SIX SIGMA PDF FILE
Making Customers Feel Six Sigma Quality. Globalization and instant access to information, products and services have changed the way our customers conduct . Lean Six Sigma. Start your journey towards increased revenue, reduced costs and improved collaboration by using. Lean Six Sigma Process Improvement. Six Sigma is one of the most important and popular developments in the quality field. It has saved huge amounts of money and improved the customer.
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These materials were developed as part of MIT's ESD course on "Lean/Six Sigma Systems." In some cases, the materials were produced by the lead. Six Sigma can easily be integrated into quality management efforts. .. century, even 75% of all legal documents be written with the assistance of expert systems. PDF | The Define phase of the DMAIC process is often skipped or In book: Six Sigma Projects and Personal Experiences, Chapter: Lean six sigma, Schools look to improve the ways documents are created, stored, accessed, and shared.
You want that product to match its design specifications on every iteration. This is what the customer wants and you want to make them happy. Some products may come out slightly wrong or very wrong. Ideally, you have a quality assurance team or process stage which identifies these defects and stops them being sent to the customer. In this scenario, the defects are simply a kind of industrial waste. Producing them has wasted time, money, and resources which could have produced a functioning product.
Yet, not every product which is defective will be caught as being defective. If your product is the kind which relies on customer loyalty — something they buy regularly — then this is a pretty terrible situation to be in, as a customer may move to a competing brand.
Both of these scenarios are the fault of defects. The important thing about Six Sigma is that it takes the perspective that defects are the fault of processes.
Therefore, in Six Sigma we try to calculate how many defects we produce per million units. This gives us an objective measure to judge our process improvement efforts against. A reporter from the Seattle Times went over to find out the state their industrial output: I stopped to ask a question of a line supervisor.
I asked what the rejection rate was for these parts. Ninety-five out of every parts made were rejected. This was a sign of waste, inefficiency, and failure. Source A sigma tells us how many defects we have to deal with An improved process should reduce the number of defects per million.
How many defects you produce per million is broken down into categories, or sigmas.
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The idea of sigmas comes from standard deviation , and we want to reduce deviation as much as possible. At sigma number 1, most products are defective and this is a really terrible position to be in. A sigma of 3 means A sigma of 4 means A sigma of 3 leads to 66, defects per million. While a sigma of 4 results in 6, defects per million.
But what are the principles which get us there, and how do they work?
Process improvement for one single process is always going to have a limited scope with limited considerations. This could be argued, but the key thing we want to do is improve the value for the customer and our ability to deliver that value. There is little point optimizing the production process of a product which no one wants to buy.
The Deming Cycle idea of quality captures this well. You need to understand what your value is and how that can be improved. Value for the customer is a good external idea which can shape your activities. Process improvements are a means to an end, not the end itself. Deming does a great job of elucidating why that is. Understand how work really happens What is Process Mining?
Now, you should already be documenting workflows and processes and utilizing the ethos of business process management. Lord knows we at Process Street have harped on about it enough.
This is where a technique like process mining could really prove to be useful. Process mining is where you use software to analyze the work you and your team are doing so that you can find what order tasks are normally done in. You can hook these bits of software up to event logs and they can pump out deep descriptions of your activity so that you have them as documented processes. Most of these are Automated Business Process Discovery tools, with 6 being paid and 3 more open source tools you can use too!
Six Sigma uses data gathering and statistical analysis to pinpoint sources of error in the organization or products and determines precise ways to reduce the error.
There is an allowance for the process Mean to shift 1. This number is another academic and esoteric controversial issue not worth debating. We will get into a discussion of this number later in the course. It was also accompanied by a methodology to attain that goal.
That methodology was a problem solving strategy made up of four steps: measure, analyze, improve and control.
Motorola was a mature culture from a process perspective and didn t necessarily have a need for the Define Phase. As you will learn, properly defining a problem or an opportunity is key to putting you on the right track to solve it or take advantage of it.
By the end of this course, you should understand what would be necessary to provide these deliverables in a presentation. Success of Six Sigma depends on the extent of transformation achieved in each of these levels. Six Sigma as a breakthrough strategy to process improvement. Many people mistakenly assume that Six Sigma only works in manufacturing type operations.
That is categorically untrue. It applies to all aspects of either a product or service based business. Wherever there are processes, Six Sigma can improve their performance. The conventional strategy was to create a product or service that met certain specifications. It was assumed that if products and services were of good quality, then their performance standards were correct irrespective of how they were met.
