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PERSONALITY THEORIES ENGLER 8TH EDITION PDF

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Pigors - New York: G. Stechert Company, The Enneagram of Personality , a model of human personality which is principally used as a typology of nine interconnected personality types.

It has been criticized as being subject to interpretation, making it difficult to test or validate scientifically. Perhaps the most ancient attempt at personality psychology is the personality typology outlined by the Indian Buddhist Abhidharma schools.

This typology mostly focuses on negative personal traits greed, hatred, and delusion and the corresponding positive meditation practices used to counter those traits. Psychoanalytic theories[ edit ] Psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior in terms of the interaction of various components of personality.

Sigmund Freud was the founder of this school of thought. Freud drew on the physics of his day thermodynamics to coin the term psychodynamics. Based on the idea of converting heat into mechanical energy, he proposed psychic energy could be converted into behavior.

Personality Theories Engler 8th Edition Downloadgolkes.pdf download

Freud's theory places central importance on dynamic, unconscious psychological conflicts. The id acts according to the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification of its needs regardless of external environment; the ego then must emerge in order to realistically meet the wishes and demands of the id in accordance with the outside world, adhering to the reality principle.

Finally, the superego conscience inculcates moral judgment and societal rules upon the ego, thus forcing the demands of the id to be met not only realistically but morally. According to Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of these three components.

Freud proposed five psychosexual stages of personality development. He believed adult personality is dependent upon early childhood experiences and largely determined by age five. One of Sigmund Freud's earlier associates, Alfred Adler , did agree with Freud that early childhood experiences are important to development and believed birth order may influence personality development. Adler believed that the oldest child was the individual who would set high achievement goals in order to gain attention lost when the younger siblings were born.

He believed the middle children were competitive and ambitious. He reasoned that this behavior was motivated by the idea of surpassing the firstborn's achievements. He added, however, that the middle children were often not as concerned about the glory attributed with their behavior. He also believed the youngest would be more dependent and sociable. Adler finished by surmising that an only child loves being the center of attention and matures quickly but in the end fails to become independent.

Heinz Kohut thought similarly to Freud's idea of transference. He used narcissism as a model of how people develop their sense of self. Narcissism is the exaggerated sense of one self in which one is believed to exist in order to protect one's low self-esteem and sense of worthlessness.

Kohut had a significant impact on the field by extending Freud's theory of narcissism and introducing what he called the 'self-object transferences' of mirroring and idealization. In other words, children need to idealize and emotionally "sink into" and identify with the idealized competence of admired figures such as parents or older siblings.

They also need to have their self-worth mirrored by these people. These experiences allow them to thereby learn the self-soothing and other skills that are necessary for the development of a healthy sense of self.

Another important figure in the world of personality theory is Karen Horney. She is credited with the development of the " real self " and the "ideal self". She believes all people have these two views of their own self. The "real self" is how humans act with regard to personality, values, and morals; but the "ideal self" is a construct individuals implement in order to conform to social and personal norms.

Behaviorist theories[ edit ] Behaviorists explain personality in terms of the effects external stimuli have on behavior. The approaches used to analyze the behavioral aspect of personality are known as behavioral theories or learning-conditioning theories.

These approaches were a radical shift away from Freudian philosophy.

One of the major tenets of this concentration of personality psychology is a strong emphasis on scientific thinking and experimentation. This school of thought was developed by B. Skinner who put forth a model which emphasized the mutual interaction of the person or "the organism" with its environment. Skinner believed children do bad things because the behavior obtains attention that serves as a reinforcer. For example: a child cries because the child's crying in the past has led to attention.

These are the response, and consequences. The response is the child crying, and the attention that child gets is the reinforcing consequence. According to this theory, people's behavior is formed by processes such as operant conditioning.

Skinner put forward a "three term contingency model" which helped promote analysis of behavior based on the "Stimulus - Response - Consequence Model" in which the critical question is: "Under which circumstances or antecedent 'stimuli' does the organism engage in a particular behavior or 'response', which in turn produces a particular 'consequence'?

An attitude develops as the response strength the tendency to respond in the presences of a group of stimuli become stable. Rather than describing conditionable traits in non-behavioral language, response strength in a given situation accounts for the environmental portion.

Herrstein also saw traits as having a large genetic or biological component, as do most modern behaviorists. He is well known for his classical conditioning experiments involving dogs, which led him to discover the foundation of behaviorism. Cognitive theories are theories of personality that emphasize cognitive processes, such as thinking and judging.

