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Routing Protocols Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for .. Open ppti.info accompanying this modeling activity and complete it with a fellow. 2 Routing Protocols Companion Guide. High-Speed Open ppti.info accompanying this modeling activity and complete it with a fellow stu- dent. Discuss the. Routing Protocols Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing Protocols course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA®.

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This is the only Cisco-authorized companion guide to the official Your Price: $; List Price: $; Includes EPUB, MOBI, and PDF; About eBook Routing Protocols Companion Guide is the official supplemental. This guide to IP routing protocols is divided into three main sections: ▫ IPv4 unicast routing protocols: RIP, OSPF, BGP and Route Filtering. companion to a Router LSA or to a Network LSA (some fields in the intra-area-prefix LSA identify the. CCNP 1 Advanced Routing Companion ppti.info - Ebook download as PDF and configuration Routing protocols such as RIP. use this companion guide to.

In the first quarter of , the Helpline received an average of 68, calls per month. This is an increase from , with an average monthly call volume of 67, or , total calls for the year. Do I need health insurance to receive this service?

The referral service is free of charge. If you have no insurance or are underinsured, we will refer you to your state office, which is responsible for state-funded treatment programs. In addition, we can often refer you to facilities that charge on a sliding fee scale or accept Medicare or Medicaid. If you have health insurance, you are encouraged to contact your insurer for a list of participating health care providers and facilities. Will my information be kept confidential?

The service is confidential. We will not ask you for any personal information. We may ask for your zip code or other pertinent geographic information in order to track calls being routed to other offices or to accurately identify the local resources appropriate to your needs. You will see these referred to throughout the book. Appendix A. Chapter 9. All of these concepts are discussed in this chapter. Appendix C. A few simple commands might be enough to get dynamic routing started.

This chapter examines the key IOS route optimization features. You can optimize routing in a network by controlling when a router exchanges routing updates and what those updates contain. Objectives Upon completing this chapter. Throughout this chapter. They look like this: Interactive Media Activity Lab Activity. Following a standardized design model allows your network to grow in an established pattern that will not limit future growth.

Network designers must now modify.

These technologies offered a limited capacity for growth. This chapter explores networking technologies that have evolved to meet this demand for scalability. It seems obvious to allow for growth in a network. For example. Most organizations cannot afford to recable or redesign their networks when users are relocated. If the company tripled in size and demanded streaming video or e-commerce services. Chapter 1 Overview of Scalable Internetworks Initially. Cisco offers a three-tiered hierarchy as the preferred approach to network design.

Overview of Scalable Internetworks The Three-Layer Hierarchical Design Model A hierarchical network design model breaks the complex problem of network design into smaller. Each level or tier in the hierarchy addresses a different set of problems. Each layer of the three-tiered design model may include the following: Devices at the core layer should not be burdened with any processes that stand in the way of switching.

The following sections discuss each of the three layers in detail. At the same time. In other words. This allows administrators to easily add. Layered models are useful because they facilitate modularity. This is a point-and-click activity where you click the correct choice. Examples of processes that are best performed outside the core include the following: End users access network resources by way of the access layer.

If a network has two or more routing protocols. The access layer can also give remote sites access to the network by way of a wide-area technology. It helps differentiate the core from the rest of the network. Interactive Media Activity Point and Click: Layered Design Model In this media activity. Acting as the front door to a network. Cisco offers several router product lines.

Each product line has a particular set of features for one of the three layers: The router is the primary device that maintains logical and physical hierarchy in a network. For this reason. Unless the company is in the business of providing Internet access to other companies.

This makes these routers scalable and reliable core solutions. They usually feature two or more hot-swappable power supplies. There are also two links between each router to provide redundancy. Access lists should be avoided in the core layer. Core routers achieve reliability through the use of redundant links. The Each Cisco router is directly connected to every other router. When possible. These are the Cisco enterprise core routers. Overview of Scalable Internetworks Core Layer Example The core layer is the center of the network and is designed to be fast and reliable.

Core routers achieve reliability through redundant power supplies. The most powerful Cisco routers serve the core. The series router is also a core router designed to meet the core routing needs of Internet service providers ISPs.

Core routing is done without access lists. Access lists add latency. In a hierarchical network. Access lists may exist in those two lower layers. Because of this.

Figure shows a simple core topology using router routers at three key sites in an enterprise. The large chassis of this series can accommodate dozens of interfaces on multiple modules for virtually any media type. This provides scalability. Switched Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet are the most common core technologies. The series is an enterprise-class stackable switch with Layer 3 capabilities built in.

It can serve as a core or distribution layer switch. Enterprise switches.

