THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST CARDS PDF
Thematic Apperception TesT. TAT materials consists of 20 cards onwhich ambiguous pictures are presented.-”M” for males, “F” for. Psychological Tests During the tests, just be yourself, avoid artificiality, act naturally and confidently. Post your queries about Psychological. A History of Apperception Techniques. Test Administration. When to Use the TAT. Materials. Setting. Rapport. Which Cards to Give. Instructions. Recording the.
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The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective personality assessment The complete version of the test contains 31 picture cards. The subject is asked. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a performance‐based personality about a serious of cards depicting various people and situations. in the Thematic Apperception Test. The primary function of the study was to categorize perceptual reactions to the TAT cards. A secondary aim was to compare.
A story ofdeparture or of termination of therelationship may be reflective of eitherovert or denied hostility on the part ofthe subject. On a road in a chasm, severalfigures are proceeding along a pathtoward a bridge.
Above them andagainst the side of a cliff appears to bea dragon. The picture alsorepresents unknown and threateningforces and reflects the manner in whichthe subjects deal with fear of attack. Picture 12M: A man with his hand raised isstanding above a boy who is lying on abed with his eyes closed.
Thiscan be significant in predicting or assessingthe current or future relationship between thetherapist and the client. The manner in whichthe older man is perceived is particularlyimportant.
Detailed Procedure of Thematic Apperception test
The picture can represent specificsof the transference relationship and such, canbe an aid in interpreting and providingfeedback to the client regarding thisrelationship.
In particular, subjects frequentlyreveal attitudes toward some externalcontrolling forces. Picture 12F: A portrait of a woman is in theforeground; an older woman holding herchin is in the background.
Thebackground figure is frequently seen asa mother-in-law who has a variety of evilqualities. Often, these negative qualitiesare feelings that the subject has towardher own mother but can indirectly, and,therefore, more safely, project onto thefigure of a mother-in-law Picture 12BG: A country setting depicts atree, with a rowboat pulled up next to it.
No human figures are present. More stableand adjusted subjects are likely todiscuss the peace of being alone in thewoods and perhaps of fishing or havinggone fishing further down the stream.
Picture 13MF: A young man is standing inthe foreground with his head in his arms. In the background is a woman lying in abed. Stories inwhich there are overt expressions of aggression orrevulsion are significant variations and should benoted as relatively unusual.
Because this picture has a relatively large number ofdetails, obsessive-compulsive personalities frequentlyspend an excessive amount of time in describing andexplaining these details. This approach may beparticularly evident when the picture has a shockeffect and may, therefore, create an anxiety. Picture 13B: A boy is sitting in the doorwayof a log cabin. In adults, itfrequently elicits reveries involvingchildhood memories. Picture 13G: A girl is climbing a flight ofstairs.
Thematic Apperception Test. Administration and Interpretation of the TAT.pdf
Itusually produces stories that are highlyvaried but lacking in richness anddetails. A person is silhouetted against awindow. This type ofsubject often describes the figure in the picture and,more importantly discusses the events, feeling, andattitudes that led up to the current self-destructivebehavior. A man is standing amongtombstones with his hands claspedtogether. For example death may beviewed as a passive, quiet process, or, incontrast, it can be violent, aggressivesituation.
If the subject is having an extremelydifficult time coping with the death of a friendand relative, the themes on Picture 15 canprovide useful information as to why thisdifficulty is being experienced.
The story mightalso indicate unexpressed and problematicanger directed toward the dead person,because of sense of abandonment. Blank card. However foranxious, resistant, or noncreative subjects, this cardoften a little or no value because the stories areusually brief and lack of depth or richness Inconsidering the story, is helpful to note whether thedepiction involves a scene that is vital and optimistic,or one that is desolate or flat.
Picture 17BM: A naked man is climbing up or down a rope. They in turn may bring outthemes of achievement, physicalprowess, adulation, and narcissism. Possible homosexual feelings or anxietyrelated to homosexuality also becomesevident in the stories of some subjects Picture 17GF: A female is standing on abridge over water.
Above the bridge is atall building, and behind the building thesun is shining from behind clouds. This card can beparticularly useful in cases of suicidaldepression, where the figure on the bridge isperceived as contemplating jumping off, as alast attempt to resolve her difficulties. Picture 18BM: A man dressed in a long coatis being grabbed from behind. Threehands are visible. Thus, it is importantto note how the subject handles his orher own anxiety as well as howcharacter deals with his or her situation.
Picture 18GF: A woman has her handsaround the throat of another woman. Inthe background is a flight of stairs.
Particular noteshould be made of what types of events trigger thisaggressiveness, and of the manner in which theconflict is or is not resolvedFeelings of inferiority, jealousy, and response to beingdominated are also often described. Although therepresentation of aggressiveness in the picture is quiteexplicit, subjects occasionally attempt to deny oravoid this aggressiveness by creating a story in whichone figure is attempting to help the other one up thestairs.
This may point to general denial and repressionof hostility on the part of the subject. A surreal depiction of clouds anda home covered with snow. For certain subjects, theambiguous nature of this picture cancreate anxiety and insecurity.
Theexaminer can then observe how thesubject handles his or her anxiety in thecontext of the story. Often the storiesproduced deal with impersonalaggression from forces such as nature orthe supernatural. Description The TAT is one of the oldest projective measures in continuous use.
It has become the most popular projective technique among English-speaking psychiatrists and psychologists, and is better accepted among clinicians than the Rorschach.
