PHP 5 SOCIAL NETWORKING PDF
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Who the hell am I? • PHP/MySQL Developer since / . DB, Mail etc. 4. Be smart, launch softly. 5. Be even smarter, don't launch on a Friday evening. PHP 5 Power Programming. Andi Gutmans, Stig Sæther Bakken, and Derick Rethans. Gutmans_Frontmatter Page iii Thursday, September Chapter A brief description about the future of social networks. 5 .. PHP. Hypertext Preprocessor is a server side programming language that is de-  M. E. J. Newman, Juyong Park (PDF), Why social networks are different from other.
Jackson, et al. Mitchell, et al. References Y.
Amichai—Hamburger, G. Wainapel, and S. Fox, Archer, Wegener and R. Vallacher editors. The self in social psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. Bandura, Self—efficacy: The exercise of self—control. New York: W. Barbeite and E. Weiss, Barnes, Ellison, Jenkins, Choo, B.
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Madden, A. Rankin Macgill, and A. Smith, Leung, Li editor , Internet newspapers: The making of a mainstream medium. Mahwah, N. Li and J. Bernoff, Groundswell: Winning in a world transformed by social technologies.
Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Lin, Magnuson and L. Dundes, McKenna, A.
Green, and M. Gleason, Metz, Mitchell, D. Finkelhor, and J. Norris, Digital divide: Civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press. NPD Group, Paul, J. Shim, and Z. Wang, Postman, Technopoly: The surrender of culture to technology. However, once private information is posted on the Internet, it becomes available for others to read. We have no control over who can read our seemingly private words.
Privacy Privacy can be viewed from many different perspectives, including political policies, the rights of citizens, and protection for consumers. Students sharing drinking and fraternity pledging photos with their friends on social networking sites probably do not expect university administrators to use these images as evidence to reprimand student behavior [ 32 ].
A social exchange between friends has now become a way for universities to monitor student behavior. The question becomes, how is information posted on social networking sites being used by others?
Information security also means that people are free to determine what information about themselves they want to share with others. Young people do not seem to be aware of the uses of their personal information. Laws regulate citizen and consumer rights. In commerce, much of the erosion of individual privacy occurs with the consent of the individual.
For example, credit applications collect personal information and requests for catalogs can be used to compile direct mailing lists [ 34 ]. Many societies provide spaces for individual autonomy, a space that respects privacy. Some students may be aware that Facebook is not a private space, but many act as if it is private. When asked in an open-ended question about the meaning of privacy, the responses varied from flip comments to serious answers see appendix.
So anything you post beyond that is your choice. Disclosure of private information on social networking sites can have a negative impact on students. Moreover, teenagers sometimes fabricate information to post on these sites.
One can only imagine. As teens flock to the Internet to share their intimate thoughts, social networking sites raise a number of privacy issues that need to be addressed.
Privacy issues Etzioni argues the first step in examining a privacy issue is to determine whether or not there is a problem. Do we have a problem with the sharing of private information on social networking sites?
According to the popular press and recent reports, there are a number of social concerns associated with social networking sites including the following: teenagers revealing too much information about themselves online Bahrampour and Aratani, ; Downes, ; Komblum, ; Sullivan, ; Viser, ; children being exposed to pedophiles Huffaker and Calvert, ; Lenhart, ; teenagers being raped by people they meet on social networking sites Antone, ; Associated Press, a; Reuters, b ; companies using the sites to collect marketing information Hempel and Lehman, ; Verini, ; and, children under the age of 14 using social networks Antone, ; Reuters, b.
Approximately four million teenagers or 19 percent say that they create their own weblogs personal online journals and 22 percent report that they maintain a personal Web page Lenhart and Madden, In blogs and on personal Web sites, teenagers are providing so much personal information about themselves that it has become a concern.
Today, content creation is not only sharing music and videos, it involves personal diaries, Commercial social networking sites have been designed to enable users to create their own online content. Lenhart and Madden report that 57 percent of online teens are creating Internet content. Additionally, more teenagers write and read weblogs, than adults.
Often teenage weblogs contain personal information. Today, the commoditization of information has made it necessary to consider the invasion of privacy by corporations. Schools can also access and use the information posted on social networking sites. In May , a number of hazing photos appeared on a site called badjocks.
As a result, schools have started investigations into student athlete behavior. Parents, schools, social networking companies and government officials consider the outpouring of personal information in public social networking sites to be a problem.
As a result, a number of social, technological and legal solutions are currently being explored. Additionally, they are requiring all members under the age of 18 to review safety tips before they can register for the site.
The company also restricts the profiles of users under the age of These efforts are only a few of a number of potential solutions to the social networking privacy problem. Parents, schools, and social networking sites are working on various social solutions to the privacy problem.
