JIG FIXTURE DESIGN PDF
both functions (holding the work and guiding a tool) is called a jig. An example of a FOOL PROOF: The design of jigs and fixtures should be such that it would. This new book, "Jig and Fixture Design," contains that part of the volume on " Drilling Practice and Jig Design" which dealt with jigs and fixtures. This material was. (ii) Definition of jig. Jig can be defined as follows a) A fixture with an additional feature of tool guidance. b) A portable device that guides the cutting tool.
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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today Design Tool & Die Use in Industries JJJIG, FIXTURES AND TOOLING DESIGN. Prepared by. PDF | The paper gave a detailed definition of jigs and fixtures, and also identified 16 millimeters diameter was chosen for the design of a sample jig and fixture. part of the thesis is about the jig-fixture assembly designed for the milling operation on tail wing. This part of thesis precisely aims on verifying the design strength of the base plate of the assembly by estimating and applying _Shaw. pdf.”.
He has helped thousands Copyright Cengage Learning. Con-turing costs while maintaining quality and increased current engineering is a process that allows theproduction.
To accomplish this, the tool designer must design team to be involved in a comprehensive plansatisfy the following objectives: for product design and production. Concurrent engi- neering allows the tool design team member to be involved in product design and production where their knowledge of fixtures and manufacturing processes will result in fewer design errors.
Concur- rent engineering teams consist of product designers, process planning engineers, tool designers, quality control engineers, production management, and 1 Copyright Cengage Learning. Companies may vary job may include a solid model. The solid model allows thetitles and team compositions to suit their internal designer to view the three-dimensional part geometry.
The task of tool design begins with a more complete understanding of the part. A prototype, or a single Team members contribute based on their area of manufactured part used for evaluation purposes, can beexpertise.
The product, a method for manufacturing, made available. A prototype goes one more steptooling concepts, and a quality plan are developed that beyond the solid computer model.
The prototype, asuits the selected manufacturing facility.
In this way, single physical part provided prior to formal produc-problems are not discovered on the production floor, tion, is a valuable tool for understanding more com-but are corrected early in the concurrent process.
This plex part geometries. Prototypes are manufacturedultimately saves time and money while speeding up using conventional Computer Numerical Controlthe process of getting product to market earlier.
Con- CNC machine tools or some of the newer technolo-current engineering allows a company to have a dis- gies such as stereolithography or a layered object man-tinct economic advantage in a global market. Both the stereolithography and LOM develop the part The tool designer develops a plan for maintain- geometry using a system of layering the medium anding the concepts developed by the team with respect solidifying or cutting out that layer with a laser.
Theto economic guidelines. Expert computer systems result is a solid object made one layer at a time whereare now part of the design environment, and they the layers may be no more than. Whethersupport an integrated approach for tracking time and analyzing the prototype and the part drawing or justmoney allocated for the project and provide imme- the part drawing, the designer must consider the fol-diate information at any point in the concurrent lowing factors that directly influence the design choic-process.
This istime wisely spent and results in an efficient and cost- Production Planeffective tool design. The design process is not as lin-ear as it used to be.
Communication models between The production plan Figure 1—2 is an itemized list ofteam members include e-mail and electronic transfer the manufacturing operations and the sequence of theof materials and may make use of sophisticated tech- operations chosen by the process planning engineer.
Team members The production plan can take many forms, dependingmay consist of customers, designers, and builders in on the needs of each company. At the least, it shoulddifferent locations that may take them halfway include a brief description of each machining operationaround the world.
Part Drawings The tool designer also uses this plan to assist in the design. The production plan can include the following:The tool designer receives a duplicate of the part geom-etry that will be used to make the part Figure 1—1.
Using check each operation? Answering these questions and others related to the specific task, the tool designer develops alternative solu-Alternatives tions. From these alternative solutions, the most effi- cient, dependable, and cost-effective design is chosen.
One of the first steps in problem solving is determiningthe alternative solutions. Duringthis phase of the design, the tool designer must analyze The tool designer has many manufacturing responsi-all important information in order to answer the follow- bilities. In addition to technical design duties, the tooling questions: designer may be responsible for obtaining materials, toolroom supervision, and tool inspection.
UNIT I Pupose of Tool Design 5Design designer possesses, these skilled toolmakers can often see solutions that may not be obvious to theIn this phase, the tool designer is responsible for designer.
For this reason, it is always a good idea todeveloping the drawings and sketches of the tool build a good working relationship with your toolmak-design ideas. Design drawings are usually subject to ers. In tool design, a cooperative relationship betweenapproval by a chief designer. However, in smaller the designer and the toolmakers is essential.
Not onlycompanies, the tool designer often makes the tooling does working together make the task at hand easier,decisions. Often a tool designer is responsible for obtaining theSupervision for a single section, such as design or materials to make the tool.
