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At the same time it should be pointed out that this phenomenon is not an Arabic speciality either Ratcliffe The prefixed l- as a definite is often seen as a very distinctive feature of Arabic which is not found in other Semitic languages.

This might be true, but the fact is that not all varieties within the Arabic complex have it either.

Unless one is prepared to exclude these varieties from the Arabic complex and call them something else what? On the other hand it is absent in many modern Arabic dialects. But even sceptics about this issue must agree that this causative formation is not a characteristic of Arabic setting it apert from other Semitic languages.

This form, however, is not found everywhere there. The verbs and elatives from roots III geminatae would be a good example. Unfortunately, these words do not show any traces of this change Marcais f. The dual in the Arabiyya is a well developed morphological category with marked dual forms not only with nouns but also with adjectives, pronouns personal, deictic and finite verbs 2nd and 3rd persons.

A similar dual system is found in Ancient South Arabian but not in any 12 known Arabic dialect Stein , , , , , In the latter the system looks quite different with markings of dual only with nouns. This is one of the cases where there indeed is a wide gap between the Arabiyya and the modern vernaculars which cannot be bridged except by drastic and unlikely ad hoc explanations. Both share isoglosses with other Semitic languages but the Arabiyya goes with the southern neighbours whereas the vernaculars follow the languages in the northwest.

It refers to the sound represented by the 15th letter of the Arabic alphabet which, according to the early medieval grammatical tradition, had some kind of lateral articulation which was apprehended as peculiar Steiner ; Versteegh The traditional term thus has no relevance for present day Arabic, either the vernaculars or the Arabiyya.

If we look at the cognate roots in other Semitic languages containing this phoneme we find contradictory evidence not always easy to analyze. The Ancient South Arabian alphabet has a distinctive sign for it but the phonetic reality behind it 13 escapes us.

There seem to be traces of a similar articulation in other ancient Semitic languages as well Steiner loc.

It is thus clear that a the lateral articulation is not limited to the language complex called Arabic, b the lateral articulation is in fact not a specific characteristic of the Arabic complex — if by that we include what we usually call Arabic. On the contrary, it is extremely rare. It also most likely existed in Ugaritic although with a somewhat different distribution Tropper Likewise, the South Arabian alphabet has a sign that most likely represents the same phoneme Stein It is thus not a characteristic feature of Arabic.

The few examples adduced show the problem clearly. In an overview of the Arabic complex it is very difficult to find linguistic elements which allow us to draw a distinctive line between the Arabic complex and the rest of the Semitic languages.

One could e. But the fact remains that such phenomena are quite few and often uncertain due to the still absent information on many spoken Arabic dialects. A more principal question is whether the existence of a few isoglosses uniting all forms of spoken Arabic with the Arabiyya and, at the same time, distinguishing the two from other Semitic languages, would make it meaningful to proclaim this immense complex as being one language.

What would give e. It seems that a quite arbitrary process of thinking lies behind this. First one decides which languages should be called Arabic, then one begins to look for linguistic criteria supporting the idea.

The traditionalist argument against this would be that the modern spoken forms after all are historically derived from an Arabiyya-like language.

Even if the distinctive features are not preserved in the modern dialects they still form a unity with the Arabiyya since they are developed from it or at least from a close relative.

There are several objections against this statement. The first is, of course, that it confuses synchronic analysis with diachrony.

Such a confusion tends to blur distinctions and clear thinking even when the diachronic background for synchronic phenomena is well- documented. With this kind of argument we will end up considering French, Italian etc. Most diachronic statements about the relationship between the Arabiyya and the modern dialects, however, are just assumptions, not documented processes.

Why these differences exist is another matter altogether.

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The attempts that have been made to reconstruct an assumed diachronic process, establishing the line of development from the Arabiyya to modern vernaculars Birkeland ; Garbell are highly speculative and, as it seems, not in harmony with evidence.

The evidence from before this period about languages in most parts of Arabia is much more fragmentary. It is most likely that the Arabiyya documented by the poetic tradition once upon a time also existed as a spoken idiom.

It is quite likely that varieties of the modern vernacular type also existed in the pre-Islamic period although the documentation is almost non-existant. But this means that the assumed process of transition from an Arabiyya-type of language to an early variant of the modern vernaculars cannot be verified.

