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Introducao a Fisica Estatistica - Sílvio R. A ppti.info - Documents · Introducao a Fisica Estatistica - Sílvio R. A ppti.info - Documents. ppti.info 18 ago. Article (PDF Available) in Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física 27(3) · September Silvio R. A. Salinas at University of São Paulo Mario Schönberg e a introdução do espaço de Fock na física estatística clássica. PDF | On Mar 1, , Alcaraz Francisco C and others published Special issue: Brazilian School on Statistical Mechanics, (Escola Brasileira de Mecânica Estatística, EBME) Silvio R. A. Salinas at University of São Paulo · Silvio R. A.

The first of them was relatively sim- nitive sciences. Most of the present effort is emerged as a methodological tool, and even as a pow- dedicated to this analysis. The second task was, intellec- erful metaphor, in the investigation of mental processes tually speaking, sensibly more complex. It consisted of such as intelligence, learning, memorization, among oth- learning ambiguous images, where the figure-background ers.

It is along these lines that we prepared a sequence of reversal is crucial. Although semantic and strategic as- experiments with humans, to be later on compared with pects are present in both learning tasks, the second one similar experiments, or simulations, done with computers is by far more delicate and reveals higher level cognitive provided with appropriate algorithms, in particular sim- phenomena. Consistently, our study leads to quantita- tive information concerning the first task, whereas only some qualitative features were determined for the latter.

These terms 2 will be mathematically defined and further analyzed in i. Section III.

MECANICA ANALITICA - NIVALDO LEMOS.pdf

At the present stage, it was shown. This step aimed to provide to the individuals its parts, or as different from the sum of its parts. In Section III we describe the entropic concepts hidden.

The student had to try to reproduce it on the that we use with regard to the computational simulations spot on an empty matrix. When this was done, the op- that have been implemented. In Section IV we compare eration was repeated after a rest interval of 10 seconds.

The matrix was considered to be learnt if no error was made after two successive exhibitions; II. Although in a quite different context, results that ages, in order to avoid professional bias.

For instance, have some connection with the present ones have been students of physics, mathematics, engineering, architec- exhibited in [8].

'+_.H(b)+"

PN ture, visual publicity were excluded. These curves already achieved the aspect pre- nication of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Ap- sented in this figure when the averages were performed proximately 30 students were used for preliminary tests with approximately 80 individuals.

Using the entire set of in order to fix an optimal experimental protocol matrix results just improved the precision but incorporated sizes, binary code of each matrix, exhibition and hidden- no new qualitative elements in the curves. If we define ing times, among others. Then, precisely 92 female the learning time as the number of times shown before and 28 male students were exposed to the same proto- learning, excluding those who did not suceed learning col, and only their results were taken into account for that particular matrix untill the end of the experiment, quantitative purposes in the statistical processing aver- we can check that it is of the order of 6.

Their ages ranged between 17 and Incidentally we verified an interesting and indeed un- 27 years old, the majority of them being around 22 years expected cultural phenomenon. It was told that the look at them from left to right. After some hesitation about what understanding how learning occurs so that they would could be the cause of this asymmetry e. After these in- the different semantics humans associate with a circle or structions were given to each one of the students, a cross?

Then, to 3 the second and last set of 60 students, an empty Fig. Very symptomatically, we then ob- statistical mechanics and thermodynamics.

The reason for this kind of a priori mann constant equal to unity. This entropy becomes unexpected behavior appeared to be as commented by maximal at equiprobability, i.

INTRODUCTION

Let us mention, by the way, If we consider a composite system made of two prob- that in an experiment like the present one it is quite abilistically independent systems A and B, i. The entropic form 1 developed. We chose several ambiguous images, all of is the basis of standard, Boltzmann-Gibbs BG , statisti- them being susceptible of two mutually excluding inter- cal mechanics and thermodynamics, and property 3 is pretations on the basis of figure-background reversal.

For known as extensivity or additivity. This entropy, as well example, if one sees in Fig.

Indeed, they does not simultaneously see the old woman, and recipro- emerge in a great variety of discussions. For example, cally. We implemented this more complex learning task they have often been used concerning complex phenom- by showing the image and then asking to the individual ena such as the organization of living matter see, for what he sees.

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Then we tried to count the time needed by instance, [13] , as well as other types of organization, in- the person in order to recognize the other image interpre- cluding that of knowledge e.

