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CHAPTER 1 Introduction to. Criminology. Often, crimes such as the mass shooting in San Bernardino,. California, lead people to ask,. “Why do they do it?”. This new edition of Criminology:A sociological introduction builds on the success of 'Criminology:A sociological introduction is that rare thing; a textbook that is. Introduction to Criminological Theory. Terms. Causality. A concept more applicable to the hard sciences. Does the appearance of X cause effect Y? In a perfect.

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Introduction to Criminology. CRJ Class Syllabus. Time/Location: TTH lOam pm, WHI Instructor: Office: Office Phone: TTH. Office Fax: Email. Swinburne Library ppti.info Author: Chapter Authors: Chapter Title: Book title: Edition: Place published: Publisher: Year: Pages: Hayes, . introduction to crime and criminal justice module introduction criminology scientific, multidisciplinary field sociology, psych, geography, law, political.

Social and individual consequences of crimes Social reactions to crime Governmental reactions to crime Schools of Thought The end goal of criminology, of course, is to determine the root causes of criminal behavior and to develop effective and humane means for preventing it.

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It has lead to several schools of thought within the discipline, each of which looks at different factors involved in deviant behavior and each coming to different conclusions about how best to approach the issues. The three primary schools of thought within criminology are the Classical School, the Positivist School, and the Chicago School. Classical School The Classical School of criminology, championed by Italian attorney Cesare Beccaria, embraces concepts and theories of crime based on these four basic ideas: Individuals have free will to make choices and to act on their own accord People will generally seek pleasure and avoid pain, and they will rationally calculate the cost versus the benefit when choosing to commit an act Punishment can be used to deter crime, and the severity of the punishment must be proportional to the crime itself The swiftness and the certainty of the punishment is the most important factor in deterring crime Positivist School The Positivist School suggests that there are other factors at work in deviant behavior besides simple pleasure seeking and pain avoidance.

Positivism supposes external and internal factors that may be beyond the control of the individual.

It includes biological, psychological, social, and environmental causes. Edwin Sutherland suggested that people learn criminal behavior from older, more experienced criminals with whom they may associate.

Theoretical perspectives used in criminology include psychoanalysis , functionalism , interactionism , Marxism , econometrics , systems theory , postmodernism , genetics , neuropsychology , evolutionary psychology , etc. Social structure theories[ edit ] This theory is applied to a variety of approaches within the bases of criminology in particular and in sociology more generally as a conflict theory or structural conflict perspective in sociology and sociology of crime.

As this perspective is itself broad enough, embracing as it does a diversity of positions. Shaw of the Chicago School. These groups have different values to the social norm. These neighborhoods also tend to have high population heterogeneity. Social ecology[ edit ] Since the s, social ecology studies have built on the social disorganization theories. Many studies have found that crime rates are associated with poverty, disorder, high numbers of abandoned buildings, and other signs of community deterioration.

William Julius Wilson suggested a poverty "concentration effect", which may cause neighborhoods to be isolated from the mainstream of society and become prone to violence.

Most people buy into this dream, and it becomes a powerful cultural and psychological motivator. Merton also used the term anomie , but it meant something slightly different for him than it did for Durkheim. Merton saw the term as meaning a dichotomy between what society expected of its citizens and what those citizens could actually achieve.

Therefore, if the social structure of opportunities is unequal and prevents the majority from realizing the dream, some of those dejected will turn to illegitimate means crime in order to realize it. Others will retreat or drop out into deviant subcultures such as gang members , or what he calls " hobos ". Robert Agnew developed this theory further to include types of strain which were not derived from financial constraints.

This is known as general strain theory ". Rosenberger took his findings from it and offered a different approach to the definition. Larine Hughes found a correlation between economic pressure and how it links the "American Dream" and "Individualism" to a high crime.

Hughes came to final decision that "Therefore, individuals that do not have the drive to succeed and achieve this "goal" [31] will fail, despite social and cultural pressures.

Stated in an article by S. Applin, "males make up what is considered "normal subjects", and due to this, force woman to lie on a boundary that expectation is outside the dominant cultural frame.

Stults stated, "As well as the results showed graduating high school represents an important developmental stage in American society, as it ends the compulsory education, and is often followed by a significant decline in daily need and extra resources from your parents.

