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Tools for teaching computer networking and hardware concepts / Nurul Sarkar, All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. PDF | I. Sarkar and others published Computer Networking and Hardware tools (software/hardware) and innovative lab materials are being. Networking concepts and hardware. Basic Communications Model Standards are needed at all Layers. User Layer. Application Layer. Computer (Transport).

Hardware And Networking Material Pdf

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In this chapter, you'll begin by relating networks to situations and concepts you already know. . If you put the limited-access material in a drawer open to all .. hardware or software failure that causes information or applications to be lost, vital. Free download Computer Hardware and Networking Guide pdf. Handbook of hardware schemes, cables layouts and connectors pinouts and connections. An Introduction to Computer Networks 1 An Overview of Networks modest amounts of material from this book would have a strong claim.

The first thing that you need to know about network cards is that the network card has to match the network medium. The network medium refers to the type of cabling that is being used on the network. Wireless networks are a science all their own, and I will talk about them in a separate article. At one time making sure that a network card matched the network medium was a really big deal, because there were a large number of competing standards in existence. For example, before you built a network and started buying network cards and cabling, you had to decide if you were going to use Ethernet, coaxal Ethernet, Token Ring, Arcnet, or one of the other networking standards of the time.

Each networking technology had its strengths and weaknesses, and it was important to figure out which one was the most appropriate for your organization.

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Today, most of the networking technologies that I mentioned above are quickly becoming extinct. Pretty much the only type of wired network used by small and medium sized businesses is Ethernet.

You can see an example of an Ethernet network card, shown in Figure A. Figure A: This is what an Ethernet card looks like.

Modern Ethernet networks use twisted pair cabling containing eight wires. These wires are arranged in a special order, and an RJ connecter is crimped onto the end of the cable. Figure B: This is an Ethernet cable with an RJ connector installed. As you can see, computers use network cards to send and receive data. The data is transmitted over Ethernet cables. In this day and age of high speed Internet access being almost universally available, you tend to hear the term broadband thrown around a lot.

Broadband is a type of network in which data is sent and received across the same wire. In contrast, Ethernet uses Baseband communications. Baseband uses separate wires for sending and receiving data.

What this means is that if one PC is sending data across a particular wire within the Ethernet cable, then the PC that is receiving the data needs to have the wire redirected to its receiving port. You can actually network two PCs together in this way. You can create what is known as a cross over cable. A cross over cable is simply a network cable that has the sending and receiving wires reversed at one end, so that two PCs can be linked directly together. The problem with using a cross over cable to build a network is that the network will be limited to using no more and no less than two PCs.

Rather than using a cross over cable, most networks use normal Ethernet cables that do not have the sending and receiving wires reversed at one end. Of course the sending and receiving wires have to be reversed at some point in order for communications to succeed. This is the job of a hub or a switch.

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Hubs are starting to become extinct, but I want to talk about them any way because it will make it easier to explain switches later on. There are different types of hubs, but generally speaking a hub is nothing more than a box with a bunch of RJ ports. Each computer on a network would be connected to a hub via an Ethernet cable. You can see a picture of a hub, shown in Figure C.

Figure C: A hub is a device that acts as a central connection point for computers on a network. A hub has two different jobs. Its first job is to provide a central point of connection for all of the computers on the network. Every computer plugs into the hub multiple hubs can be daisy chained together if necessary in order to accommodate more computers.

Right now you might be wondering how data gets to the correct destination if more than two PCs are connected to a hub. The secret lies in the network card. When a computer on an Ethernet network transmits data across an Ethernet network containing PCs connected to a hub, the data is actually sent to every computer on the network.

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As each computer receives the data, it compares the destination address to its own MAC address. If the addresses match then the computer knows that it is the intended recipient, otherwise it ignores the data.

As you can see, when computers are connected via a hub, every packet gets sent to every computer on the network. The problem is that any computer can send a transmission at any given time.

Hardware & Networking Notes

Have you ever been on a conference call and accidentally started to talk at the same time as someone else? This is the same thing that happens on this type of network. When a PC needs to transmit data, it checks to make sure that no other computers are sending data at the moment.

If the line is clear, it transmits the necessary data. If another computer tries to communicate at the same time though, then the packets of data that are traveling across the wire collide and are destroyed this is why this type of network is sometimes referred to as a collision domain. Both PCs then have to wait for a random amount of time and attempt to retransmit the packet that was destroyed.

As the number of PCs on a collision domain increases, so does the number of collisions. As the number of collisions increase, network efficiency is decreased. This is why switches have almost completely replaced hubs. IP addresses—how devices on a network can be found. Network hubs, switches and cables—the hardware building blocks of any network. Routers and firewalls—how to organize and control the flow of traffic on a network.

Reading through this material should take between half an hour to an hour. Exploring the activities and details of the subject with a group will take longer. Clients and Servers An important relationship on networks is that of the server and the client.

A server is a computer that holds content and services such as a website, a media file, or a chat application. The server holds that page, and sends it out when requested. A client is a different computer, such as your laptop or cell phone, that requests to view, download, or use the content.

The client can connect over a network to exchange information. In the example below, two computers are connected together with an Ethernet cable. These computers are able to see each other and communicate over the cable.

The client computer asks for a website from the server computer. Most requests and content delivery on networks are similar to, or are based on, a client to server relationship. On a network, the server can be located almost anywhere, and if the client has the address, it can access the content on the server.

This identification is an IP—Internet Protocol—address. An IP address is just a set of four numbers between 1 and , separated by dots. An example of an IP address is An IP address is similar to a street address.

Parts of the address describe where in the world the building is located, another part narrows it down to a state or city, then the area within that state or city, then the location on the street.

Below we can see On it are three houses: The complete addresses for each of these houses is: There are different classifications, or types of IP addresses. A network can be public, or it can be private. Public IP addresses are accessible anywhere on the Internet. Private IP addresses are not, and most are typically hidden behind a device with a public IP address.

Here we can see an example—a street with two buildings with public IP addresses—representing computers with addresses that are visible to the entire Internet. These buildings might be anywhere in the world, but their addresses are complete, so we know exactly where they are and can send messages to them.

We have a new building on the street. That building has a public IP address, and a private IP address. There is also a fence that blocks the rest of the Internet from seeing and passing messages to addresses on the street.

Basic Computer Hardware Notes in PDF

The postal building controls messages that travel between the Internet and the street, keeping track of messages that leave the street, and directs return messages to the right house. On the street, it has the address Activity: Find the IP addresses assigned to your computer, and your network. What is the IP address for your computer? Network Hubs and Switches Traditionally, computers are connected to each other using cables—creating a network.

The cable used most often is Ethernet, which consists of four pairs of wires inside of a plastic jacket.Here we can see an example—a street with two buildings with public IP addresses—representing computers with addresses that are visible to the entire Internet.

There is a golden mark on the CPU to help you assist. Serial port: As shown in the diagram serial ports with 9-pins protruding outwards can be used to connect modem but it can also be used for connecting mouse, provided serial port mouse is available.

Right now you might be wondering how data gets to the correct destination if more than two PCs are connected to a hub. Step 24 - You will get a Thank you screen to confirm setup is complete. But cables and computers alone do not make a good network, so one early solution was to use a network hub.

If you wish to do this you can just press enter and Windows will automatically partition and format the drive as one large drive.

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