PLANT STRESS PHYSIOLOGY EBOOK
Plant stress physiology. [Sergey Shabala;] -- This 2nd edition provides a timely update on the recent progress in our knowledge of all aspects of plant perception . This new edition of Plant Stress Physiology is an essential resource for researchers and students of ecology, plant biology, agriculture. Rent and save from the world's largest eBookstore. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, 2 Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress in Plants. Physiological Constraints and Adaptive Mechanisms.
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Plant Stress Physiology. Front Cover. Sergey Shabala. CABI, - Science - pages. 0 Reviews. The fact that most of the suitable land has already been. The Book Would Be Extremely Useful For ppti.info Students Of Plant Science And Environmental Physiology. Biochemists, Microbiologists And Agricultural. PDF | 'Stress' in plants can be defined as any external factor that negatively influences plant growth, productivity, reproductive capacity or survival. This includes.
Bacteria in Agrobiology: Stress Management. Edited by Dinesh K. Maheshwari; Springer. Kanellis, C.
Chang, H. Klee and A. Bleecker, Springer.
Crop Stress and its Management: Perspectives and Strategies. Edited by Venkateswarlu, B. Slafer; CABI. Allen; Koros Press. Minnesota Press. Tiburcio and Renu Tuteja; Wiley. Shashidhar, A. Henry, B. Furthermore, the acclimation process in stress-resistant species is usually reversible upon removal of the external stress Figure 3. The establishment of homeostasis associated with the new acclimated state is not the result of a single physiological process but rather the result of many physiological processes that the plant integrates over time, that is, integrates over the acclimation period.
Plants usually integrate these physiological processes over a short-term as well as a long-term basis. The short-term processes involved in acclimation can be initiated within seconds or minutes upon exposure to a stress but may be transient in nature. That means that although these processes can be detected very soon after the onset of a stress, their activities also disappear rather rapidly.
As a consequence, the lifetime of these processes is rather short.
In contrast, long-term processes are less transient and thus usually exhibit a longer lifetime. However, the lifetimes of these processes overlap in time such that the short-term processes usually constitute the initial responses to a stress while the long-term processes are usually detected later in the acclimation process. Such a hierarchy of short- and long-term responses indicates that the attainment of the acclimated state can be considered a complex, time-nested response to a stress.
Acclimation usually involves the differential expression of specific sets of genes associated with exposure to a particular stress. The remarkable capacity to regulate gene expression in response to environmental change in a time-nested manner is the basis of plant plasticity. Adaptation to the environment is characterized by genetic changes in the entire population that have been fixed by natural selection over many generations.
In contrast, individual plants can also respond to changes in the environment, by directly altering their physiology or morphology to allow them to better survive the new environment. These responses require no new genetic modifications, and if the response of an individual improves with repeated exposure to the new environmental condition then the response is one of acclimation.
Such responses are often referred to as phenotypic plasticity, and represent nonpermanent changes in the physiology or morphology of the individual that can be reversed if the prevailing environmental conditions change. Individual plants may also show phenotypic plasticity that allows them to respond to environmental fluctuations In addition to genetic changes in entire populations, individual plants may also show phenotypic plasticity; they may respond to fluctuations in the environment by directly altering their morphology and physiology.
The changes associated with phenotypic plasticity require no new genetic modifications, and many are reversible. Both genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity can contribute to the plant's overall tolerance of extremes in their abiotic environment.
As a consequence, a plant's physiology and morphology are not static but are very dynamic and responsive to their environment.
The ability of biennial plants and winter cultivars of cereal grains to survive over winter is an example of acclimation to low temperature. The process of acclimation to a stress is known as hardening and plants that have the capacity to acclimate are commonly referred to as hardy species. In contrast, those plants that exhibit a minimal capacity to acclimate to a specific stress are referred to as nonhardy species.
Imbalances of abiotic factors have primary and secondary effects on plants Plants may experience physiological stress when an abiotic factor is deficient or in excess referred to as an imbalance. The deficiency or excess may be chronic or intermittent.
Abiotic conditions to which native plants are adapted may cause physiological stress to non-native plants. Most agricultural crops, for example, are cultivated in regions to which they are not highly adapted. Imbalances of abiotic factors in the environment cause primary and secondary effects in plants. Primary effects such as reduced water potential and cellular dehydration directly alter the physical and biochemical properties of cells, which then lead to secondary effects.
These secondary effects, such as reduced metabolic activity, ion cytotoxicity, and the production of reactive oxygen species, initiate and accelerate the disruption of cellular integrity, and may lead ultimately to cell death. Different abiotic factors may cause similar primary physiological effects because they affect the same cellular processes. Secondary physiological effects caused by different abiotic imbalances may overlap substantially. It is evident that imbalances in many abiotic factors reduce cell proliferation, photosynthesis, membrane integrity, and protein stability, and induce production of reactive oxygen species ROS , oxidative damage, and cell death.