Albert K. Cohen tied anomie theory with Sigmund Freud 's reaction formation idea, suggesting that delinquency among lower-class youths is a reaction against the social norms of the middle class.

Criminal acts may result when youths conform to norms of the deviant subculture. Bias has been known to occur among law enforcement agencies, where officers tend to place a bias on minority groups, without knowing for sure if they had committed a crime or not. A further study by the Chicago school looked at gangs and the influence of the interaction of gang leaders under the observation of adults. In terms of this cultural conception of crime, Beccaria's most important contribution was to consider crime as an injury to society.

It was the injury to society, rather than to the immediate individual s who experienced it, that was to direct and determine the degree of punishment. Behind this thinking was the utilitarian assumption that all social action should be guided by the goal of achieving "the greatest happiness for the greatest number. While in today's world these ideas may seem common enough, their implications for the world of Beccaria were dramatic.

For one thing, Beccaria reasoned that certain and quick, rather than severe, punishments would best accomplish the above goals.

Indeed,he argued that "in order for punishment not to be Beccaria went beyond this to propose that accused persons be treated humanely before trial, with every right and facility extended to enable them to bring evidence in their own behalf. The significance of this is that in Beccaria's day accused and convicted persons were detained in the same institutions, and subjected to the same inhumane punishments.

In place of this, Beccaria argued for swift and sure punishments, to be imposed on only those found guilty, with the punishments determined strictly in accordance with the damage to society caused by the crime. What was needed, argued Beccaria, was a careful matching of the crime and its punishment, in keeping with the general interests of society.

The classical thinker we consider next, Jeremy Bentham, went beyond this in attempting to create a "calculus" for realizing these interests. He saw two forms of deterrence: Specific deterrence applied to the individual who committed an offense.

The idea was to apply just enough pain to ; offset the amount of pleasure gained from the offense. In fact, many suggested that punishments should be restricted to the same degree of pain as the degree of pleasure gained from the offense.

England Fifth Edition , ,pp: Donald J. A, , pp: Bentham began with Beccaria's concern for achieving "the greatest happiness of the greatest number. At this time, the law remained not only barbarous but also highly disorganized and contradictory, Against this, Bentham meant to make the law an efficient, indeed economical, means of preventing crime.

His recommendation was that penalties be fixed so as to impose an amount of pain in excess of the pleasure that might be derived from the criminal act. It was this calculation of pain compared to pleasure that Bentham believed would deter crime ,these ideas were formulated most clearly in his Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, first published in It was part of the contradictions of Bentham's character that he was at least as calculating as he was humane.

For example, Bentham argued that capital punishment should be restricted to offenses "which in the highest degree shock the public feeling. Oxford University Press , ,pp: Hart, H. A, Essays on Bentham. Clarendon Press, , pp: Mack, Mary P.

New York: Columbia University Press, , pp: Beccaria, Bentham and Romilly. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith, , pp: Shoemaker ,op. A scaffold painted black, the livery of grief the officers of justice dressed in crepe the executioner covered with a mask, which would serve at once to augment the terror of his appearance, and to shield him from ill-founded indignation emblems of his crime placed above the head of the criminal, to the end that the witnesses of his sufferings may know for what crimes he undergoes them: Whilst all the actors in this terrible drama might move in solemn procession serious and religious music preparing the hearts of the spectators for the important lesson they were about to receive.

CRM101 Introduction to Criminology

The judges need not consider it beneath their dignity to preside over this public scene. Bentham also had unusual ideas about imprisonment, an idea that was then in its infancy. He spent much of his life trying to convince authorities that an institution of his design, called the "Panoptic on prison," would solve the problems of correction. Sue Titus Reid ,op. Feinberg "Recent econometric modeling of crime and punishment: Support for the deterrence hypothesis? A research note.

Utilitarian or retributivist. An Etiological View. Crime and Personality. Houghton Mifflin, , pp: Criminal Sociology. Trans, by J. Kelly and John Lisle. Lit- tle, Brown, , pp: It was to be so arranged that every cell could be visible from a central point. The omniscient prison inspector would be kept from the sight of the prisoners by a system of "blinds unless.

The suggested administration of this Utopian prison is a further illustration of Bentham's utilitarian style of thought. The central figure in the prison was to be a manager who would employ the inmates in contract labor. The manager was to receive a share of the money earned by the inmates, but he was to be financially liable if inmates who were later released reoffended, or if an excessive number of inmates died during imprisonment.

