulness, I maintain that science is fuelled not by utilitarian desire but by curiosity.

The exploration of the Universe and its wonders is as important as the search for new medical treatments, new energy sources or new technologies, because ultimately all these valuable advances rest on an understanding of the basic laws that govern everything in nature, from atoms to black holes and everything in between. This is why curiosity-driven science is the most valuable of pursuits, and this is why we must continue our journey into the darkness Armed with a greater knowledge and understanding of our universe, and also with new technology and modern approaches to science, we can discover wonders of the Universe that would have remained hidden to us centuries ago.

Galaxies such as the spiral-shaped Dwingeloo 1 have recently been found hidden behind the Milky Way. This discovery supports what we already know: that there are many more wonders out there in the Universe that we have yet to discover.

The science of astronomy may now conjure thoughts of telescopes and planetary missions, but every modern moment of discovery has a heritage that stretches back thousands of years to the simplest of questions: what is out there?

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Light is the only connection we have with the Universe beyond our solar system, and the only connection our ancestors had with anything beyond Earth.

Follow the light and we can journey from the confines of our planet to other worlds that orbit the Sun without ever dreaming of spacecraft.

Now, in the twentieth century, we have learnt to read the story contained in this ancient light, and it tells of the origin of the Universe. The spectacular remains and towering pillars of Karnak Temple are a testament to the Egyptian belief in the power and importance of the Amun-Re, the Sun God, in their daily life, and of the Sun itself. In ancient times Luxor was known as Thebes and was the capital of Egypt during the opulent and powerful New Kingdom.

Ten European cathedrals would fit within its walls; the Hypostyle Hall alone, an overwhelming valley of towering pillars that once held aloft a giant roof, could comfortably contain Notre Dame Cathedral. Religious and ceremonial architecture has had many functions throughout human history. There is undoubtedly a political aspect — these monumental edifices serve to cement the power of those who control them — but to think of the great achievements of human civilisation in these terms alone would be to miss an important point.

Karnak Temple is a reaction to something far more magnificent and ancient. The scale of the architecture forcibly wrenches the mind away from human concerns and towards a place beyond the merely terrestrial. Places like this can only be built by people who have an appropriate reverence for the Universe. Karnak is both a chronicle in stone and a bridge to the answer to the eternal question: what is out there?

It is an observatory, a library and an expression carved out of the desert of cosmological curiosity and the desire to explore. Egyptian religious mythology is rich and complex. With almost 1, known deities, countless temples and tombs and a detailed surviving literature, the mythology of the great civilisation of the Nile is considered the most sophisticated religious system ever devised.

There is no such thing as a single story or tradition, partly because the dynastic period of Egyptian civilisation waxed and waned for over 3, years. However, central to both life and mythology are the waters of the Nile, the great provider for this desert civilisation.

The annual floods created a fertile strip along the river that is strikingly visible when flying into Luxor from Cairo, although since the Aswan Dam has halted the ancient cycle of rising and falling waters and today the verdant banks are maintained by modern irrigation techniques.

The rains still fall on the mountains south of Egypt during the summer, and before the dam they caused the waters of the Nile to rise and flood low-lying land until they cease in September and the waters recede, leaving life-giving fertile soils behind.

The dominance of the great river in Egyptian life, unsurprisingly, found its way into the heart of their religious tradition. The sky was seen as a vast ocean across which the gods journeyed in boats. Egyptian creation stories speak of an infinite primordial ocean out of which a single mound of earth arose. A lotus blossom emerged from this mound and gave birth to the Sun. In this tradition, each of the primordial elements is associated with a god.

Most important is the Sun God, born of the lotus blossom, who took on many forms but remained central to Egyptian religious thought for over 3, years. It was the Sun God who brought light to the cosmos, and with light came all of creation.

The power of the supreme god Amun-Re is felt everywhere at Karnak. Representations of him cover the walls; the carvings mostly depict him as human with a double-plumed crown of feathers alongside the Pharoah, but also in animal form as a ram.

The location and alignment of this impressive building, like everything else about it, has meaning. Egyptologists have evidence to support their belief that it was constructed as a sort of calendar; two columns frame the light of the sun as it rises on the winter solstice.