Albert Bandura , a social learning theorist suggested the forces of memory and emotions worked in conjunction with environmental influences. Bandura was known mostly for his " Bobo doll experiment ". During these experiments, Bandura video taped a college student kicking and verbally abusing a bobo doll.

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He then showed this video to a class of kindergarten children who were getting ready to go out to play. When they entered the play room, they saw bobo dolls, and some hammers.

The people observing these children at play saw a group of children beating the doll. He called this study and his findings observational learning, or modeling.

Early examples of approaches to cognitive style are listed by Baron Baron relates early development of cognitive approaches of personality to ego psychology. More central to this field have been: Attributional style theory [19] dealing with different ways in which people explain events in their lives. This approach builds upon locus of control, but extends it by stating we also need to consider whether people attribute to stable causes or variable causes, and to global causes or specific causes.

Various scales have been developed to assess both attributional style and locus of control. Locus of control scales include those used by Rotter and later by Duttweiler, the Nowicki and Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children and various locus of control scales specifically in the health domain, most famously that of Kenneth Wallston and his colleagues, The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale.

His work refers to "Cognitive Affective Units", and considers factors such as encoding of stimuli, affect, goal-setting, and self-regulatory beliefs. The term "Cognitive Affective Units" shows how his approach considers affect as well as cognition. Developed by Seymour Epstein, CEST argues that humans operate by way of two independent information processing systems: experiential system and rational system. The experiential system is fast and emotion-driven. The rational system is slow and logic-driven.

SI people learn how to play various social roles being guided by norms, rules and listening. SI individuals are concerned about the impression they make on others. They learn to play different social roles which allow them to feel comfortable with all types of people. SI person understands the emotions of others and being careful not to hurt their feelings. SI is not reduced by age because people grow up with it, when the growth is normal.

The adults will always associate with their peers and family friends. They do this tactfully without committing errors and they get along with their associates. This type of relationship could later help them a lot when they are faced with challenge of bereavement in their old age.

Angner, Ray, Saag and Allison found that despite the fact that the body and mind are slowing, most older adults nevertheless maintain an active life style, they remain happy or happier than when they were younger, and increasingly value their social connection with family and friends. Researchers are beginning to better understand the factors that allow some people to age better than others.

Salovey et al also proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: perception of emotion watch for the body and facial expressions ; the ability to reason using emotion Using emotion to promote thinking and cognitive ; the ability to understand emotion giving meanings to observed emotions ; and the ability to manage it responding to the emotions of others.

A basic aspect of this ability is identifying emotions accurately in physical states including bodily expressions and thoughts. At a more advanced level, this ability enables one to identify emotions in other people, works of art, and objects using cues such as sound, appearance, colour, language and behaviour.

Personality Theories Engler 8th Edition Downloadgolkes.pdf

The ability to discriminate between honest and false emotional expressions is seen as strong perceiving ability. The ability to express emotions and related needs are indication of more complex problem solving. The second branch is the use of emotion to facilitate thinking. This is the ability to gather emotions together to facilitate cognitive activities such as reasoning, problem solving, and interpersonal communication.

The major skill here is using emotions to organize thinking by focusing on important information about the object or person.

The skill focuses on the use of emotions to help judgement and memory processes, and generating moods to hasten the consideration of multiple perspectives. The third branch is the understanding and analyzing emotions which includes comprehension of the language and meaning of emotions and an understanding of the antecedents of emotions.

The skill needed in this area includes labelling emotions with accurate language as well as looking into the similarities and differences between emotion labels and emotions themselves.

The last and fourth branch is reflective regulation of emotions, which includes the ability to prevent, reduce, enhance, or modify an emotional response in oneself and others as well as the ability to experience a range of emotions while making decisions about the usefulness of an emotion in a given situation. There are normal people whose lives could be better following a traumatic experience such as the death of a loved one.

There are usual reports of people feeling happier, healthier and more hopeful after a major crisis. This positive change experienced by survivors is called post-traumatic growth. Studies Cavazofte, Moreno, Hickmann, estimate that about half to two-thirds of survivors of a catastrophic event report experiencing growth as a result of their trauma, that is, their major life crisis puts them on a path to a better, more fulfilling life.

Through emotional intelligence, five things could be gained from adversity: new appreciation of life could be gained; stronger mental health could be built; experience of better relationships; new possibilities could be recognized; and a spiritual change could be visible.