This perception mechanism is sometimes referred ing , economics, linguistics, to mention but a few see, for to as reversal of the figure-background.

It turned out that instance, [14, 15]. Before addressing the generalization the times involved in this type of experiment, and very of SBGS we are interested in here, let us mention that specifically the slowness of learning, if any, how to recog- optimization of Eq.

In statistical mechanics, Eq. In , one of us CT proposed [14] the generaliza- A great variety of computer learning algorithms are tion of BG statistical mechanics on the basis of a more available in the literature.

It is clear that all of them general entropic form, namely process, in one way or another, information. We shall use it here in connection with the specific perceptron we shall q being any real number.

This property is referred to as nonex- tensivity or nonadditivity. To be more precise, if we take into account that Sq is always zero or positive, Eq. It is from property 6 that the terms nonextensive statis- tical mechanics and thermodynamics have been coined for reviews see [15]. One such example is the Langevin equation, on which the per- ceptron that we use here has been constructed.

As we see, the entropic property 6 has a kind of gestalt-like flavor. Its use constitutes a natural choice if we desire to deal with informational phenomena involv- ing global or nonlocal aspects. Abstract Objective Sleeve gastrectomy is the fastest growing surgical procedure to treat obesity in the world but it may cause or worsen gastroesophageal reflux disease.

This article originally aimed to describe the addition of anti-reflux procedures removal of periesophageal fats pads, hiatoplasty, a small plication and fixation of the gastric remnant in position to the usual sleeve gastrectomy and to report early and late results.

Methods Eighty-eight obese patients that also presented symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were submitted to sleeve gastrectomy with anti-reflux procedures. Fifty of them were also submitted to a transit bipartition. Anti-reflux sleeve gastrectomy did not add morbidity but significantly diminished gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and the use of proton pump inhibitors to treat this condition.

Conclusion The addition of anti-reflux procedures, such as hiatoplasty and cardioplication, to the usual sleeve gastrectomy did not add morbidity neither worsened the weight loss but significantly reduced the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms as well as the use of proton pump inhibitors.

Soluções de Fisica Estatistica

They are often associated, especially because obesity increases the intra-abdominal pressure, generating the forces necessary to cause the reflux. In , it was first suggested 3 that the SG without intestinal interventions could be an early treatment for obesity, by interrupting its progression, in cases in which clinical treatment could not stop it, possibly avoiding more aggressive procedures in the future.

Also for the first time, SG was seen as a metabolic and adaptive procedure 3 , 4 rather than a restrictive one that poses obstacles to food ingestion, like narrow anastomoses or bands.

Because SG may produce excellent results achieving very high quality of life with smaller changes in the general structure of the gastrointestinal tract, it has become very popular, 11 - 13 with an increasing number of surgeries worldwide.

However, there are some reports that SG may cause or worsen GERD, causing the appearance of hiatal hernias 14 and physical and functional damage to the lower esophageal sphincter LES , 15 although there is some controversy.

Later, there was the fixation of the remnant gastric pouch in position. Secondly, to report its impact on symptoms of reflux and weight loss, in a retrospective comparison to the sleeve gastrectomy without these anti-reflux procedures.

Obtain an asymptotic form, in the limit , for the specific heat of a gas of free fermions adsorbed on a surface of area , at a given temperature. Consider a gas of free electrons, in a region of volume , in the ultrarelativistic regime. The energy spectrum is given by. At low temperatures, the internal energy of a system of free electrons may be written as an expansion,.

Obtain the value of the constant , and indicate the order of magnitude of the terms that have been discarded. Consider a system of free fermions in dimensions, with the energy spectrum. Consider again the gas of ultrarelativistic free electrons, within a container of volume , at temperature , in the presence of a magnetic field. If we neglect the effects of orbital magnetism, the energy spectrum is given by.

Obtain expressions for the prefactors and. Obtain an expression for the constant. In the classical paramagnetic theory of Langevin, proposed before the advent of quantum statistics, we assume a classical Hamiltonian, given by.This can be number.

Número atual: Setembro 2008 - Volume 15 - Número 3

Curado and C. In Section IV we compare eration was repeated after a rest interval of 10 seconds. Show that the number of accessible microscopic states of this system with total energy can be written as for ranging from 0 to , with and. Show that the chemical potential of an ideal classical gas of monatomic particles, in a container of volume , at temperature , may be written as.

Obtain the probability of adding up six points if we toss three distinct dice. Lawton MP.

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