For Bentham, calculation was always the key to successful control. He argued strongly for the establishment of the office of public prosecutor, and he furthered the notion that crimes are committed against society rather than against individuals. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Corrected ed. Oxford, Eng.: The Guilty Mind: Psychiatry and the Law of Homicide. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Press, , pp: Columbia University Press.

An essay on the origins of criminological theory. Laufer and Freda Adler, eds. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, , pp: Toward a Field Synthesis. Like Beccaria, Bentham believed in the doctrine of free will, although he hinted at the theory of learned behavior as the explanation of criminal behavior "He deserves considerable credit In summary, the Classical School of criminology rejected the pre- viously prevailing concepts of supernatural powers as the primary forces in human behavior, including criminal behavior, and substituted the free will of man and his intent.

The consequent systematization of the discipline was built on the concept of free will; it eliminated human motives of revenge and substituted rational punishments that fit the seriousness of the crimes by causing rules to be determined and written into the law.

Because of its basic concept of free will and punishments to "fit the crime ,"deterrence becomes important in the Classical School of criminology. The philosophy of the classical school was: The French Penal Code of included, among others, the following sanctions: The French Code of "completed the process of replacing the former arbitrary powers of judges with a firm and inflexible system of penalties.

These generic ideas and concerns were applied to criminal justice to produce concepts such as deterrence, civil rights, and due process of law; but it is the general characteristics, not the specific ones of criminal justice, that contain the essence of Classical thought.

People exist in a world with free will and make their own rational choices, although they have a natural tendency toward self-interest and pleasure. People have certain natural rights, among them life, liberty, and ownership of property.

Governments are created by the citizens of a state to protect these rights, and they exist as a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed. A critical review. Hawkins , The legal threat as an instrument of social change. The Legal Threat in Crime Control. University of Chicago Press. Franklin P. Barlow , op. Clive R. Hollin , op. Shoemaker , op. Hartjen , op. Hennessy , op. Ronald Blackburn , op. Theoretical Criminology.

Oxford University Press, , pp: To insure civil rights, legislators enact law that both defines the procedures by which transgressions will be handled and specifies the exact behaviors that make up those transgressions. This law specifies the process for determining guilt and the punishment to be meted out to those found guilty.

Crime consists of a transgression against the social contract; therefore, crime is a moral offense against society. Punishment is justified only to preserve the social contract.

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Therefore the purpose of punishment is to prevent future transgressions by deterring socially harmful behavior. Only that amount of punishment necessary to offset the gains of harmful behavior is justified. All people are equal in their rights and should be treated equally before the law. The Classical School still has a dominant effect on today's criminal justice system policies. Most Western nations still adhere to most of the Classical inventions under due process of law and the rights of individuals, largely because these concepts are imbedded in various constitutions.

Two of the major concepts of the Classical School, deterrence and rationality, are still alive and well. Deterrence has had two separate rebirths over the last two decades. In the first, the public, in moving toward a more conservative and punitive mode, embraced the concept of deterrence and clamored for harsher sentences.

The assumption, of course, is that tougher sentences will deter would be criminals from committing crimes and make those caught and convicted reconsider their behavior. Deterrence has been the favored approach to the crimes of drunken driving and drug dealing. One of the problems with deterring criminals is that our criminal justice system does not proceed quickly. The federal system and many states have attempted to solve this by enacting speedy trial laws.

In the second renewal of interest in deterrence, many scholars have been engaged in research to see if deterrence works.

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Three of the favorite research topics have been the death penalty, drunken driving, and drug use. We now have rational choice theories and theories of punishment called "just deserts. That is, they assert that, given the situation and the circumstances, offenders make informed decisions to commit crimes.

Just deserts punishment theory returns to the Classical concept of retribution and argues that because offenders make the choice to offend, punishment is deserved. The "just" portion of the theory restates the classical notion of equitable punishment no more or less punishment than what is required to correct the harm from the crime.

One might argue that the theoretical strands of the Classical School have become a Little weak by now. The ideas of human nature and rationales about how to treat people on which much of current policy and conceptual activity is based are simply part of our culture. The reason that these ideas are part of our culture, however, is that the Classical School put them there. For example, some judges have publicly questioned recent sentencing guidelines which propose mandatory sentences for drug users as unfair.