Thematic Apperception Test
The early versions of the TAT listed Morgan as the first author, but later versions dropped her name. One of the controversies surrounding the history of the TAT concerns the long and conflict-ridden extramarital relationship between Morgan and Murray, and its reinforcement of the prejudices that existed in the s against women in academic psychology and psychiatry.
It is generally agreed, however, that the basic idea behind the TAT came from one of Murray's undergraduate students. The student mentioned that her son had spent his time recuperating from an illness by cutting pictures out of magazines and making up stories about them. The student wondered whether similar pictures could be used in therapy to tap into the nature of a patient's fantasies. Administration The TAT is usually administered to individuals in a quiet room free from interruptions or distractions.
The subject sits at the edge of a table or desk next to the examiner. The examiner shows the subject a series of story cards taken from the full set of 31 TAT cards. The usual number of cards shown to the subject is between 10 and 14, although Murray recommended the use of 20 cards, administered in two separate one-hour sessions with the subject. The original 31 cards were divided into three categories, for use with men only, with women only, or for use with subjects of either sex.
Recent practice has moved away from the use of separate sets of cards for men and women. The subject is then instructed to tell a story about the picture on each card, with specific instructions to include a description of the event in the picture, the developments that led up to the event, the thoughts and feelings of the people in the picture, and the outcome of the story.
The examiner keeps the cards in a pile face down in front of him or her, gives them to the subject one at a time, and asks the subject to place each card face down as its story is completed.
Administration of the TAT usually takes about an hour. Recording Murray's original practice was to take notes by hand on the subject's responses, including his or her nonverbal behaviors. Research has indicated, however, that a great deal of significant material is lost when notes are recorded in this way. As a result, some examiners now use a tape recorder to record subjects' answers.
Another option involves asking the subject to write down his or her answers. Interpretation There are two basic approaches to interpreting responses to the TAT, called nomothetic and idiographic respectively. Nomothetic interpretation refers to the practice of establishing norms for answers from subjects in specific age, gender, racial, or educational level groups and then measuring a given subject's responses against those norms. Idiographic interpretation refers to evaluating the unique features of the subject's view of the world and relationships.
Most psychologists would classify the TAT as better suited to idiographic than nomothetic interpretation. In interpreting responses to the TAT, examiners typically focus their attention on one of three areas: the content of the stories that the subject tells; the feeling or tone of the stories; or the subject's behaviors apart from responses. These behaviors may include verbal remarks for example, comments about feeling stressed by the situation or not being a good storyteller as well as nonverbal actions or signs blushing, stammering, fidgeting in the chair, difficulties making eye contact with the examiner, etc.
The story content usually reveals the subject's attitudes, fantasies, wishes, inner conflicts, and view of the outside world. The story structure typically reflects the subject's feelings, assumptions about the world, and an underlying attitude of optimism or pessimism.
Results The results of the TAT must be interpreted in the context of the subject's personal history, age, sex, level of education, occupation, racial or ethnic identification, first language, and other characteristics that may be important.
Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis, Because I feel like the scale relationship in these pictures is really off. Part of it has to do with the cropping. Or it almost implies, like, uh, a timeless kind of space, which I think is why to me it seems almost as if these are like grandparents. Or memories of grandparents. Or people from the early twentieth century.
First of all the staircase is at such a kind of perspective that it seems that everything is, it would just be a steep, almost impossible passage to go up. And the two figures in the foreground…the dominant one is oddly feminine. And really is being controlled. His face is just like a shape, hidden behind the hair. I mean the look in her eye.
This woman is trying to seduce this man. And I primarily think that because of the pin-up behind his face. It can become apparent whether parents were perceived as aggressive, domineering, helpful, understanding, protective or absent.
And there seems to be a kind of…enclosure created by furniture, which I think makes it easier for them to hear one another. Or at least disinterested in either being a babysitter or being a mother. The furniture is of a certain kind mid-twentieth century, middle-class quality. And the only strange perspective in this drawing has to do with the cropping of the table, so it makes it seem that the table is much flatter than it actually is.
This girl is very precocious, maybe even slightly deviant. Which I think is part of the boredom. This is, like, a really…wow, this is a kind of very upsetting. It seems completely coincidental. The guy at the front seems really concerned with his wardrobe.
They finish their job and everything. Her work has been written about in most major art publications and is included in prestigious public and private collections worldwide. Which he reluctantly, he sort of enjoys, but sort of reluctantly enjoys it.
Do other people have problems too? And he probably comes back to this moment at some point.
Or his relationships start to fail or something. He has no legs laughs. And the violin was…I think he has a so-so relationship with the violin. He is a dwarf, probably dwarfism. He feels like if he can throw the flowers at her he can get her attention. It looks like a horror movie or something. But it seems like Hitchcocky. The woman herself lives alone. But it ends badly, probably for her and the dwarf.
Because she attacked it. And like a pile on the floor. And she lives in, like, Kansas or something, or maybe Louisiana.
Like, she you know, drops it. It sucks. Parts of him are chipping off him, his nose, the curl of his hair. It ends…it ends happily. But before, when she lived in Louisiana it was like a point of pride and maybe one of the more interesting things in the town, because there was nothing in town except for lemonade and this mannequin laughs.
The woman. And the girl just wants to leave. And she is, like she has a boyfriend that wants to, um like go and join the carnival or something.Picture 18GF: While these systems are more practical for clinical use, they lack comprehensiveness. Japanese narratives were then scored using five variables for each of the ten cards: hero gender, the incidence of death, need for achievement, dominant emotional tone and the outcome of the story.
Roger L Greene Search for more papers by this author. You can change your ad preferences anytime. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
Administration The TAT is usually administered to individuals in a quiet room free from interruptions or distractions.
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