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This tendency to merge gods is widespread in Egyptian mythology, and with the mergers comes increasing theological complexity. Amun can be seen as the hidden aspect of the Sun, sometimes associated with his voyage through the Underworld during the night. Worship of Amun-Re as the supreme god became so widespread that the Egyptian religion became almost monotheistic during the New Kingdom.

Amun-Re was said to exist in all things, and it was believed that he transcended the boundaries of space and time to be all-seeing and eternal. In this sense, he could be seen as a precursor to the gods of the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions.

The walls of Karnak Temple are literally covered with representations of Amun-Re, usually depicted in human form with a double-plumed crown of feathers — the precise meaning of which is unknown. He is most often seen with the Pharaoh, but he also appears at Karnak in animal form, as a ram. The Great Hypostyle Hall, the dominant feature of the temple, is aligned such that on 21 December, the winter solstice and shortest day in the Northern Hemisphere, the disc of the Sun rises between the great pillars and floods the space with light, which comes from a position directly over a small building inside which Amun-Re himself was thought to reside.

Standing beside the towering stone columns watching the solstice sunrise is a powerful experience.

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It connects you directly with the names of the great pharaohs of ancient Egypt, because Amenophis III, Tutankhamen and Rameses II would have stood there to greet the rising December sun over three millennia ago. As Earth moves around the Sun, the North Pole gradually tilts towards the Sun and the Sun takes a higher daily arc across the sky until midsummer, when it reaches its highest point.

This gradual tilting back and forth throughout the year means that the point at which the Sun rises on the eastern horizon also moves each day. If you stand facing east, the most southerly rising point occurs at the winter solstice. The sunrise then gradually drifts northwards until it reaches its most northerly point at the summer solstice. The solstices would have been unique times of year and important for a civilisation that revered the Sun as a god. Standing in Karnak Temple watching the sunrise on this special midwinter day the alignment is obvious, but proving that ancient sites are aligned with events in the sky is difficult and controversial.

This is because a temple the size of Karnak will always be aligned with something in the sky, simply because it has buildings that point in all directions!

These columns are delicately carved, and it is the inscriptions that suggest the sunrise alignment is deliberate. The left-hand column has an image of the Pharaoh embracing Amun-Re, and on one face are three carved papyrus stems — a plant that only grows along the northern reaches of the Nile. The right-hand column is similar in design, except the Pharaoh embraces Amun-Re wearing the crown of upper Egypt, which is south of Karnak. The three carved stems on this column are lotus blossoms, which only grow to the south.

It seems clear therefore that the columns are positioned and decorated to mark the compass directions around the temple, which is persuasive evidence that the heart of this building is aligned to capture the light from an important celestial event — the rising of the Sun in midwinter.

The temple represents the fascination of the ancient Egyptians with the movement of the lights they saw in the sky. Their instinct to venerate them was pre-scientific, but the building also appears to enshrine a deepening awareness of the geometry of the cosmos.

The development of more advanced agricultural techniques made civilisations more prosperous, ultimately giving them more time for thought, philosophy, mathematics and science.

So astronomy began a virtuous cycle through which the quest to understand the heavens and their meaning lead to practical and intellectual riches beyond the imagination of the ancients. The step from observing the regularity in the movement of the heavenly lights to modern science took much of recorded human history. The ancient Greeks began the work, but the correct description of the motion of the Sun, Moon and planets across the sky was discovered in the seventeenth century by Johannes Kepler.

Removing the veil of the divine to reveal the true beauty of the cosmos was a difficult process, but the rewards that stem from that innate human fascination with the lights in the sky have proved to be incalculable By following the light we have mapped our place among the hundreds of billions of stars that make up the Milky Way Galaxy. We have visited our nearest star, Proxima Centauri, and measured its chemical compositions, and those of thousands of other stars in the sky.

We have even journeyed deep into the Milky Way and stared into the black hole that lies at the centre of our galactic home.

But this is just the beginning… The Universe is an awe-inspiring place, full of wonder and demanding the answers to so many questions.


We have so much to learn and so many places to explore. As we have discovered the grand cycles that play out above our heads we have come to realise that we are part of a structure that extends way beyond our solar system and the billion stars that make up our galaxy.

Our nearest star, the Sun, is million kilometres 93 million miles away, but each night when this star disappears from view, thousands more fill the night sky.

