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Essentially, up-coming talent. Each team could versa. Very few are equally good at both and hardly any purchase a maximum of eight overseas players; though have been outstanding at both. One of the main con- only four would be considered in the playing eleven straints to becoming a recognized all-rounder is that Rastogi and Deodhar, Batsmen salaries that they were ready to offer to the players.

Each tend to reach their peak in their late twenties after their player had a base price fixed by the IPL authorities and technique has matured through experience.

Conversely, there was no upper limit. However, the salary offer was fast bowlers often reach their peak in between early to valid for three years only. From the fourth season, two mid-twenties when they are at the height of their physical new teams joined IPL.

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The league expanded in terms of prowess. Other bowlers, mostly spinners, even fast bowl- the number of teams and the number of matches played.

Though a balanced cricket both batted and bowled in the first three versions of IPL team has specialist batsmen and bowlers, yet players and classified the players based on their performance. Such play- ers are called all-rounders. Bailey defined an all- 1 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia www.

The factors responsible for the for soccer and cricket; Gabbett for rugby; McGee classification are identified using step-wise multinomial and Burkett for football; Schwandt, Glenn and logistic regression. Later, a Bayesian classification Triantis for atheletics, etc. The Bayesian classification criteria can then be uti- Traditionally, different measures like batting average lized to predict the class in which an incumbent all- and strike rate are mostly used to understand the per- rounder is expected to fall.

The external validity of the formance of batsman in cricket. The used to measure the performance of bowlers. Such a model can be helpful of the players. Lewis method that can even take into consideration the situation in which a player performs. Soon Lemmer dis- emerged as a focus of discussion and a hot-spot for re- cussed the performance of cricketers in the first Twenty- search workers of various disciplines, viz. In terms of the all-round performance of Management, Decision Science, Finance, Human Re- those players who bat and bowl regularly in the first source and so on.

Consequently, considerable amount ers. Van Staden developed a performance of literature on Twenty cricket has evolved consider- measure for cricketers in Twenty cricket considering ing its age and compared to the literature available on data from IPL I.

Tan and Ramachandran ranked the other versions of cricket. Brettenny reviewed leagues in India, viz. Lenten, Geerling and Konya zation problem. On the one hand, they are to form the compared a range of cross-sectional models to study the strongest possible team, while on the other hand, they factors determining the performance of cricketers in dif- are constrained by the resources, i.

But as perfect all-rounders are sideration. Thus, it is important that the team franchisees decide precisely while selecting all- Median is that value of the variate which has equal number rounders for their team. The concern of this paper is to of observations both above and below it and is not influ- classify the all-rounders who participated in IPL, based enced by extreme values. Median is a better measure of on their performance into any one of the four classes, central tendency for non-normal data.

Keeping in mind viz. The factors classification. The dependent variable here, i.

Expectations re- nized. Once the responsible factors are identified, a clas- garding level of performance cannot be gauged fairly sifier can be developed which, with necessary inputs of from only one match; therefore individual performances an incumbent all-rounder, can predict his expected class, across a series of matches are required to provide a suit- before he actually plays the tournament.

Such a model able frame of reference Bracewell and Ruggiero, However, only those players who satisfied all the fol- Data lowing conditions are spaced in the training sample: Two variables, viz. First, it may be recognized that the strike rate and economy rate are quantities of oppo- As discussed earlier, an all-rounder will fall in any one site nature.

The strike rate is a direct quantity — greater of the categories viz. The economy rate on the rate and economy rate. The graphical depiction of the other hand, is an inverse quantity — the smaller the classification is given in Figure 1. Ideally, an all-rounder is supposed to have ers, but in case of some of the all-rounders, the values of a high strike rate and low economy rate to be effective some of the independent variables discussed in the next in the Twenty cricket.

Based on the performance of section are not available. For example, Y Venugopal Rao the all-rounders in the first three seasons of IPL, they has not bowled in any ODI and hence his economy rate can be divided into four classes, viz.

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Manpreet Singh Gony has not all-rounder, bowling all-rounder, and under performer: batted in any ODI and so his strike rate in ODI was not i An all-rounder with strike rate above median and available; similarly, K Goel has also not played in any economy rate below median is a performer, which is ODI and so his information for ODI was not available, the ideal situation.