JIG AND FIXTURE DESIGN
In either supply materials and parts that meet the design speci-case, the ability to lead others is helpful. When selecting a vendor, a good practice is to choose the company that offers the most service to One resource a tool designer may often use to its customers.
Services such as design assistance andhelp resolve design problems is the group of skilled problem solving, where their product is involved, arepeople in the toolroom. The toolroom is the area in a important factors to consider before making a finalshop where the machine tools and the skilled work- selection.
Another point to consider is whether theforce are found. These skilled trades employees are vendor can supply special parts or components whencapable of taking the prints for the individual compo- necessary.
Generally, the specialty vendors can fur-nents of a tool and manufacturing them, assembling nish special items for much less than those items costthe parts, and verifying their accuracy. A variety of to make in-house. Regardless of the level of skill aImage not available due to copyright restrictions Copyright Cengage Learning. First, the tool itself is inspectedfor compliance with the tool drawing. Second, several The following important concepts were presented intest parts are produced with the tool and are carefully this unit:checked to ensure that they conform to the specifica-tions shown on the part print.
List the seven objectives of tool design. Determine the source of the following data by indicating 1 for the part drawing, 2 for the pro- duction plan, and 3 for additional instructions.
Time allocation b. Overall size and shape of the part c. Required accuracy d. Sequence of operations e. Type and size of machines used f.
Money available Copyright Cengage Learning. Number of pieces 3. What does the term concurrent mean and how ish. Previous machining it applied to the design of tooling?
Locating surfacesj. Material specifications 4. Describe a toolroom. Type of cutters needed 5. List the skills of a tool designer.
Type of machining required Copyright Cengage Learning. Jigs are usually fitted with hard- ened steel bushings for guiding drills or other cuttingAfter completing this unit, the student should be tools Figure 2—1A.
If, however, holes above. Set blocks and feeler or thickness gauges are used with fixturesJigs and fixtures are production-workholding devices to reference the cutter to the workpiece Figure 2—1B. The A fixture should be securely fastened to the table ofcorrect relationship and alignment between the cutter, the machine upon which the work is done.
Thoughor other tool, and the workpiece must be maintained. Fixtures vary in design from relatively simple Jigs and fixtures are so closely related that the tools to expensive, complicated devices. Fixtures alsoterms are sometimes confused or used interchangeably.
It is a production Jigs may be divided into two general classes: boringtool made so that it not only locates and holds the jigs and drill jigs. Boring jigs are used to bore holesworkpiece but also guides the cutting tool as the oper- that either are too large to drill or must be made an odd size Figure 2—2. Drill jigs are used to drill, 8 Copyright Cengage Learning.
The more than one side. The names used to identify thesebasic jig is almost the same for either machining oper- jigs refer to how the tool is built. The only difference is in the size of the bushingsused. Template jigs are normally used for accuracy rather than speed.
Templates are the least expensive and simplest type of jig to use. TheyDrill jigs may be divided into two general types, open may or may not have bushings.
When bushings are notand closed. Open jigs are for simple operations where used, the whole jig plate is normally hardened.
Closed, or Figure 2—2 Boring jig. Figure 2—4 Template jigs.
Plate jigs are similar to templates Figure 2—5. Figure 2—6 Table jig. The only difference is that plate jigs have built-inclamps to hold the work. These jigs can also be madewith or without bushings, depending on the numberof parts to be made. Plate jigs are sometimes madewith legs to raise the jig off the table for large work.
This style is called a table jig Figure 2—6. Sandwich jigs are a form of plate jig with a backplate Figure 2—7. This type of jig is ideal for thin orsoft parts that could bend or warp in another style ofjig.
Here again, the use of bushings is determined bythe number of parts to be made. Angle-plate jigs are used to hold parts that aremachined at right angles to their mounting locators Figure 2—8. Pulleys, collars, and gears are some ofthe parts that use this type of jig.
A variation is themodified angle-plate jig, which is used for machiningangles other than 90 degrees Figure 2—9. Both ofthese examples have clearance problems with the cut-ting tool. As the drill exits the product being drilled,it has little or no room for the drill point to clear theproduct completely, produce a round hole all the waythrough the part wall, and avoid drilling the part loca-tor. This is most noticeable in Figure 2—9, where anangled hole requires additional clearance to therelieved portion of the part locator.
Additional clear-ance here would allow the drill to complete the holeand avoid drilling the relieved portion of the locator. The part locator will most likely be hardened and the Copyright Cengage Learning.
Figure 2—8 Angle-plate jig. Figure 2—9 Modified angle-plate jig. Channel jigs are the simplest form of box jig FigureAdditional clearance on the relieved diameter of the 2— The work is held between two sides andpart locator may be possible. A larger clearance hole machined from the third side. In some cases, where jigin the locator could also be added if the relieved feet are used, the work can be machined on three sides.