In the most privileged places on Earth, up to 10, stars can be seen with the naked eye, and all of them are part of the galaxy we call home. A galaxy is a massive collection of stars, gas and dust bound together by gravity. It is a place where stars live and die, where the life cycles of our universe are played out on a gargantuan scale.

We think there are around billion galaxies in the observable universe, each containing many millions of stars. The smallest galaxies, known as dwarf galaxies, have as few as ten million stars. The biggest, the giants, have been estimated to contain in the region of trillion.

It is now widely accepted that galaxies also contain much more than just the matter we can see using our telescopes. They are thought to have giant halos of dark matter, a new form of matter unlike anything we have discovered on Earth and which interacts only weakly with normal matter. Despite this, its gravitational effect dominates the behaviour of galaxies today and most likely dominated the formation of the galaxies in the early Universe.

This is because we now think that around 95 per cent of the mass of galaxies such as our own Milky Way is made up of dark matter. The search for the nature of dark matter is one of the great challenges for twenty-first-century physics. We shall return to the fascinating subject of dark matter later in the book. It was first used to describe the galaxy that dominates our night skies, even though the Greeks could have had no concept of its true scale.

For many people it looks like the rising of storm clouds on the horizon, but as the Earth turns nightly towards the centre of our galaxy, the hazy band of light reveals itself as clouds of stars — billions of them stretching thousands of light years inwards towards the galactic centre.

This story is the origin of the modern name for our galaxy — the Milky Way. In this image the central jet is visible, which is a powerful beam of hot gas produced by a massive black hole in the core of the galaxy.

It is our largest and closest spiral galaxy, and in this picture we can clearly see rings of new star formations developing. The spiral shape of the galaxy is immediately obvious, with curving arms of pinky-red, star-forming regions and blue star clusters.

However, recent Hubble Space Telescope images have identified older stars within it, making the galaxy as old as others but with new star formations. The majority of stars lie in a disc around , light years in diameter and, on average, around 1, light years thick. These vast distances are very difficult to visualise. A distance of , light years means that light itself, travelling at , kilometres , miles per second, would take , years to make a journey across our galaxy.

You would have to lay around million solar systems end to end to cross our galaxy.

At the centre of our galaxy, and possibly every galaxy in the Universe, there is believed to be a super-massive black hole. Astronomers believe this because of precise measurements of the orbit of a star known as S2.

The only known way of cramming 4. Beyond the S-stars, the galactic centre is a melting pot of celestial activity, filled with all sorts of different systems that interact and influence each other.

The Arches Cluster is the densest known star cluster in the galaxy. Formed from about young, intensely hot stars that dwarf our sun in size, these stars burn brightly and are consequently very short-lived, exhausting their supply of hydrogen in just a couple of million years. The Quintuplet Cluster contains one of the most luminous stars in our galaxy, the Pistol Star, which is thought to be near the end of its life and on the verge of becoming a supernova see Chapter 2.

It is in central clusters like the Arches and the Quintuplet that the greatest density of stars in our galaxy can be found. As we move out from the crowded galactic centre, the number of stars drops with distance, until we reach the sparse cloud of gas in the outer reaches of the Milky Way known as the Galactic Halo.

HE is a star in the last stages of its life; known as a red giant, it is a vast structure far bigger than our sun, but much cooler at its surface. HE is interesting because astronomers have been able to measure the precise quantities of five radioactive elements — uranium, thorium, europium, osmium and iridium — in the star.

Using a technique very similar to carbon dating a method archaeologists use to measure the age of organic material on Earth , astronomers have been able to get a precise age for this ancient star. This is why the detection of five radioactive elements in the light from HE was so important. This dying star turns out to be Known as a barred spiral galaxy, it consists of a bar-shaped core surrounded by a disc of gas, dust and stars that creates individual spiral arms twisting out from the centre.

Until very recently, it was thought that our galaxy contained only four spiral arms — Perseus, Norma, Scutum—Centaurus and Carina—Sagittarius, with our sun in an off shoot of the latter called the Orion spur — but there is now thought to be an additional arm, called the Outer arm, an extension to the Norma arm.

Close to the inner rim of the Orion spur is the most familiar star in our galaxy. The Sun was once thought to be an average star, but we now know that it shines brighter than 95 per cent of all other stars in the Milky Way.

