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EVERYTHING AN ARGUMENT PDF

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Introduction vi. Sample Course Plan viii. 1. Everything Is an Argument 1. 2. Arguments Based on Emotion: Pathos 6. 3. Arguments Based on Character: Ethos by: Andrea A. Lunsford; John J. Ruszkiewicz. Students love Everything's an Argument because it helps them understand how a world of argument already surrounds them; instructors love it because it helps students construct their own personally meaningful arguments about that world. Instructor's Notes Everything's an Argument with Readings Instructor's Notes . title of this text — Everything's an Argument — is more than just a snappy phrase.


Everything An Argument Pdf

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Books Everything An Argument 6th Edition Pdf. everything’s an argument with readings - instructor’s notes. everything’s an argument. 1 Instructor s Notes for everything s an argument with readings Seventh Edition John Kinkade Jodi Egerton Taryne Hallett. 2. 3 Instructor s Notes Everything s an . Everything's an Argument. A fallacy is a hole in an argument. Fallacies are dangerous because they break down civil conversation and make arguments more.

And yet even a schoolboy's anti- nomy like 'Can an omnipotent being make something too heavy for him to lift?

Everything's an Argument 6th Edition

So there is one more kind of abstraction that's relevant here. This one is more psycho- logical, and very modern. Obvious fact: Never before have there been so many gap- ing chasms between what the world seems to be and what science tells us it is. It's like a million Copernican Revolutions all happening at the same time. As in for instance we 'know,' as high-school graduates and read- ers of Newsweek, that time is relative, that quantum particles can be both there and not, that space is curved, that colors do not inhere in objects themselves, that astronomic singulari- ties have infinite density, that our love for our children is evolutionarily preprogrammed, that there is a blind spot in the center of our vision that our brains automatically fill in.

That our thoughts and feelings are really just chemical trans- fers in 2. That we are mostly water, and water is mostly hydrogen, and hydrogen is flam- mable, and yet we are not flammable. We 'know' a near- infinity of truths that contradict our immediate commonsense experience of the world.

And yet we have to live and function in the world. So we abstract, compartmentalize: there's stuff we know and stuff we 'know'. I 'know' my love for my child Everything and More is a function of natural selection, but I know I love him, and I feel and act on what I know. Viewed objectively, the whole thing is deeply schizoid; yet the fact of the matter is that as subjective laymen we don't often feel the conflict. Because of course our lives are Again, we're talking about laymen like you and me, not about the giants of philosophy and math, many of whom had famous trouble navigating the real world.

Einstein leaving home in his pajamas, Godel unable to feed himself, and so on. To try to do some disciplined or directed abstract thinking.

There's a very definite but inarticulable fuguelike strain involved in this kind of thinking, a sensation that the epilepsis of saying 'pen, pen' over and over is but a faint pale shadow of. One of the quickest routes to this feeling is from personal A.

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There is something I 'know,' which is that spatial dimensions beyond the Big 3 exist. I can even construct a tesseract or hypercube out of cardboard. A weird sort of cube-within-a-cube, a tesseract is a 3D projection of a 4D object in the same way that 'tEJ:I' is a 2D projection of a 3D object.

The trick is imagining the tesseract's relevant lines and 10 The unique and redoubtable Dr. Robert Goris of U-- Sr.

Everything's an Argument Chapter 1 Summary.pdf - Naim...

High School's AP Math I and II used to refer to this also as 'private-sector think- ing,' meaning actual productive results were expected. I 'know' all this, just as you probably do You can feel, almost immediately, a strain at the very root of yourself, the first popped threads of a mind starting to give at the seams. Thus again the epistoschizoid state of the modern lay mind: We feel like we 'know' things that our minds' conceptual appa- ratus can't really deal with.

And oo. Often, these sorts of things are characterized as existing only 'intellectually' or 'mathematically'.

It is, again, far from clear what this means, although the terms themselves are child's play to use. Note, please, that this lay ability to split our awareness and to 'know' things we cannot handle is distinctively modern.

The ancient Greeks, for instance, could not do this. Or wouldn't. They needed things neat, and felt you couldn't know something unless you really understood it. Their word for infinity also meant 'mess'. Everything and More The Greek spirit has informed the philosophy and practice of mathematics from the beginning.

Mathematical truths are established by logical proof and are extremely neat and clean.

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It is just this that exempts math from labyrinthine problems like how exactly to justify the Principle of Induction: mathe- matical relations and proofs are not inductive but deductive, formal.

The core idea is that mathematical truths are certain and universal precisely because they have nothing to do with the world. If that's a bit opaque, here is a passage from G. Hardy's A Mathematician's Apology, the most lucid English prose work ever on math: "The certainty of mathematics," says [A.