Further, a comparative perspective shows that e. The many similarities between the vernaculars and the other Semitic languages, contrasting them to the Arabiyya, puts a question mark at the derivation of the modern vernacular type from an Arabiyya-like forebear.

A traditionalist argument explaining the latter point would be that Arabic shows an internal development which is parallel to the one in Semitic in general. Blau or even Afroasiatic cf. Diakonoff complex. But all these allegations are built upon presumptions that are highly uncertain and in many cases demonstratively wrong. It is without further consideration assumed that a there existed a Proto-Semitic language, b this language was practically identical with the Arabiyya, at least as far as phonology and morphology are concerned.

But this remains a hypothetical assumption since no such Proto-Semitic is documented and at closer look its existence turns out to be unlikely.

If there ever existed something deserving the name Proto-Semitic we should assume that it was a heterogeneous phenomenon from the beginning. The variation was there already. The view of the history and identity of Arabic and the Semitic languages in general has until this day been formed by the traditional Stammbaum model of linguistic development launched by Schleicher in It might be 17 that the Stammbaum model is a plausible model for the Afroasiatic phylum as a whole but its routine application to the Semitic linguistic world leads to serious misunderstandings.

It is obvious that the Semitic languages, being as closely related as they are, constitute a continuum of isoglossses rather than a tree with distinct branches Rabin Careful use must also be made of documentary material. The written evidence, which is crucial for the diachrony of Semitic, does not necessarily represent distinct languages. It is not certain that the language of the Hebrew Bible represents a language that was spoken in Palestine with a distinct border against surrounding Aramaic, Phoenician or Arabic.

He would instead notice continuous small differences in the speech of the locals on his way. Today, a similar picture would be created by a similar journey from Mauritania to Oman through the Arabophone areas. Within the branches of a linguistic phylum like Semitic in Afroasiatic, or Germanic, Romance or Slavonic in Indoeuropean, distinct dialectal borders are exceptions, gradual change the rule. The current model still used by most Arabists describing the linguistic realities is outdated.

The picture of a language consisting of a mosaic of distinct dialects with clearly discernible borders corresponds to reality only in some special cases. The original view that the languages on the peninsula were dialects of the same language, reflected in the terms South and North Arabic, however turned out not to be tenable. The southern languages were then called South Arabian, the term North Arabic being reserved for the rest.

North Arabic thus indicated all pre-Islamic languages documented between Yemen and the Syrian desert and were considered early stages of Arabic. A development was assumed from Proto-Arabic, i. This view is still adhered to by many scholars cf. Knauf These entities are represented by the epigraphic documents from at least the 8th century BCE onwards. If one takes the entire Peninsula into consideration one should also presume the existence of a complex which is the forebear to the modern South Arabian languages and somewhere also possibly a complex from which Ethiosemitic ultimately derives.

We should not see these labels as representing distinct languages. It is also worth pointing out that the ASA languages share some important isoglosses with the 19 northern languages, including those of Syria, eg. The forebears of the Arabiyya as well as the modern vernaculars are to be looked for in the Old Arabic group which was independent from the ANA. Unfortunately documentation of this Old Arabic is fairly limited, but is should not be assumed without any further consideration that Old Arabic was a more or less unitary phenomenon cf.

Mascitelli Still, most scholars ahdhere to the idea that the modern vernaculars are the desendants of a more or less Arabiyya-like language Mascitelli Diem Among the latter we should look for the forebears of the modern dialects. There are large parts of the Peninsula where we have no documentation of local languages but where one could assume that these dialects thrived.

The Arabiyya undoubtedly goes back to a spoken language, but rather than being the grandfather of modern spoken Arabic that language seems to have died out without leaving any descendants, like Ugaritic and Akkadian to which it has many resemblances.

It has been remarked that the linguistic type represented by the modern Arabic vernaculars shows many similarities to Aramaic Fischer Judging from their moderns descendants one must assume considerable variation even here from the beginning Fischer Many isoglosses connected different local varieties with other Semitic languages both in the south and in the north.

There has been a long debate about the position of Arabic within Semitic as a whole. Cantineau and was followed by scholars like G. Garbini , R. Hetzron , , W.