Every second, the Sun burns million tonnes of hydrogen in its core, producing million tonnes of helium in the fusion reaction. Located 5, light years away, the Lagoon Nebula is one of a handful of active star-forming regions in our galaxy that are visible from Earth with the naked eye. Roughly once a year a new light appears in our galaxy, as somewhere in the Milky Way a new star is born. The Lagoon Nebula is one such star nursery; within this giant interstellar cloud of gas and dust, new stars are created.

Discovered by French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil in , this is one of a handful of active star-forming regions in our galaxy that are visible with the naked eye. This huge cloud is slowly collapsing under its own gravity, but slightly denser regions gradually accrete more and more matter, and over time these clumps grow massive enough to turn into stars.

The centre of this vast stellar nursery, known as the Hourglass, is illuminated by an intriguing object known as Herschel Recent measurements suggest that Herschel 36 may actually be three large young stars orbiting around each other, with the entire system having a combined mass of over fifty times that of our sun. This makes Herschel 36 a true system of giants. Eventually Herschel 36 and all the stars in the Milky Way will die, and when they do, many will go out in a blaze of glory.

Eta Carinae is a pair of billowing gas and dust clouds that are the remnants of a stellar explosion from an unstable star system. The system consists of at least two giant stars, and shines with a brightness four million times that of our sun.

One of these stars is thought to be a Wolf-Rayet star. These stars are immense, over twenty times the mass of our sun, and are engaged in a constant struggle to hang onto their outer layers, losing vast amounts of mass every second in a powerful solar wind. In , Eta Carinae became one of the brightest stars in the Universe when it exploded. The blast spat matter out at nearly 2.

Eta Carinae survived intact and remains buried deep inside these clouds, but its days are numbered. Because of its immense mass, the Wolf-Rayet star is using up its hydrogen fuel at a ferocious rate. Within a few hundred thousand years, it is expected that the star will explode in a supernova or even a hypernova the biggest explosion in the known Universe , although its fate may be sealed a lot sooner. In , an explosion thought to be similar to the Eta Carinae event was seen in a galaxy over seventy million light years from the Milky Way.

Just two years later, the star exploded as a supernova. Eta Carinae is very much closer — at a distance of only 7, light years — so as a supernova it may shine so brightly that it will be visible from Earth even in daylight.

Out in the Milky Way we can see the whole cycle of stellar life playing out. Roughly once a year a new light appears, as somewhere in the Milky Way a new star is born. Eta Carinae is one of the most massive and visible stars in the night sky, but because of its mass it is also the most volatile and most likely to explode in the near future.

NASA Seeing the light from these distant worlds and watching the life cycle of the Universe unfold is a breathtaking reminder that light is the ultimate messenger; carrying information about the wonders of the Universe to us across interstellar and intergalactic distances. But light does much more than just allow us to see these distant worlds; it allows us to journey back through time, providing a direct and real connection with our past. This seemingly impossible state of affairs is made possible not only because of the information carried by the light, but by the properties of light itself Eventually all the stars in the Milky Way will die, many in spectacular explosions.

Herschel 36 was formed from just such a stellar explosion, which occurred within the Eta Carinae system. If we aspire to understand the world around us, one of the most basic questions we must ask is about the nature of light. It is the primary way in which we observe our own planet, and the only way we will ever be able to explore the Universe beyond our galaxy. For now, even the stars are far beyond our reach, and we rely on their light alone for information about them. By the seventeenth century, many renowned scientists were studying the properties of light in detail, and parallel advances in engineering and science both provided deep insights and catalysed each other.

The studies of Kepler, Galileo and Descartes, and some of the later true greats of physics — Huygens, Hooke and Newton — were all fuelled by the desire to build better lenses for microscopes and telescopes to enable them to explore the Universe on every scale, and to make great scientific discoveries and advances in the basic science itself. There were some notable exceptions, including the great mathematician Leonhard Euler, who felt that the phenomena of diffraction could only be explained by a wave theory.

In , the English doctor Thomas Young appeared to settle the matter once and for all when he reported the results from his famous double-slit experiment, which clearly showed that light diffracted, and therefore must travel in the form of a wave. Diffraction is a fascinating and beautiful phenomena that is very difficult to explain without waves. Imagine two waves on top of each other with exactly the same wavelength and wave height technically known as the amplitude , but aligned precisely so that the peak of one wave lies directly on the trough of the other in more technical language, we say that the waves are degrees out of phase , and so the waves cancel each other out.