Campus networks. Some designers choose not to use symmetrical links in the core to reduce cost. The and switches are modular devices and can be equipped with route switch modules RSMs adding Layer 3 routing functionality to the switch chassis.

This is because they switch frames at Layer 2 much faster than routers can switch packets at Layer 3. With the high-end routers and WAN links involved. The core of a network does not have to exist in the WAN. The trade-off for saving money by using such technologies is performance. A LAN backbone also may be considered part of the core layer.

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In place of redundant lines. Dist-1A serves remote sites. In this example. Cisco offers robust. Figure shows that two routers have been added at Core A. These routers are modular. This includes the The other FastEthernet interface connects to the high-speed campus backbone of Site A. These routers have two FastEthernet interfaces.

Access Layer Example Routers at the access layer. Routers at remote sites Y and Z also give users access to the network. Cisco access routers feature a small. User-end stations connect through a workgroup switch or hub to one FastEthernet interface. These remote sites. For this application. Redundant links and backup devices may be employed to increase reliability. This section helps you recognize good network design when you see it. Dist-1A is a WAN hub for the organization. A well-constructed network is reliable.


Y and Z. As the network scales. Five Characteristics of a Scalable Network Although every large internetwork has unique features. Switches such as the In a highly reliable and available network. To do this. The high-end devices and telecommunication links that ensure this kind of performance come with a high price tag.

It is possible to increase data throughput without adding hardware or buying more WAN services. Network designers constantly have to balance the needs of users with the resources at hand. Accessible but secure—An accessible network allows for connections using dedicated.

Making the Network Reliable and Available A reliable and available network provides users with hour-a-day. Adaptable—An adaptable network can accommodate different protocols. Robust networks can adapt to failures quickly and effectively. Core links should always be redundant. To build robust networks.

The core must be designed to be the most reliable and available layer. Alternative Paths Redundant links maximize network reliability and availability. If a core router fails or a core link becomes unstable. To provide another dimension of reliability. Scalable Routing Protocols Routers in the core of a network should converge rapidly and maintain reachability to all networks and subnetworks within an autonomous system AS. Key Characteristics of Scalable Internetworks 17 When choosing between high performance and low cost at the core layer.

If a remote site exchanges mission-critical information with the rest of the internetwork. If a network uses a scalable routing protocol. Simple distance vector routing protocols such as RIP take too long to update and adapt to topology changes to be viable core solutions.

It is best to use a scalable routing protocol in the core layer. Other areas of a network also might need redundant telecommunication links. EIGRP actually maintains a database of all alternative paths if the primary route is lost. This map helps routers select an alternative path quickly if a primary path fails. A network that consists of multiple links and redundant routers contains several paths to a given destination. In these cases. The proportional distribution makes per-packet load balancing better than per-destination load balancing in these cases.

Per-packet load balancing requires more CPU time than per-destination load balancing. Using tunnels. This is called equal-cost load balancing. Tunneling gives an administrator a second. They can also be implemented over alternative paths with different metrics.

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This way. IPX can then traverse the core over IP links. IPX packets can be encapsulated inside IP packets. When routing IP. Packets bound for a different host on the same network may use an alternative route. These relatively low-bandwidth links remain idle until the primary link fails.

Load balancing can be implemented using alternative paths with the same cost or metric. This process is called load balancing. Overview of Scalable Internetworks Load Balancing Redundant links do not necessarily remain idle until a link fails. If fast switching is enabled. This is called unequal-cost load balancing.

Queuing is the process that the router uses to schedule packets for transmission during periods of congestion. By using the queuing feature. Routers that maintain a slow WAN connection often experience congestion. Making the Network Responsive End users notice network responsiveness as they use the network to perform routine tasks. Key Characteristics of Scalable Internetworks 19 Dial backup can be a cost-effective insurance policy.

Users expect network resources to respond quickly. The IOS supports four methods of queuing: Access Lists Access lists. Snapshot routing allows routers using distance vector protocols to exchange their complete tables during an initial connection.

The result is that the routing table is kept unchanged so that routes are not lost because a routing update was not received. Compression over WANs The IOS supports several compression techniques that can maximize bandwidth by reducing the number of bits in all or part of a frame.

Key Characteristics of Scalable Internetworks 21 Snapshot Routing Distance vector routing protocols typically update neighbor routers with their complete routing table at regular intervals. The router then uses this picture for routing table entries while the dialup link is down. The router takes a snapshot of the routing table. Compression is accomplished through mathematical formulas or compression algorithms.