Experts Sullivan, agree that the first step in building protections for teenage bloggers starts with parents. A representative from Wired Safety. Some schools have banned blogs and asked students to take their information off the network Kornblum, Additionally, schools are warning students that college admissions officers and future employers are checking social networking sites to read what applicants have written online [ 46 ].
Colleges and universities have taken action as a result of hazing photographs of athletes appearing on the Internet. Teams have been suspended and student athletes are requested to take their images off of the Internet. Additionally, students are being warned that they will be reprimanded for pictures posted on the Internet that reveal misbehavior Wolverton, Currently, commercial social networking companies are reacting to the problem of teens online. MySpace is posting safety ads.
Protection of teens is a parental responsibility. But the education of teens and their parents to the growing privacy problem will require an educational effort that involves schools, social networking organizations, and government agencies.
In addition to social awareness, social networking sites are exploring technological solutions to better protect their users.
Facebook recently overhauled its privacy setting to give members tighter controls over who sees what. But, they admitted that it was difficult to verify the age of all their users Reuters, a. The law is so broadly defined that it would limit access to any commercial site that allows users to create a profile and communicate with strangers. Will the solutions resolve the paradox?
Commercial social networking sites have been set up to support the flow of information created by individuals. The purpose of these sites is to advertise and promote brand recognition in consumers, especially teenagers. This is a new type of subtle promotion and standards are needed to protect the interests of consumers.
At one level, privacy issues on commercial social networking sites are an industry issue. How is the information collected in social databases being used by others? People are not always aware of how information is being stored on databases.
As consumers, individuals need to clearly know how their personal information is being stored and used by others. From under age drinking to misbehavior, college officials can use social networking sites as a method for locating students involved in inappropriate behavior.
Marino emphasized the idea of individual responsibility when using social networking sites.
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Developing responsible citizens occurs at the family level. Parents also need to be educated about how to teach their children to be responsible Internet citizens. The social solutions to the privacy paradox begin at home. Finally, from the legal level, government officials are proposing legislation to protect minors against the misuse of their personal information by predators.
Although, predatory behavior is a major social concern and one not to be easily dismissed, the root of the privacy paradox is the collection and control of personal information. Steps to be taken To resolve this paradox, steps need to be taken at all levels of society, beginning with the education of parents and teenagers about the use and potential misuse of personal information. Moreover, social networking companies and advertisers need to establish policies about the proper use of personal information posted on these sites.
What do we gain and what do we lose when personal information is collected on the Internet? Conclusion Currently social responses to privacy in social networks do not tend to deal with the potential misuse of personal information. Instead the response is based on the protection of children against predators, which is only one aspect of the privacy paradox.
Similarly, a legal response has been the proposal of a bill to protect underage children. The solution to the paradox is not simple. It will take all levels of society to tackle the social issues related to teens and privacy.
Awareness is key to solving the solution. We as individuals need to be more proactive about educating each other and protecting our privacy on the Internet. About the author Susan B. She is the author of Online connections: Internet interpersonal relationships Creskill, N. Beniger, , p. Hamelink, , p. Tepper, , p.
Jenkins and Boyd, , par. See Hempel and Lehman, Antone, ; Reuters, b. Howe, , p. Karnow, , p. Verini, , p. See Bugeja, Jenkins and Boyd, , para. Hoang, , p. Galkin, , para. Gandy, , p. Electronic Frontier Foundation, , par. Katz and Rice, , p. Lenhart, , p. See Hempel and Lehman, , para. Hempel and Lehman, , para. Duffy, , para. Kornblum, , para.
See Kornblum, ; Antone, An attitudinal survey about privacy and the use of Facebook was conducted in two classes at the Rochester Institute of Technology for the purposes of discussing privacy issues on the Internet in the classroom. Sullivan, , para. Schement and Curtis, , p.
Garfinkel, , p. See Hamelink, Bahrampour and Aratani, , para.
Reuters, b, para. Associated Press, a, para. Huffaker and Calvert, , para. Cited in Sullivan, , para. Downes, , para. See Bahrampour and Aratani, Reuters, a, para. See Confessore, Mitrano, , para. References Rod Antone, Associated Press.
Associated Press, b. Eric Auchard, Tara Bahrampour and Lori Aratani, James R.
The Journal of Social Media in Society
Beniger, Barrett, Curtis E. Issues in Information Systems, 13 1 , pp.
Shipping cost cannot be calculated. Bid layer is updating the contents. Information processing systems were central to this change, and computers with microprocessors accelerated it. Electronic Frontier Foundation, , par. Smith,
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