Ultimately, the ii An all-rounder with strike rate above median and training sample size came down to The information economy rate above median is a batting all-rounder. April 4, just after the completion of the World Cup can be seen in Appendix A. Identification of Significant Factors Variables This study attempts to identify the various factors that Several independent variables that are supposed to in- are associated with the classification of the cricketers into fluence the said classification are considered.

Some of the four classes of all-rounders as discussed earlier. To them are nominal e. Such regression 20, etc. Batting hand: Nominal variable, i. There the dominating hand of the player while batting. Country: The country to which the player belongs.

Bowling hand: This is a nominal variable i. It is the throwing arm of the bowler when he comes to changes in the batting order and hence the average batting bowl.

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Type of bowler: The type of bowling is characterized into Strike rate in ODI: Career strike rate of the player in One- two groups either fast or spin. Medium fast bowlers are con- Day International matches. ODI matches played: Measures the experience of the player Strike rate in Twenty Career strike rate of the player in in terms of number of international one day matches in which international Twenty matches.

In case the player has not batted in any Twenty inter- Twenty matches played: Measures the experience of the national matches, his strike rate at various other domestic player in Twenty cricket. It is the number of international Twenty matches is considered. Twenty matches in which he was in the playing eleven. Economy rate in Twenty Career economy rate of the player in Twenty international matches. In case the player International cricket experience: This is also another meas- has not bowled in any Twenty international matches, his ure of experience.

It is measured in years which count the economy rate at various other domestic Twenty matches international career of the player in terms of years. They are quite common, clusion of this predictor significantly improves the abil- especially for demographers, who desire to identify the ity of the model in terms of predicting the outcome, then significant predictors when the response variables are the predictor is retained in the model and search for a categorical in nature with more than two categories.

The process continues until none Some relevant references include Indongo and Naidoo of the remaining predictors shows any significant value ; Njogu and Martin ; Dwivedi, Ram and of the corresponding Wald statistic. At each inclusion, a Reshmi ; and Fraboni and Rosina Here step- check is made if any of the predictors have lost its sig- wise multinomial logistic regression is used to determine nificance because of a new predictor being included in the significant predictors.

In a step-wise regression, the the model Field, Due to the existence of predictors entered in the model are based on a purely intercorrelations between variables, the variance ex- mathematical criterion.

An initial model is defined which plained by certain variables may change as and when a contains only the constant b0. Then search is on for a new variable or variables are entered in the equation.

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If predictor, out of those available, that best predicts the this takes place, then step-wise method would remove outcome variable. Generally, the predictor with the the weakened variables. Though step-wise regression maximum value of the Wald statistic2 is chosen. If in- models are criticized at times, thus restricting its use, yet, in case of an exploratory study, where it is impor- 2 Wald statistic is generally used to test if the coefficient for a predictor tant to find a model to fit a data, such a method should say, b is significantly different from zero.

In case it is significantly be recommended Agresti and Finlay, ; Menard, different from zero then we can assume that the corresponding pre- dictor is making a significant contribution to the prediction of the Here, the dependent variable is a type of all-rounder. The value of RL2 lies between 0 imply- one of the class of all-rounders. Also, outcome variable perfectly Field, Similarly, which is an important factor, while taking such an im- we can have Xi2,…, Xik as the other independent vari- portant decision about the model.

Accordingly, Cox and ables. Thus, we can have the multinomial logistic regres- Snell developed another measure that took into sion equation as, consideration the sample size as well. Likelihood Intercept Only In case of any regression model, it is essential to have a measure that can be used to identify how well the model Considering data from the training sample, the model fits the data. Hosmer and Lemeshow defined a is fitted.

The information about the fitted model pro- measure that could be used to compute the strength of a vided in Table 1, shows that the independent variables fitted logistic regression equation given by, explain the said classification in a significant manner.

The Table indicates how well the model fits the data 2 where a smaller -2loglikelihood value implies that the model fits the data better. Reduced Model Intercept Although in re- ues can be used to assess the fit of the model. The true reason is that its clas- Tabachnick and Fidell, The log-likelihood statis- sification accuracy does not depend on the dependencies tic is an indicator to ensure how much unexplained in- that may exist among the attributes Domingos and formation is there after the model has been fitted Field, Pazzani, It ignores the interaction between vari- Here the likelihood ratio-tests identified those ables within individuals of the same class.