If a remote site relies on a dialup technology. It is possible to adjust the RIP timers. These timed updates occur even when there have been no changes in the network topology since the last update. When the link is reestablished. This would cause the ISDN link to reestablish twice a minute to maintain the routing tables. RIP routers expect updates every 30 seconds by default.

Snapshot routing then waits until the next active period on the line before exchanging routing information again. The IOS also supports the following bandwidth optimization features: Other routing protocols.

Making the Network Adaptable An adaptable network handles the addition and coexistence of multiple routed and routing protocols. Nonroutable protocols. Routable protocols. RIP routes can be redistributed. Some routing protocols automatically summarize subnet routes based on the major network number. Route summarization is discussed in Chapter 2. EIGRP is an exceptionally adaptable protocol because it supports routing information for three routed protocols: An adaptable network must accommodate both routable and nonroutable protocols.

Overview of Scalable Internetworks Route Summarization The number of entries in a routing table can be reduced if the router uses one network address and mask to represent multiple networks or subnetworks.

This technique is called route aggregation or route summarization. Remote users and sites might have access to several types of WAN services.

If a company lets users telecommute through a dialup modem or via the Internet. With this variety of support. Packet-switched—Cisco routers support Frame Relay. Cisco routers support all major WAN connection types. An access strategy must be carefully planned so that resources. Dialup links can be used for backup or remote sites that need occasional WAN access. Packet-switched networks. Key Characteristics of Scalable Internetworks 23 Making the Network Accessible but Secure Accessible networks let users connect easily over a variety of technologies.

As shown in Figure Routers can also be secured with an authentication protocol. Getting Started and Building start. Lab 1. These protocols require the user to provide a valid name and password before the router permits access to other network resources.

Access Control List Basics and Extended Ping This lab activity reviews the basics of standard and extended access lists. The routers can be secured with access lists.

Overview of Scalable Internetworks access. It also explained the three-layer design model. Recall that scalable networks also have the following characteristics: Second Edition Lab 1. Check Your Understanding Complete all of the review questions to test your understanding of the topics and concepts in this chapter. Distribution layer C.

Avoiding access lists because of latency. The answers appear in Appendix B. What is a recommended practice for the core layer? The core and access layers are two of the three layers in the hierarchical design model. Internetwork layer B. Workgroup layer D. Backbone layer 2. Helps differentiate the core from the rest of the network.

Direct access by end users D. What is the third layer? Avoiding redundant links C. It provides direct connections to the Internet C. Fault tolerance D. Incremental updates D.

Tunnels C. Securable C. It provides workgroup access to corporate resources D. Distance vector C. What is the primary purpose of dial backup? Dialer access list B. Snapshot routing 5. Queuing D. Load balancing C. What method should be used to prevent regular routing updates from constantly acti- vating a dialup WAN link?

What feature characterizes a network that is reliable and available? Protocol integration 6. Route summarization. It performs high-speed LAN switching 4. DDR B. It connects the campus backbone network devices B. Load balancing B. What is an important function of the access layer?

Tunneling B. Check Your Understanding 27 3. Best-route determination by broadcast. No network-layer addressing C. Access lists B. Snapshot routing D. Appropriate for WAN links D. Compression E. Dynamic data aggregation 9. Reachability limitations D. What is a characteristic of nonroutable protocols? What is a characteristic of a scalable routing protocol? Fast convergence B. Slow convergence C. Protocol tunnels C. Overview of Scalable Internetworks 8. No frame header B.

As new nodes and networks are added to the enterprise. Excessively large routing tables might slow down older routers. Network designers can choose from among many different network protocols and addressing schemes.

You can avoid these unpleasant consequences with careful planning and deployment of a scalable network addressing system. This section also reviews the structure of IPv4 addresses.

It is possible that the needs of a small networked community. At the time. Routers use the network portion of the address to make routing decisions and to facilitate communication between hosts that belong to different networks. Each bit address is divided into four groups of eight. IPv4 Addressing 33 Unlike routers. Although the class system can still be applied to IP addresses. They actually consist of 32 different numbers. Each octet is converted to decimal and then separated by decimal points.

This is illustrated as follows: Which numbers are the host numbers? Finding the answers to these questions is complicated by the fact that IP addresses are not really four numbers. The next few sections cover all of the following topics related to IP addressing: Class E addresses are reserved for experimentation and are not shown in Figure The low value is 24 0s.

The network and host portions of the respective Class A. Class D addresses are used for multicasting. The highest number that can be represented is The address that contains all 0s in the host portion is used as the. These two numbers. Class A addresses were intended to accommodate very large networks. This leaves three octets. Advanced IP Addressing Management Each of the four octets of an IP address represents either the network portion or the host portion of the address.