If these waves were light waves you would get darkness! This is exactly what is seen in diffraction experiments through small slits. The slits act like lots of little sources of light, all slightly displaced from one another. This means that there will be places beyond the slits where the waves cancel each other out, and places where they will add up, leading to the light and dark areas seen by experimenters like Young.

This was taken as clear evidence that light was some kind of wave — but waves of what? The experiment demonstrates the inseparability of the wave and particle natures of light and other quantum particles. In the mid-nineteenth century, the study of electricity and magnetism engaged many great scientific minds. At the Royal Institution in London, Michael Faraday was busy doing what scientists do best — playing around with wire and magnets.

He discovered that if you push a magnet through a coil of wire, an electric current flows through the wire while the magnet is moving. This is a generator; the thing that sits in all power stations around the world today, providing us with electricity.

A single amp is defined as the current that must flow along two parallel wires of infinite length and negligible diameter to produce an attractive force of 0. By , a great deal was known about electricity and magnetism.

Magnets could be used to make electric currents flow, and flowing electric currents could deflect compass needles in the same way that magnets could. There was clearly a link between these two phenomena, but nobody had come up with a unified description.

Electricity and magnetism can be unified by introducing two new concepts: electric and magnetic fields. The idea of a field is central to modern physics; a simple example of something that can be represented by a field is the temperature in a room. If you could measure the temperature at each point in the room and note it down, eventually you would have a vast array of numbers that described how the temperature changes from the door to the windows and from the floor to the ceiling.

This array of numbers is called the temperature field. In a similar way, you could introduce the concept of a magnetic field by holding a compass at places around a wire carrying an electric current and noting down how much the needle deflects, and in what direction. The numbers and directions are the magnetic field.

This might seem rather abstract and not much of a simplification, but Maxwell found that by introducing the electric and magnetic fields and placing them centre stage, he was able to write down a single set of equations that described all the known electrical and magnetic phenomena.

These picture strips illustrate maps of the Milky Way Galaxy as they appear in different wavelength regions. The fact that the velocity of light can be measured experimentally on a bench top with wires and magnets was the key piece of evidence that light is an electromagnetic wave.

At this point you may be wondering what all this has to do with the story of light. Well, here is something profound that provides a glimpse into the true power and beauty of modern physics. In writing down his laws of electricity and magnetism using fields, Maxwell noticed that by using a bit of simple mathematics, he could rearrange his equations into a more compact and magically revealing form.

His new equations took the form of what are known as wave equations. In other words, they had exactly the same form as the equations that describe how soundwaves move through air or how water waves move through the ocean.

But waves of what? The waves Maxwell discovered were waves in the electric and magnetic fields themselves. His equations showed that as an electric field changes, it creates a changing magnetic field. But in turn as the magnetic field changes, it creates a changing electric field, which creates a changing magnetic field, and so on.

And this will continue to happen forever, as long as you do nothing to them. This is profound in itself, but there is an extra, more profound conclusion. When Maxwell did the sums, he must have fallen off his chair. He found that his equations predicted that the waves in the electric and magnetic fields travelled at the speed of light! In other words, Maxwell had discovered that light is nothing more than oscillating electric and magnetic fields, sloshing back and forth and propelling each other through space as they do so.

In modern language, we would say that light is an electromagnetic wave. In order to have his epiphany, Maxwell needed to know exactly what the speed of light was. Remarkably, the fact that light travels very fast, but not infinitely so, had already been known for almost two hundred years. However, as the Greek philosophers gave more thought to the nature of light, a debate about its speed of travel ensued that continued for thousands of years. In one corner sat eminent names such as Euclid, Kepler and Descartes, who all sided with Aristotle in believing that light travelled infinitely fast.

In the other, Empedocles and Galileo, separated by almost two millennia, felt that light must travel at a finite, if extremely high, velocity. He considered light travelling across the vast distance from the Sun to Earth, and noted that everything that travels must move from one point to another. In other words, the light must be somewhere in the space between the Sun and the Earth after it leaves the Sun and before it reaches the Earth. This means it must travel with a finite velocity.

