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The crust contains materials like water, rocks and soil. Limestone, common salt, coal, petroleum, metals like iron, copper, aluminium and gold are the different types of minerals found in the Earths crust.
The mantle The layer in between the crust and outer core is called the mantle. Its thickness is nearly Kilometres. The mantle is made up of hot rocks. The temperature and pressure is more than in the crust. The mantle layer is in semi-molten state. It is kilometres thick. This outer core is made mainly of metals.
It is under enormous pressure and so hot. The metals are in molten state. Four-fifth of the outer core may be iron and nickel. The rest one-fifth is probably silicon. It is about kilometres thick. Like the outer core, it is also made up of iron and nickel. The temperature is about oC. It extends up for hundreds of kilometres.
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The atmosphere consists of gases like Plants need carbon dioxide for preparing their food. About 78 percent of air is nitrogen about 21 percent is oxygen and the remaining one percent consists other gases Fig.
This layer of atmosphere is known as troposphere. This is the layer nearest to the earth. At 30 to 50 kilometres above Earths suface, a layer of hot air at a temperature of 42oC is available. The hotness is due to the absorption of heat from the Sun by the ozone layer. Ozone is the special form of oxygen.
This ozone layer protects us from the most harmful Ultraviolet rays of the Sun.
Without ozone, we could not stand the Suns light. Hence, we have to preserve the ozone layer. As we go higher and higher, the air becomes thinner.
This is why mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders with them. The oxygen in the atmosphere helps in burning. The nitrogen in the air keeps the burning under control. The atmosphere allows only a part of light and heat from the Sun to reach the surface of the Earth. The suitable temperature of the Earth is only due to the presence of atmosphere.
This helps in the existence of life on Earth. Water vapour in the air makes surrounding as cool. Human beings and animals need oxygen. Fill it with water.
Candle should not be submerged in water. Now, light the candle.
Then, place a glass tumbler upside down such that it must cover the lighted candle. What happens? The candle needs oxygen to burn.
The air available in the tumbler has oxygen. With this oxygen the candle burns. After sometime, the candle blows out. This is because, the entire oxygen has been used up. No more oxygen is available. You can see Ocean currents are like rivers of water flowing through the ocean.
They are warmer or colder than water through which they pass.
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Various kinds of plants and animals fish, shark, whale are living in the ocean. There is a soft; Oozy mud covering the floor of the ocean down to a depth of metres.
Many useful materials are in the ocean. Most important among them are the common salt and iodine. Tides occur in the ocean.
What are tides? Tides are the regular movement of the water caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. Water is essential for all living things. This shows the presence of oxygen in air. Most of the water is available in the oceans and seas.
Near the north and south poles, the oceans are in the form of ice. Each year the farmers wait anxiously for the rain to supply water for their crops.
In a bad year, there is not enough rain and plants, animals and humans die. All living things contain water. Water melan plant has 97 percent water. About half the mass of a tree is water. About two-third of your mass is water. These minerals are useful for plants in preparing their food. Water transports substances through a plant, carrying minerals from the soil to the stem and leaves.
Oxygen dissolved in water is used for marine life. Blood in your body, which is mainly water, carries minerals to all the cells. The blood in your lungs dissolves the gases into the air and carries them round your body.
Waste products are removed away through water. Everyday you lose some water in urine and whenever you breath out. The water cycle Atmosphere plays an important role in the water cycle.
During the summer, the water is not found in the lake. Where did the water go?
A part into the ground. Water changes into water vapour. The process of conversion of water into vapour is called evaporation. Heated by the Sun, water on the surface of lakes, rivers and oceans evaporates and become water vapour in the atmosphere. It joins with the water vapour released from the leaves of plants and forms clouds. When the clouds are lifted by upward motion of air, they cool.
This can make the water vapour to condense into tiny water droplets. Often they freeze into tiny ice crystals and start to fall. They are too heavy for the air to keep them up. They reach ground as snow or melted as rain after melting. Some of the water runs along the surface in rivers.
The rest sinks into the ground. But again it will be back Fig.
This process of circulation of water to water vapour then clouds and again rain is called water cycle Fig. The water you drink today may have been drunk by someone thousands of years ago! Nature has been crumbling the rock into tiny fragments called soil. This is done in many ways. The frequent change in heat and cold, cracks off surfaces of rock. Blow of wind converts rocks into sand. Glaciers scrape rock surfaces. Waves beating against a shore converts rocks into smaller and smaller pieces.
The soil in which plants grow is a complex substance which contains mineral salts, decayed organic materials and decayed living organisms.
The value of the soil depends on its power to supply plant food, air and water to the root of plants. Water rises in soil just as water rises in a sponge. Unknown March 27, at 7: Unknown March 28, at 9: Unknown April 1, at 3: Unknown April 2, at 3: Unknown May 1, at 6: Unknown March 21, at 1: Unknown March 29, at 2: Unknown April 1, at 7: Punithan March 21, at 5: Unknown March 21, at Lakshmana March 22, at 8: Unknown March 22, at 9: Unknown March 23, at Unknown March 24, at Unknown March 24, at 6: Unknown April 1, at 5: Unknown March 24, at 8: Selfie Jones March 25, at 7: Unknown April 2, at 8: Unknown March 25, at 7: Unknown March 29, at 8: Unknown March 25, at 8: Sofi March 25, at 9: Unknown March 25, at 6: Educational Book.
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The oxygen in the atmosphere helps in burning. The reading corresponding to B and C will give parallox error. That is, in multiples and submultiples of metre.