Diem , and R. Voigt These scholars pointed out features that Ethiosemitic and modern South Arabian have in common with Akkadian, thus splitting the South Semitic group in two, of which the northern one, which includes Arabic, has several basic features in common with the languages of Syria. The discussion whether Arabic should be classified as Central Semitic or South Semitic is not very meaningful. Considering the immense variation within the complex called Arabic it is doubtful if it is possible to make an evaluation of the phenomena.

Is the formation 21 of plurals of nouns a more important feature than the morphology of the verbal tenses? Whichever answer is given none of these distinguishes Arabic in its modern sense from the other languages. When looking at the linguistic map of pre-Islamic Arabia one should assume that linguistic variation was there from the beginning. That is the picture that emerges from the evidence we have from the pre-Islamic period. That would have been a completely unique situation unparallelled before or after.

This is the situation even today, and not only in Arabia but in the entire Arab world. The Semitic languages, like the Germanic, Romance, Slavonic etc. It remains unlikely that these branches, including Romance, have developed from a unified proto- language. A Proto-Semitic language did not emerge in full armour like Athena from the head of Zeus. What it inherited from there we do not know yet.

The comparative study of Afroasiatic is still in its beginnings and is beset with many difficulties.

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Many of the features usually ascribed to Proto-Semitic are probably innovations that occurred in the linguistic continuum and spread to different degrees. In others it did not catch on and the original marking of case even diappeared. The Arabiyya and perhaps Ugaritic would have been a final stage in such a development whereas Akkadian still represents an earlier stage. The rudimentary case system of Geez could represent an even earlier stage.

In other parts on the Semitic continuum the development did not occur at all. From this part of Semitic arose Hebrew, Aramaic and most of the forebears of the modern Arabic dialects.

It has been suggested, supported by evidence, that there might have been a continuum even between these languages, which actually is what we should expect Owens It is, in fact, possible to define the Arabiyya by using morphological criteria which sets it apart from other Semitic languages, including the dialects.

Some of these elements are traceable in other languages as well but the system in the Arabiyya is unique for that language. Diem f. But the modern concept of Arabic as encompassing both the Arabiyya and the modern vernaculars is not meaningful as a pure linguistic concept.

Searching through the phonology and morphology of the complex we call Arabic today it seems impossible to find anything which delimits the group from other Semitic languages in a meaningful way. From a purely linguistic viewpoint the Arabic complex is dissolved into a large variety of languages which in varying degrees have elements in common with each other as well as with other Semitic languages.

Sprachatlas von Syrien. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Arabische Dialektgeographie. Handbuch der Orientalistik I Growth and structure of the Egyptian Arabic dialect. Klasse Nr. Dual and pseudo-dual in the Arabic dialects. Language Some problems of the formation of the old Semitic languages in the light of Arabic dialects. Paris: Librairie Ernest Leroux. Accadien et sudarabique. Arabisms in Rabbinical literature. Le parler arabe des juifs de Tunis. II: etude linguistique Janua linguarum Series Practica Kees Versteegh et al.

Die Struktur des klassischen Arabisch. Grundriss der arabischen Philologie Bd. I: Sprachwissenschaft ed. Fischer Wiesbaden: L. Reichert Verlag.

Afrasian languages. Moscow: Nauka. Divergenz und Konvergenz im Arabischen. Arabica Die genealogische Stellung des Arabischen in den semitischen Sprache. Vom Altarabischen zum Neuarabischen. Ein neuer Ansatz. Kaye Vol. Das Neuarabische und seine Dialekte. I: Sprachwissenschaft, ed. Dialectologia arabica.

Helsinki: The Finnish Oriental Society. Studia Orientalia Classical Arabic. The Semitic languages, ed. Robert Hetzron, London: Routledge. Remarks on the historical phonology of an East Mediterranean Arabic dialect. Word Le lingue semitiche. Dexter Ruecker January 12, - In the short distance from the north to the south of Navarra, you can enjoy a Kingdom of Diversity Turismo Reyno de Navarra is pinning about Turismo.

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ZDMG Diem , and R. Zaheen Fatima Baig. The comparative study of Afroasiatic is still in its beginnings and is beset with many difficulties.

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