Aristotle dismissed this argument by invoking his idea that light is simply a presence, not something that moves between things. Without experimental evidence, it is impossible to decide between these positions simply by thinking about it! Galileo set out to measure the speed of light using two lamps. He held one and sent an assistant a large distance away with another. When they were in position, Galileo opened a shutter on his lamp, letting the light out.

His conclusion was that light must travel extremely rapidly, because he was unable to determine its speed.

He was able to do this because if it had been slower, he should have been able to measure a time delay. The question, how fast is the speed of light, has plagued scientists for thousands of years. Part of the answer came from observing how light travels between points: from the Sun to Earth. The first experimental determination that the speed of light was not infinite was made by the seventeenth-century Danish astronomer, Ole Romer. In , Romer was attempting to solve one of the great scientific and engineering challenges of the age; telling the time at sea.

Finding an accurate clock was essential to enable sailors to navigate safely across the oceans, but mechanical clocks based on pendulums or springs were not good at being bounced around on the ocean waves and soon drifted out of sync. In order to pinpoint your position on Earth you need the latitude and longitude. Latitude is easy; in the Northern Hemisphere, the angle of the North Star Polaris above the horizon is your latitude.

In the Southern Hemisphere, things are more complicated because there is no star directly over the South Pole, but it is still possible with a little astronomical know-how and trigonometry to determine your latitude with sufficient accuracy for safe navigation. Astronomers call this arc the Meridian. The point at which the Sun crosses the Meridian is also the point at which it reaches its highest position in the sky on any given day as it journeys from sunrise in the east to sunset in the west.

We call this time noon, or midday. Earth rotates once on its axis every twenty-four hours — fifteen degrees every hour. If it reads 2pm when the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky where you are, you are thirty degrees to the west of Greenwich. Easy, except that you need a very accurate clock that keeps time for weeks or months on end These spectacular star trails are produced in the sky as a result of diurnal motion.

This is the motion created as Earth spins on its axis at fifteen degrees per hour, rotating once over twenty-four hours. Is there any way to harmonize the false religions of the Dark Ages with the truths of science as they have now been discovered? Is there any way to harmonize the revealed religion that has come to us with the theoretical postulates of Darwinism and the diverse speculations descending therefrom?

Should we accept the famous document of the First Presidency issued in the days of President Joseph F. Is it the doctrine of the gospel that Adam stood next to Christ in power and might and intelligence before the foundations of the world were laid; that Adam was placed on this earth as an immortal being; that there was no death in the world for him or for any form of life until after the Fall; that the fall of Adam brought temporal and spiritual death into the world; that this temporal death passed upon all forms of life, upon man and animal and fish and fowl and plant life; that Christ came to ransom man and all forms of life from the effects of the temporal death brought into the world through the Fall, and in the case of man from a spiritual death also; and that this ransom includes a resurrection for man and for all forms of life?

Can you harmonize these things with the evolutionary postulate that death has always existed and that the various forms of life have evolved from preceding forms over astronomically long periods of time? Can you harmonize the theories of men with the inspired words that say: And now, behold, if Adam had not transgressed he would not have fallen, but he would have remained in the Garden of Eden. And all things which were created must have remained in the same state in which they were after they were created; and they must have remained forever, and had no end.

But behold, all things have been done in the wisdom of him who knoweth all things. Adam fell that men might be; and men are, that they might have joy. And the Messiah cometh in the fulness of time, that he may redeem the children of men from the fall. Every person must choose for himself what he will believe. I recommend that all of you study and ponder and pray and seek light and knowledge in these and in all fields.

I believe that the atonement of Christ is the great and eternal foundation upon which revealed religion rests.

My reasoning causes me to conclude that if death has always prevailed in the world, then there was no fall of Adam that brought death to all forms of life; that if Adam did not fall, there is no need for an atonement; that if there was no atonement, there is no salvation, no resurrection, and no eternal life; and that if there was no atonement, there is nothing in all of the glorious promises that the Lord has given us.

I believe that the Fall affects man, all forms of life, and the earth itself, and that the Atonement affects man, all forms of life, and the earth itself. Heresy three: There are those who say that temple marriage assures us of an eventual exaltation. Some have supposed that couples married in the temple who commit all manner of sin, and who then pay the penalty, will gain their exaltation eventually.

This notion is contrary to the whole system and plan that the Lord has ordained, a system under which we are privileged to work out our salvation with fear and trembling before him. If we believe and obey, if we enter the waters of baptism and make solemn covenants with the Lord to keep his commandments, we thereby get on a strait and narrow path that leads from the gate of repentance and baptism to a reward that is called eternal life.