The additional designconsideration added to the locator would include the Leaf jigs are small box jigs with a hinged leaf tofeature to provide the correct orientation of this clear- allow for easier loading and unloading Figure 2— Leaf jigs are normally smaller than box jigs and are sometimes made so that Box jigs, or tumble jigs, usually totally surround they do not completely surround the part.
They arethe part Figure 2— This style of jig allows the usually equipped with a handle for easier movement.
Indexing jigs are used to accurately space holes or other machined areas around a part. To do this, the Copyright Cengage Learning. Figure 2—11 Channel jig. The final station is used for unloading the fin- ished parts and loading fresh parts. This jig is commonly used on multiple-spindle machines. It could also work on single-spindle models. There are several other jigs that are combinations of the types described.
These complex jigs are often so specialized that they cannot be classified. Regardless of the jig selected, it must suit the part, perform the opera- tion accurately, and be simple and safe to operate. Milling increases in interchangeability. Component- Design to be studied carefully Ensure Productivity — Jig and fixtures eliminate individual work is performed in a proper sequence Maximum marking, positioning and frequent checking. This operations should be performed on a machine in reduces operation time and increase the productivity.
Interchangeability - Jig and fixtures facilitate 2. Capacity of the machine-Careful consideration to uniform quality in manufacture. There is no need for be performed on type and capacity of machine. Any part of the machine fit 3. Production requirements-Design to be made on properly in to the assembly. And all similar basis of actual production requirements. Then comes components are interchangeable. Tool guiding 3. Any average person can be trained to use Jig and Jigs and fixture are made from a variety of materials, fixtures.
Jig and Fixture Design Manual - Erik K. Hendriksen_3709
It saves the labour cost. It is sometimes necessary to use nonferrous metals like Cost reduction — higher production, reduction in phosphor bronze to reduce wear of the mating parts, scrap, easy assembly and savings in labour costs IJTSRD Available Online www. High Tensile Steel piece. These can be classified into medium carbon steels with 0. HSS can be air or oil hardened to RC and are suitable for cutting 8.
Mild Steel: tools such as drills, reamers an It is the cheapest and most widely used material in jigs and fixture. It contains less than 0. It is 2. Die steels : economical to make parts which are not subjected too These are also called high carbon 1. Hot die steel with lesser carbon. As it can withstand vanadium. The ingenious extrusion. Although, the strength of cast iron is 3. Carbon Steel: only half the strength of mild steel, a wide variety of These contain 0.
Nodular cast iron is as hardened to RC The parts of jigs and fixtures strong as mild steel, while mechanize casting have like bushing and locaters, which are subjected to heat resistant, wear resistance, and corrosion resistant heavy wear can also be made from carbon steels and grades.
Steel castings: 4. Spring steels are usually tempered to RC 47 hardness. Nylon and Fiber 5. These are used for fine parts such as high clamping force.
Nylon or fiber pads are screwed taps, hand reamers, milling cutters, engraving tools, or stuck to mild steel clamps. Phosphor Bronze It is widely used for replaceable nuts in screw 6. Case Hardening Steels: operated feeding and clamping systems. Generally These can be carburized and case hardened to provide screw operated feeding and clamping systems. So, their wear is minimized by using softer, shorter widely used.
Case hardening steels are suitable for parts Bronze mating nuts. These can be replaced which require only local hardness on small wearing periodically. Phosphor bronze is also used in surfaces where costlier, difficult to machine full application calling for corrosion resistance, like boiler hardening tool steels are not warranted.
Design of component studied carefully. Careful consideration to be performed on type and capacity of machine. Design to be made on basis of actual production requirement.
Location should ensure equal distribution of forces throughout all sequence of operation. To study about easy and quick loading of work piece.
Jig and Fixture Design
To study about clamping arrangements. The clamping should not cause any deformation to the work piece. To study about features of clamps. Clamping pressure should be low. Operation perform on the component b.
Movement of clamp should be minimum. Sufficiently robust to avoid bending. Facing exhaust manifold side 2. Drilling exhaust manifold side 9.
To study about clearance between jig and 3. Angular face milling cooler side component. Drilling cooler side 5. Spot facing one side hole To study about tool guiding and cutter setting.
Spot facing milling another side hole 7. Spot facing of angular side cooler side a.They have been selected to represent two characteristic types of fixtures. Allow plenty of room for the operator's hands. There is no objection here to the use of four corner pads with the inherent advantage of maximum stability. This edition includes a more integrated approach toThis section provides the background information for the global nature that challenges the tool designer.
In the absence of specific.
Hot die steel with lesser carbon. Table brings the designer closer to many details. It contains less than 0.
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