Two of those possibilities. A network number is an ID number that is used to refer to the entire range of hosts when building routing tables. With 24 bits total. Why are two host addresses reserved for special purposes? Every network requires a network number. With almost 17 million host addresses available. All Class A networks are subnetted. It is created when the host portion of the address has all 1s.

Each of the Class A addresses has almost 17 million possible host addresses that make up about half of the entire IPv4 address space. Although it is easy to imagine an enormous global network with that many nodes. Under this system. Class B addresses were intended to accommodate medium-size networks.

How many Class A addresses are there? With 16 bits total. IPv4 Addressing 35 network number and cannot be used to address an individual node.

Administrators require much smaller logical groupings to control broadcasts. The second octet has possibilities. Recall that the network address Recall that two of those numbers. If they were not.

Class C addresses account for The last octet may be used for hosts. This essentially leaves only Class C addresses available for new growth. Class C networks can impose an overly restrictive limit on hosts. Table summarizes the ranges and availability of the three address classes used to address Internet hosts. Whereas Class A and Class B networks prove impossibly large without subnetting. With 2. Class C addresses were originally intended to support small networks.

One host octet yields 28 possibilities. Because Class A and B addresses are nearly exhausted. Class D addresses are not used. Classes of IP Addresses: After the all-0s network number and the all-1s broadcast address are subtracted. Logical ANDing is applied to the address and mask. Every device on a logical network must process a broadcast. A multicast is different from a broadcast. Each bit in the mask corresponds to its counterpart bit in the IP address. Subnet Masking Subnet masking.

These subnets can then be distributed throughout an enterprise. If a bit in the IP address corresponds to a 1 bit in the subnet mask. The number of bits available to the network. Formalized with RFC in A single message sent to several select recipients is called a multicast. Class E addresses are reserved for experimental purposes and should not be used to address hosts or multicast groups.

The octet designates the address as a Class D address. If a bit in the IP address corresponds to a 0 bit in the subnet mask. IPv4 Addressing 37 to address individual hosts. Class D addresses are also called multicast addresses. Members of this group still have unique IP addresses from the Class A. This results in less IP address waste and better logical organization. The colored portion of the address shown in Figure indicates the network number.

In this case. The network and host portions change when the subnet mask changes. Inside this network. The gray portion of the address shown in Figure indicates this. The mask can be used to tell hosts that although their addresses are Class B. If a bit mask. This allows routers to recognize addresses differently than the format dictated by class.

To create subnets with this Class B address. If a bit mask such as Just as hosts must have identical network addresses. The network number for the host in this example is The subnet mask applied to an address ultimately determines the network and host portions of an IP address. By dividing a Class B network into smaller logical groups.

Two host addresses are reserved as the network number and broadcast address. It also discusses some of the various methods and solutions that can be used to help get the most out of the depleted IPv4 address pool.

Notice that subnet masks are not sent as part of an IP packet header. Class C network addresses are far more numerous than Class A and B addresses. IP hosts. An outside router. In effect. Interactive Media Activity Fill in the Blank: Subnet Tool After completing this activity. After years of planning and development. IPv6 promises to be ready for wide-scale implementation. One reason that IPv6 has not been rushed into service is that the short-term extensions to IPv4 have been so effective. IPv6 continues.

By eliminating the rules of class. That new protocol. Class C addresses are limited to hosts. With CIDR. Even if there were more Class A. IPv4 now enjoys renewed viability. As early as As more Class C addresses came online.

CCNP 1 Advanced Routing Companion Guide.pdf

It does this by using a bit mask instead of an address class to determine the network portion of an address. It was deployed in Without CIDR and route aggregation. The shaded entries in Table identify the 16 bits that.

Classful routers are forced to handle Class B networks using these 16 bits. This shrinks the size of the routing tables used by the router. Supernetting and route aggregation are essentially the inverse of subnetting. Supernetting and route aggregation are different names for the same process.

Only these eight networks share these bits: Supernetting takes bits from the network portion of the network mask.

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With this system. With the ISP acting as the addressing authority for a. Providers assume the burden of managing address space in a classless system. This method drastically reduces the size of Internet routing tables. In the following example. Internet routers would still need to maintain two routing table entries for the XYZ network. Using CIDR. If a company can acquire a block of contiguous Class C network addresses.

If the company got the Class B address and then used it to address one logical group of hosts. XYZ receives two contiguous Class C addresses. Under a classless addressing system. Internet routers keep only one summary route. Under the classful addressing system. The drawback of this approach is that XYZ would have to route between its own logical networks. If you examine the shaded portions of Table Implementing VLSM is often called subnetting a subnet.