In another case, the issue of cruel punishment is today's latest topic, with questions about hanging, gas, and lethal injection as forms of capital punishment. But the neoclassical criminologists, who were mainly British, began complaining about the need for individualized reaction to offenders, as they believed the classical approach was far too harsh and unjust. Perhaps the most shocking aspect of these harsh penal codes was that they did not provide for the separate treatment of children.

One of the changes of the neoclassical period was that children under seven years of age were exempt from the law on the basis that they could not understand the difference between right and wrong. Mental disease became a reason to exempt a suspect from conviction, too.

Mental disease was seen as a sufficient cause of impaired responsibility; thus, defense by reason of insanity crept into the law. Any situation or circumstance that made it impossible to exercise free will was seen as reason to exempt a person from legal responsibility for what otherwise might be a criminal act. The most important thinkers of new classical theory Benigno Di Tullio: Di Tullio was a Professor of criminal anthropology in the university of Rome, in he published a book which appeared in Rome in it he established his new theory on the so-called "criminal constitution or predisposition".

In Di Tullio point of view ,the crime is the result of interaction between the human soul as an internal factor and the circumstances encountered by the man in the external world, experience indicates that there are individuals who possess a tendency or inclination to delinquency, which doesn't exist in others, and that the external circumstances which provoke their criminal tendency and leads them to delinquency, does not produce the same effect on the part of ordinary persons.

He separated between the constitutional delinquents and occasional delinquents , whose delinquency is due more to the external factor than to the internal one. On the other hand, In Di Tullio point of view also , the occasional delinquents does not attain a pathological nature. Namely it does not deserve the quality of a disease.

Because of that he distinguishes between the constitutional and occasional delinquents. As regards the mentally disturbed delinquents, Di Tullio separates between the delinquent and the insaneness delinquent. The first his delinquent because of his insanity, in such a way that his delinquency could be eliminated by his treating him from insanity.

The second is a delinquent because of a constitution which is previous to his insanity and which aggravated the latter. In order to cure him must treat his criminal constitution at first. In Di Tullio point of view also ,the criminal constitution is characterized by the fact that its symptoms appear at an early age and leads to grave crime implies the desire of repeating the crimes finding delight and pleasure in committing them.

Di Tullio theory, give great importance to discover the criminal constitution the personality of the individual , and to examine three fields: Although the neoclassical school was not a scientific school of criminology, unlike the classical school, it did begin to explore the causation issue. The neoclassical theorists made exceptions to the law and implied multiple causation. The doctrine of free will could no longer stand alone as an explanation for criminal behavior.

Even today, much modern law is based on the neoclassical philosophy of free will tempered by certain exceptions. There has been growing support for a ''neoclassical" sentencing rationale that would emphasize penalties proportionate to the gravity of the criminal conduct. This movement has had its great impact in Finland, where "neoclassicism" has come to be official policy. Several modifications of classical theory were therefore introduced, and their proponents became known as the neoclassical school.

They believed that freedom of will could be affected by pathology, incompetence, insanity, or other conditions. There were mitigating events that interfered with the free will, it was contended: If the ability is full, the free will exists and consequently the criminal liability of the offender will be full. On the contrary, if such ability lacks altogether, free will shall be deemed lacking and no liability will follow and also they think of the purpose of deterrence.

A criminal has committed a wrong and consequently deserves to be punished.

It is irrelevant then whether society will benefit from the infliction of the punishment or not. At the same time, new defenses, causes of exemption and attenuation are introduced.

For instance, children under the age of seven were exempt from criminal liability, so were those who suffered from mental diseases or acted under such circumstances as to negate their free will.Through the application of science, human existence is perfectible, or at the least the human condition can be made better.

People have certain natural rights, among them life, liberty, and ownership of property. The classical view is crime oriented, while the positivists place emphasis upon the criminal. Adolphe Quetelet used data and statistical analysis to study the relationship between crime and sociological factors.

This theory was advocated by Edwin Sutherland.


If the ability is full, the free will exists and consequently the criminal liability of the offender will be full. There are many "theories" of criminology suggested by many writers. Criminal Sociology. Cressey, Criminology, 10th ed. It differs from biological positivism in the thought that that school of thought says criminals are born criminals, whereas the psychological perspective recognizes the internal factors are results of external factor such as, but are not limited to, abusive parents, abusive relationships, drug problems, etc.

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