The light-dependent inhibition of photosynthesis As photoautotrophs, plants are dependent upon — and exquisitely adapted to — visible light for the maintenance of a positive carbon balance through photosynthesis. Higher energy wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, especially in the ultraviolet range, can inhibit cellular processes by damaging membranes, proteins, and nucleic acids.
However, even in the visible range, irradiances far above the light saturation point of photosynthesis cause high light stress, which can disrupt chloroplast structure and reduce photosynthetic rates, a process known as photoinhibition. Photoinhibition by high light leads to the production of destructive forms of oxygen Excess light excitation arriving at the PSII reaction center can lead to its inactivation by the direct damage of the D1 protein.
The oxidative stress generated by excessive ROS destroys cellular and metabolic functions and leads to cell death. Outside of this range, varying amounts of damage occur, depending on the magnitude and duration of the temperature fluctuation. In this section we will discuss three types of temperature stress: high temperatures, low temperatures above freezing, and temperatures below freezing.
However, nongrowing cells or dehydrated tissues e. However, high leaf temperatures combined with minimal evaporative cooling causes heat stress. Increases in leaf temperature during the day can be more pronounced in plants experiencing drought and high irradiance from direct sunlight. Temperature stress can result in damaged membranes and enzymes Plant membranes consist of a lipid bilayer interspersed with proteins and sterols, and any abiotic factor that alters membrane properties can disrupt cellular processes.
High temperatures cause an increase in the fluidity of membrane lipids and a decrease in the strength of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between polar groups of proteins within the aqueous phase of the membrane. High temperatures thus modify membrane composition and structure, and can cause leakage of ions. High tempeatures can also lead to a loss of the three-dimensional structure required for correct function of enzymes or structural cellular components, thereby leading to loss of proper enzyme structure and activity.
Misfolded proteins often aggregate and precipitate, creating serious problems within the cell. Temperature stress can inhibit photosynthesis Photosynthesis and respiration are both inhibited by temperature stress. Typically, photosynthetic rates are inhibited by high temperatures to a greater extent than respiratory rates. Although chloroplast enzymes such as rubisco, rubisco activase, NADP-G3P dehydrogenase, and PEP carboxylase become unstable at high temperatures, the temperatures at which these enzymes began to denature and lose activity are distinctly higher than the temperatures at which photosynthetic rates begin to decline.
This would indicate that the early stages of heat injury to photosynthesis are more directly related to changes in membrane properties and to uncoupling of the energy transfer mechanisms in chloroplasts.
This imbalance between photosynthesis and respiration is one of the main reasons for the deleterious effects of high temperatures. On an individual plant, leaves growing in the shade have a lower temperature compensation point than leaves that are exposed to the sun and heat. Reduced photosynthate production may also result from stress-induced stomatal closure, reduction in leaf canopy area, and regulation of assimilate partitioning.
Freezing temperatures cause ice crystal formation and dehydration Freezing temperatures result in intra- and extracellular ice crystal formation. Intracellular ice formation physically shears membranes and organelles. Extracellular ice crystals, which usually form before the cell contents freeze, may not cause immediate physical damage to cells, but they do cause cellular dehydration. Consequently, water moves from the symplast to the apoplast, resulting in cellular dehydration.
Cells that are already dehydrated, such as those in seeds and pollen, are relatively less affected by ice crystal formation. Ice usually forms first within the intercellular spaces and in the xylem vessels, along which the ice can quickly propagate. Please enter recipient e-mail address es.
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Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Plant stress physiology Author: Sergey Shabala Publisher: Boston, MA: CABI, This 2nd edition provides a timely update on the recent progress in our knowledge of all aspects of plant perception, signalling and adaptation to a variety of environmental stresses.
It covers in detail areas such as drought, salinity, flooding, oxidative stress, pathogens, and extremes of temperature and soil pH.
Plant Physiology Books
It includes new full-colour figures to help illustrate the principles outlined in the text and is written in a clear and accessible format, with descriptive abstracts for each chapter. Written by an international team of experts, this book provides researchers with a better understanding of the major physiological and molecular mechanisms facilitating plant tolerance to adverse environmental factors. This new edition is an essential resource for researchers and students of ecology, plant biology, agriculture, agronomy and plant breeding.
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Plant Stress Physiology
Ice usually forms first within the intercellular spaces and in the xylem vessels, along which the ice can quickly propagate. Volume 1. Preview this item Preview this item. Although guard cells can lose turgor as a result of a direct loss of water by evaporation to the atmosphere, stomatal closure in response to dehydration is almost always an active, energy-dependent process rather than a passive one.
The stress-induced modulation of homeostasis can be considered as the signal for the plant to initiate processes required for the establishment of a new homeostasis associated with the acclimated state. In contrast, those plants that exhibit a minimal capacity to acclimate to a specific stress are referred to as nonhardy species.
Thus, injury to root metabolism by O2 deficiency originates in part from a lack of ATP to drive essential metabolic processes such as root absorption of essential nutrients.
Plants usually integrate these physiological processes over a short-term as well as a long-term basis.