Using this strategy often required rework to ensure final quality or the rejection and trashing of some products and the efforts to accomplish this inspect in quality were largely overlooked and un- quantified. You will see more about this issues when we investigate the Hidden Factory. It is a fundamental principle to the Six Sigma methodology. In its simplest form it is called cause and effect. In its more robust mathematical form it is called Y is equal to a function of X.
In the mathematical sense it is data driven and precise, as you would expect in a Six Sigma approach. Six Sigma will always refer to an output or the result as a Y and will always refer to an input that is associated with or creates the output as an X.
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Another way of saying this is that the output is dependent on the inputs that create it through the blending that occurs from the activities in the process.
Since the output is dependent on the inputs we cannot directly control it, we can only monitor it. The observed output is a function of the inputs. The difficulty lies in determining which X s are critical to describe the behavior of the Y s. The X s determine how the Y performs. In the Measure Phase we will introduce a tool to manage the long list of input variable and their relationship to the output responses.
In this case our output or Y is espresso. Some processes contain many, X7 X8 many variables. However, our Y is not effected equally by all of them. X3 By focusing on the vital few we X5 instantly gain leverage.
X9 Archimedes said: Give me a lever big enough and fulcrum on which to place it and I shall move the world. X6 X2 Archimedes not shown actual size! As you go through the application of DMAIC you will have a goal to find the root causes to the problem you are solving.
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To aid you in doing so, you should create a visual model of this goal as a funnel - a funnel that takes in a large number of the trivial many contributors, and narrows them to the vital few contributors by the time they leave the bottom. At the top of the funnel you are faced with all possible causes - the vital few mixed in with the trivial many.
When you work an improvement effort or project, you must start with this type of thinking. You will use various tools and techniques to brainstorm possible causes of performance problems and operational issues based on data from the process. In summary, you will be applying an appropriate set of analytical methods and the Y is a function of X thinking, to transform data into the useful knowledge needed to find the solution to the problem.
It is a mathematical fact that 80 percent of a problem is related to six or fewer causes, the X s. In most cases it is between one and three. The goal is to find the one to three Critical X s from the many potential causes when we start an improvement project. In a nutshell, this is how the Six Sigma methodology works.
The image above shows how after applying the Six Sigma tools, variation stays within the specification limits. So, while the customer is the primary concern we must keep in mind the Voice of the Business — how do we meet the business s needs so we stay in business?
And we must keep in mind the Voice of the Employee - how do we meet employees needs such that they remain employed by our firm and remain inspired and productive? Six Sigma is similar - each person is trained to be able to understand and perform the responsibilities of their role.
The end result is a knowledgeable and well coordinated winning business team.
The division of training and skill will be delivered across the organization in such a way as to provide a specialist: it is based on an assistant structure much as you would find in the medical field between a Doctor, 1st year Intern, Nurse, etc. The following slides discuss these roles in more detail. In addition to the roles described herein, all other employees are expected to have essential Six Sigma skills for process improvement and to provide assistance and support for the goals of Six Sigma and the company.
Six Sigma has been designed to provide a structure with various skill levels and knowledge for all members of the organization. Each group has well defined roles and responsibilities and communication links. When all individuals are actively applying Six Sigma principles, the company operates and performs at a higher level.
This leads to increased profitability, and greater employee and customer satisfaction. Executive Leadership Not all Six Sigma deployments are driven from the top by executive leadership. The data is clear, however, that those deployments that are driven by executive management are much more successful than those that are not.
They enable the organization to apply Six Sigma and then monitor the progress against expectations. They are in a position to be able to recognize problem areas of the business, define improvement projects, assign projects to appropriate individuals, review projects and support their completion. They are also responsible for a business roadmap and employee training plan to achieve the goals and objectives of Six Sigma within their area of accountability.
MBBs need to have the ability to influence change and motivate others.
In addition to applying Six Sigma, Master Black Belts are capable of teaching others in the practices and tools. Being a Master Black Belt is a full time position. They should be well versed with The Six Sigma Technologies and have the ability to drive results. Black Belts work on projects that are relatively complex and require significant focus to resolve. Most Black Belts conduct an average of 4 to 6 projects a year -- projects that usually have a high financial return for the company.Juran described Six Sigma as "a basic version of quality improvement", stating that "there is nothing new there.
Hidden categories: The goal is not simply to improve quality for the sake of improving quality, but to make customers happier and add money to the bottom line. By Bank of America increased customer satisfaction by Fourth why Why?
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