All these could be experienced in bereavement. Arshad, Abbas, Mahmood found that females were emotionally intelligent than males in marital adjustment. The loss of a loved one is typically followed by a mix of intense emotional reactions Bonanno, ; Bonanno, Goorin, Coifman, Also we at times run away from the reality that makes one feel it is not happening, but a mistake.

The guilt would later turn to forgiveness in the midst of adjustment There are myths and facts about grief that would not help an individual to adjust to normal life. People believe grief will go by ignoring it. The truth is that it will make it worse in the long run.

Crying does not mean one is weak either. People come in contact with what has changed in their lives when they grief.

Following loss, the grieving person has to relearn the world and themselves because everything has changed Kerr, ; Amy, Grief is not an illness. One does not get over profound grief because people are changed both by their love and the loss of their loved ones. It is not unusual for grief to be felt over an extended period of time even for many years. In order to adjust in bereavement, individual may sometimes prefer to keep thoughts and feelings to oneself.

One can also decide to share with other people to reduce the sense of isolation and loneliness that comes with grief.

Nevertheless, some personality traits could enhance adjustment during bereavement. It would bean added advantage for older adults to possess social and emotional intelligence which can help them to support both young and old to adjust to bereavement when it occurs.

This study is therefore looking into personality disposition, social and emotional intelligence as source of coping when there is bereavement. Statement of the problem It could be very painful to lose someone deeply cared about or loved. An individual may experience all kinds of difficult emotions, and it may feel like the pain and sadness will never vanish. However, there is neither right nor wrong way to grieve, there are healthy ways to cope with the pain and be renewed to move on in life.

Grief and loss have great effect on older adults. Although people experience losses at every age, the effect is felt and increases as one grows older. The source of the adjustment to bereavement could be the natural endowments ;inherent in individuals which could be stronger than external efforts. The affected adults need adjustment during this period in other to lead a fulfilled life. Their age ranged between 35 and The sample comprised both literates and non-literates, Christians and Muslims.

Instrumentation: Four different scales were adopted and adapted by the researcher for the study. Social Intelligence scale developed in PsyToolKit by Gisbert Stoet was used to measure their level of social intelligence. Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman was also used to measure their level of emotional intelligence. Adjustment scale by Graham Spanier was also adopted and used to measure their level of adjustment to life situations. Validity and Reliability of the instrument: In order to assess the extent to which the instruments have been able to achieve their aims, the process of content validity was used by cross examination and verification.

Researchers in the area of psychology also helped to review the items.

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According to Psychology Today, the Introversion and Extroversion scale has the cronbach alpha value 0. The adjustment scale by Grahan Spanier has the Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0. Reliability of Research Instrument: The test -re-test reliability co-efficient was used for the study. The instruments were pre-tested on 25 respondents that were not included in the scope of the study to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The instruments were scrutinized and necessary modification were made before the final administration.

The reliability coefficient of each of the instruments was determined by yielding the following values 0. Procedure for Data collection: The researcher made use of two research assistants for easy collation and interpretation to some individuals where necessary. Simple percentage was used to analyse the demographic characteristics of respondents while Pearson Product Moment Correlation PPMC was used to establish the relationship among the independent Personality disposition, Social and Emotional Intelligence and dependent Adjustment variables.

Research Hypotheses: Three research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. There were also significant correlations among the independent variables. This implies that there is relationship between personality disposition, social intelligence, emotional intelligence and adults adjustment to bereavement independently.

The analysis of variance performed on the multiple regressions yielded an F-ratio value of This indicates that adult with personality disposition, social and emotional intelligence, will be able to cope with bereavement.

The interaction can be more complex depending on some other factors such as environment, gender, status and so on. Social and emotional intelligence skills would play positive role, if possessed, it would affect the well-being of the adults in widowhood. However, there is thin line between who people are and what they can do, ability and natural man are interwoven.

It can be equally difficult to differentiate between personality and skills. There is converging evidence from other lines of research that emotional competences are associated with social adaptation which needs at least a good measure of emotional intelligence.

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Personality theories: Personality theories an introduction. Home About Help Search. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. Remember me on this computer. Cancel Forgot your password?See more ButtonClick to expand the details about Quick bid Here's how bidding works: He believed adult personality is dependent upon early childhood experiences and largely determined by age five.

Bereavement is a social problem to all ages, but it could be terrible with adults to make adequate adjustment. According to Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of these three components. Social intelligence could be seen as collaborator with some other variables such as emotional intelligence and personal traits to make an individual better in adjustment.

The accuracy and accessibility of the resulting translation is not guaranteed. Miserandino, M. The affected adults need adjustment during this period in other to lead a fulfilled life.

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