Over the past 20 years. This section focuses on VLSM. When VLSM is applied to an addressing problem. There are ways to avoid this kind of waste. If the three remaining subnets were assigned to the WAN links. This addressing scheme would also waste more than a third of the available address space. Large subnets are created for addressing LANs.

Figure shows what happens if one of the three remaining subnets is subnetted again. A bit mask is used to create subnets with two valid host addresses. This is the exact number needed for a point-to-point connection. Advanced IP Addressing Management into groups or subnets of various sizes. Without subnet information in the routing updates. Classless and Classful Routing Protocols For routers in a variably subnetted network to properly update each other. Table lists common classful and classless routing protocols.

Upon receiving an update packet. Lab 2. RIPv1 broadcasts its updates. RIPv1 does not support authentication. Without subnet information. RIPv2 provides for authentication in its updates. A new version has already been designed to support future IPv6 networks. RIP is a very popular routing protocol and is supported by virtually all IP routers. To take advantage of the RIPv2 features.

RIPv2 multicasts routing updates using the Class D address RIPv2 has the following features: In Figure For summarization to work properly. Internet backbone routing would likely have collapsed sometime before Without route summarization. Figure shows how route summarization reduces the burden on upstream routers.

Figure Route Summarization RTZ would update the next router upstream. In turn. Every time these routers are updated with new information. RTC removes that route from its table. The routers update each other and recalculate. And then back up? If the RTC interface connected to the Figure Routes Summarized to It is possible. This can be caused by a number of factors. The loss of one network does not invalidate the route to the supernet. Consider RTC in Figure Although this solution is better than wasting an entire host subnet on each two-host WAN link.

Because many private networks exist alongside public networks. Internet hosts require globally unique IP addresses. Internet routers immediately discard private addresses. Earlier in this chapter. RFC sets aside three blocks of IP addresses for private or internal use: Recall that with VLSM. RFC addresses have found a home in production networks as well. In those cases. A less-wasteful solution is to address the WAN links using private network numbers.

Advanced IP Addressing Management been used for future growth. Discontiguous Subnets Mixing private addresses with globally unique addresses can create discontiguous subnets. End users at these sites should have no problem. The following sections discuss implementing a private address scheme. There is one trade-off when using private numbers on WAN links. Upstream providers do not care if the packet traveled through links with private addresses at some point.

In fact. Upstream providers and Internet routers see only the source and destination IP addresses in the packet. Discontiguous subnets are subnets from the same major network that are separated by a completely different major network or subnet. The WAN links shown in Figure are addressed using subnets from the private address space.

In practice. This is done to avoid leaking any RFC addresses between autonomous systems. Classful routing protocols—notably. A NAT-enabled device. Site A receives updates about network Because Site A has an interface directly connected to that network—in this case. If both the LAN and the provider use addresses from the This is because the subnet mask is not included in the update.

They are discontiguous because the When a host inside the stub domain wants to transmit to a host on the outside. An example is an internetwork that has a single connection to the outside world. Figure Discontiguous Subnets IP Unnumbered This chapter has presented several ways to maximize the use of IP addresses in an organization. Receives it. Figure NAT Router Port Address Translation and Port In this lab. With PAT. Replaces the destination address with the original inside source.

In previous sections. Advanced IP Addressing Management and. This is sometimes called a many-to-one NAT. Neither technique can be supported by classful routing protocols.

Checks the current table of network address translations. When an outside host sends a response. This is because it borrows the IP address of another interface. This is possible because the serial link is a point-to-point link. IP unnumbered might be the only solution to maximize the addresses. Figures and illustrate this process.

Because desktop clients typically make up the bulk of network nodes. IP security options cannot be supported on an unnumbered interface. When the lease is up. A network IOS image cannot boot over an unnumbered serial interface.

DHCP is good news for systems administrators. Even so. DHCP servers can also provide other information: After all. When the server receives the broadcast. If more than one server makes an offer. DNS server address. It is the predecessor of DHCP. Both protocols use UDP ports 67 and Why does the client broadcast the request instead of unicasting it to the server?

If it can service the request. If it cannot. The ip dhcp excluded-address command may be used to reserve addresses that are statically assigned to key hosts.

Just in case. In this mode.

The more pings. If for some reason the DHCP server process becomes disabled. The no service dhcp command disables the server.Also visit the online treatment locators. Chapter 9. This chapter examines the key IOS route optimization features, including routing update control, policy-based routing, and route redistribution.

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