It can be computed as, rameters necessary for classification Wikipedia, Novem- ber 23, We think that discussion of the phenomenon of oedema at this point is premature but will be a focus of high level studies in the future, with more precise imaging and with studies which are based on a common terminology and classification.

Terminology An aspect that may contribute to a high rate of inaccurate diagnosis and recurrent injury is that terminology of muscle injuries is not yet been clearly defined and a high degree of variability continues to exist between terms frequently used to describe muscle injury.

Since it has been documented that variations in definitions create significant differences in study results and conclusions, 34—38 it is critically important to develop a standardisation.

However, this definition is rarely used in the literature and in the day-to-day management of athletic muscle injuries. Our survey demonstrates that the term strain is used with a high degree of variability between practitioners.

Strain is a biomechanical term; thus, we do not recommend the use of this term. Tear better reflects structural characteristics as opposed to a mechanism of injury. That means also irrespective of a structural damage. By this definition, functional muscle disorders, irrespective of any structural muscle damage, present injuries as well. However, the term disorder may better differentiate functional disorders from structural injuries.

Thus, the term functional muscle disorder was specifically chosen by the consensus conference. Functional muscle disorders present a distinct clinical entity since they result in a functional limitation for the athlete, for example, painful increase of the muscle tone which can represent a risk factor for structural injury. However, they are not readily diagnosed with standard diagnostic methods such as MRI since they are without macroscopic evidence of structural damage, defined as absence of fibre tear on MRI.

They are indirect injuries, that is, not caused by external force. This is important since the origin of muscle disorder influences their treatment pathway.

A spine-related muscle disorder associated with a spine problem eg, spondylolysis , will better respond to treatment by addressing not only the muscle disorder but also the back disorder ie, including core-performance, injections. One could argue, that this presents mainly a back problem, with a secondary muscle disorder. But, this secondary muscular disorder prevents the athlete from sports participation and will require comprehensive treatment that includes the primary problem as well in order to facilitate return to sport.

Therefore, a broader definition and classification system is suggested by the consensus panel at this point which is important not only because of the different pathogenesis, but more importantly because of different therapeutic implications.

Comprehensive classification system Fatigue-induced muscle disorder and delayed onset muscle soreness Muscle fatigue has been shown to predispose to injury. The importance of warm up prior to activity and of maintaining flexibility was emphasised since a decrease in muscle stiffness is seen with warming up. Delayed onset muscle soreness DOMS has to be differentiated from fatigue-induced muscle injury.

DOMS causes its characteristic acute inflammatory pain due to local release of inflammatory mediators and secondary biochemical cascade activation with stiff and weak muscles and pain at rest and resolves spontaneously usually within a week.

In contrast, fatigue-induced muscle disorder leads to aching, circumscribed firmness, dull ache to stabbing pain and increases with continued activity. It can—if unrecognised and untreated—persist over a longer time and may cause structural injuries such as partial tears. However, in accordance with Opar et al 39 it has to be stated, that it remains an area for future research to definitely describe this muscle disorder and other risk factors for muscle injuries.

Spine-related and muscle-related neuromuscular muscle disorders Two different types of neuromuscular disorders can be differentiated: a spinal or spinal nerve-related central and a neuromuscular endplate-related peripheral type. Since muscles act as a target organ their state of tension is modulated by electrical information from the motor component of the corresponding spinal nerve.

Thus, an irritation of a spinal nerve root can cause an increase of the muscle tone. Functional lumbar disturbances, like lumbar or iliosacral blocking can also cause spine-related muscle disorders.

The spine-related muscle disorder is usually MRI-negative or shows muscle oedema only. Verrall et al 33 showed that footballers with a history of lumbar spine injury had a higher rate of MRI-negative posterior thigh injury, but not of actual structural hamstring injury.An initial model is defined which plained by certain variables may change as and when a contains only the constant b0. This is repeated for each of the classes X1 , strike rate of Twenty cricket X2 , economy rate for the same player.

Based on the performance of section are not available.

The laundry coupons will have to be bought in your respective hostels from the wardens who sell them between 5 p. The information economy rate above median is a batting all-rounder.

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