And if we traverse the length of the path going upward and forward and onward, keeping the commandments, loving the Lord, and doing all that we ought to do, eventually we will be inheritors of that reward. And in exactly and precisely the same sense, celestial marriage is a gate that puts us on a path leading to exaltation in the highest heaven of the celestial world.

It is in that highest realm of glory and dignity and honor hereafter that the family unit continues. Those who inherit a place in the highest heaven receive the reward that is named eternal life.

Baptism is a gate; celestial marriage is a gate. When we get on the paths of which I speak, we are then obligated to keep the commandments. My suggestion in this field is that you go to the temple and listen to a ceremony of celestial marriage, paying particular and especial attention to the words, and learn what the promises are that are given.

And you will learn that all of the promises given are conditioned upon subsequent compliance with all of the terms and conditions of that order of matrimony. Heresy four: There are those who believe that the doctrine of salvation for the dead offers men a second chance for salvation. I knew a man, now deceased, not a member of the Church, who was a degenerate old reprobate who found pleasure, as he supposed, in living after the manner of the world.

A cigarette dangled from his lips, alcohol stenched his breath, and profane and bawdy stories defiled his lips. His moral status left much to be desired. His wife was a member of the Church, as faithful as she could be under the circumstances. I prefer to live the way I do. I know that as soon as I die, you will have someone go to the temple and do the work for me and everything will come out all right in the end anyway.

We do not sit in judgment and deny vicarious ordinances to people. But what will it profit him? There is no such thing as a second chance to gain salvation. This life is the time and the day of our probation. After this day of life, which is given us to prepare for eternity, then cometh the night of darkness wherein there can be no labor performed. For those who do not have an opportunity to believe and obey the holy word in this life, the first chance to gain salvation will come in the spirit world.

If those who hear the word for the first time in the realms ahead are the kind of people who would have accepted the gospel here, had the opportunity been afforded them, they will accept it there. Salvation for the dead is for those whose first chance to gain salvation is in the spirit world.

In the revelation recently added to our canon of holy writ, these words are found: Thus came the voice of the Lord unto me, saying: All who have died without a knowledge of this gospel, who would have received it if they had been permitted to tarry, shall be heirs of the celestial kingdom of God; Also all that shall die henceforth without a knowledge of it, who would have received it with all their hearts, shall be heirs of that kingdom; For I, the Lord, will judge all men according to their works, according to the desire of their hearts.

Those who reject the gospel in this life and then receive it in the spirit world go not to the celestial, but to the terrestrial kingdom. Heresy five: There are those who say that there is progression from one kingdom to another in the eternal worlds or that lower kingdoms eventually progress to where higher kingdoms once were. This belief lulls men into a state of carnal security.

The true doctrine is that all men will be resurrected, but they will come forth in the resurrection with different kinds of bodies—some celestial, others terrestrial, others telestial, and some with bodies incapable of standing any degree of glory.

The body we receive in the resurrection determines the glory we receive in the kingdoms that are prepared. Of those who had the opportunity to enter into the new and everlasting covenant of marriage in this life and who did not do it, the revelation says: Therefore, when they are out of the world they neither marry nor are given in marriage; but are appointed angels in heaven; which angels are ministering servants, to minister for those who are worthy of a far more, and an exceeding, and an eternal weight of glory.

For these angels did not abide my law; therefore, they cannot be enlarged, but remain separately and singly, without exaltation, in their saved condition, to all eternity; and from henceforth are not gods, but are angels of God forever and ever. Whatever eternal progression there is, it is within a sphere. Heresy six: There are those who believe or say they believe that Adam is our father and our god, that he is the father of our spirits and our bodies, and that he is the one we worship.

The devil keeps this heresy alive as a means of obtaining converts to cultism. It is contrary to the whole plan of salvation set forth in the scriptures, and anyone who has read the Book of Moses, and anyone who has received the temple endowment, has no excuse whatever for being led astray by it.

Those who are so ensnared reject the living prophet and close their ears to the apostles of their day. And having so determined, they soon are ready to enter polygamous relationships that destroy their souls. We worship the Father, in the name of the Son, by the power of the Holy Ghost; and Adam is their foremost servant, by whom the peopling of our planet was commenced. Heresy seven: There are those who believe we must be perfect to gain salvation.

This is not really a great heresy, only a doctrinal misunderstanding that I mention here in order to help round out our discussion and to turn our attention from negative to positive things. If we keep two principles in mind we will thereby know that good and faithful members of the Church will be saved, even though they are far from perfect in this life.

These two principles are 1 that this life is the appointed time for men to prepare to meet God—this life is the day of our probation; and 2 that the same spirit which possesses our bodies at the time we go out of this mortal life shall have power to possess our bodies in that eternal world.

What we are doing as members of the Church is charting a course leading to eternal life. There was only one perfect being, the Lord Jesus. If men had to be perfect and live all of the law strictly, wholly, and completely, there would be only one saved person in eternity.

The prophet taught that there are many things to be done, even beyond the grave, in working out our salvation. And so what we do in this life is chart a course leading to eternal life. That course begins here and now and continues in the realms ahead. We must determine in our hearts and in our souls, with all the power and ability we have, that from this time forward we will press on in righteousness; by so doing we can go where God and Christ are.

If we make that firm determination, and are in the course of our duty when this life is over, we will continue in that course in eternity. That same spirit that possesses our bodies at the time we depart from this mortal life will have power to possess our bodies in the eternal world. If we go out of this life loving the Lord, desiring righteousness, and seeking to acquire the attributes of godliness, we will have that same spirit in the eternal world, and we will then continue to advance and progress until an ultimate, destined day when we will possess, receive, and inherit all things.

Now I do not say these are the only great heresies that prevail among us. There are others that might be mentioned. My suggestion, relative to all doctrines and all principles, is that we become students of holy writ, and that we conform our thinking and our beliefs to what is found in the standard works. We need to be less concerned about the views and opinions that others have expressed and drink directly from the fountain the Lord has given us. Then we shall come to a true understanding of the points of his doctrine.

And if we pursue such a course, we will soon find that it proceeds in a different direction than the one that the world pursues. We will not be troubled with the intellectual views and expressions of uninspired people. We will soon obtain for ourselves the witness of the Spirit that we are pursuing a course that is pleasing to the Lord, and this knowledge will have a cleansing and sanctifying and edifying influence upon us.

Now, in order to have things in perspective, let me identify the three greatest heresies in all Christendom. They do not prevail among us, fortunately, but they are part of the gross and universal darkness that covers the earth and blots out from the minds of men those truths upon which salvation rests.

The greatest truth known to man is that there is a God in heaven who is infinite and eternal; that he is the creator, upholder, and preserver of all things; that he created us and the sidereal heavens and ordained and established a plan of salvation whereby we might advance and progress and become like him.

Now that is the greatest truth and the most glorious concept known to the human mind, and the reverse of it is the greatest heresy in all Christendom. The Christian heresy, where God is concerned, is that Deity is a spirit essence that fills the immensity of space; that he is three beings in one; that he is uncreated, incorporeal, and incomprehensible; that he is without body, parts, or passions; that he is a spirit nothingness that is everywhere and nowhere in particular present.

These are concepts written in the creeds had in the churches of the world. The second greatest truth in all eternity pertains to the divine sonship of the Lord, Jesus Christ.

It includes the eternal verity that he was foreordained in the councils of eternity to come to earth and be the redeemer of men, to come and ransom men from the temporal and spiritual death brought upon them by the fall of Adam. This second greatest truth is that Christ worked out the infinite and eternal atoning sacrifice because of which all men are raised in immortality and those who believe and obey are raised also unto eternal life.

Now the second greatest heresy in all Christendom is designed to destroy the glories and wonders of the infinite and eternal atonement. It is that men are saved by some kind of lip service, by the grace of God, without work and without effort on their part.What does it have to do with the speed of light? Whatever eternal progression there is, it is within a sphere. This dying star turns out to be However, it is the small, red, irregular galaxies that are the main attraction here. We worship the Father, in the name of the Son, by the power of the Holy Ghost; and Adam is their foremost servant, by whom the peopling of our planet was commenced.

Some of these faint red blobs are well over twelve billion light years away, which means that when their light reaches us it has been travelling for almost the entire His wife was a member of the Church, as faithful as she could be under the circumstances.

ALLAN from Maryland
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