Whitehead, "depends on its complete abstract generality. Viewed objectively, the whole thing is deeply schizoid; yet the fact of the matter is that as subjective laymen we don't often feel the conflict. Because of course our lives are Again, we're talking about laymen like you and me, not about the giants of philosophy and math, many of whom had famous trouble navigating the real world.

Einstein leaving home in his pajamas, Godel unable to feed himself, and so on. To try to do some disciplined or directed abstract thinking. There's a very definite but inarticulable fuguelike strain involved in this kind of thinking, a sensation that the epilepsis of saying 'pen, pen' over and over is but a faint pale shadow of. One of the quickest routes to this feeling is from personal A.

There is something I 'know,' which is that spatial dimensions beyond the Big 3 exist. I can even construct a tesseract or hypercube out of cardboard. A weird sort of cube-within-a-cube, a tesseract is a 3D projection of a 4D object in the same way that 'tEJ:I' is a 2D projection of a 3D object. The trick is imagining the tesseract's relevant lines and 10 The unique and redoubtable Dr.

Robert Goris of U-- Sr. High School's AP Math I and II used to refer to this also as 'private-sector think- ing,' meaning actual productive results were expected.

I 'know' all this, just as you probably do You can feel, almost immediately, a strain at the very root of yourself, the first popped threads of a mind starting to give at the seams.

Thus again the epistoschizoid state of the modern lay mind: We feel like we 'know' things that our minds' conceptual appa- ratus can't really deal with. And oo. Often, these sorts of things are characterized as existing only 'intellectually' or 'mathematically'. It is, again, far from clear what this means, although the terms themselves are child's play to use. Note, please, that this lay ability to split our awareness and to 'know' things we cannot handle is distinctively modern.

The ancient Greeks, for instance, could not do this. Or wouldn't. They needed things neat, and felt you couldn't know something unless you really understood it. Their word for infinity also meant 'mess'. Everything and More The Greek spirit has informed the philosophy and practice of mathematics from the beginning. Mathematical truths are established by logical proof and are extremely neat and clean. It is just this that exempts math from labyrinthine problems like how exactly to justify the Principle of Induction: mathe- matical relations and proofs are not inductive but deductive, formal.

The core idea is that mathematical truths are certain and universal precisely because they have nothing to do with the world. If that's a bit opaque, here is a passage from G. Hardy's A Mathematician's Apology, the most lucid English prose work ever on math: "The certainty of mathematics," says [A.

Whitehead, "depends on its complete abstract generality. Indeed one of Whitehead's words is superfluous, since generality, in this sense, is abstractness. In which quotation please note that 'generality' refers not just to the abstractness of individual terms and referents but to the complete abstract universality of the truths asserted. This is the difference between a mere math factoid and a mathematical theorem. What follows here is mostly intended as a reminder of stuff you already know in a rough way or had in school.

If your familiarity with formal systems is better than rough, you will recognize the following three ts as extremely crude and sim- plistic and are invited to treat them as IYI and skip or skim.

A formal system of proof requires axioms and rules of inference. Axioms are basic propositions so obvious they can be asserted without proof. Rules of inference, which are sometimes called the Laws of Thought, are the logical principles that jus- tify deriving truths from other truths. Some others are more involved. For our purposes, two rules of inference are espe- cially important.

The first is known as the Law of the F. By LEM, a mathematical proposition P must be either true or, if not true, false. Here are some ways of beginning; you can find more advice in the chapter on beginning and ending. Jump right in. Sometimes you may want to get to the main action as quickly as possible. Nichols, for example, begins as she takes the ninth-grade proficiency test for the first time.

Describe the context. You may want to provide any background information at the start of your narrative, as I decided to do, beginning by explaining how my grandmother taught me to read. Describe the setting, especially if it's important to the narrative. Bragg begins by describing the small Alabama town where his father lived.

Draft an ending. Think about what you want your readers to read last. An effective ending helps them understand the meaning of your narrative. Here are some possibilities; look also at the chapter on beginning and ending. End where your story ends. It's up to you to decide where a narrative ends. Bragg's story ends with him standing in front of a pile of books; mine ends several years after it begins, with my graduation from college.

Say something about the significance of your narrative. Nichols observes that she no longer loves to read or write, for example. The trick is to touch upon the narrative's significance without stating it too directly, like the moral of a fable.

Refer back to the beginning. My narrative ends with my grandmother watching me graduate from college; Nichols ends by contemplating the negative effects of failing the proficiency test. End on a surprising note. Bragg catches our attention when his father gives him the boxes of books—and leaves us with a complicated image to ponder. Come up with a title.

A good title indicates something about the subject of your narrative—and makes readers want to take a look. Nichols's title states her subject, "Proficiency," but she also puts the word in quotes, calling it into question in a way that might make readers wonder—and read on.

Considering Matters of Design You'll probably write your narrative in paragraph form, but think about the information you're presenting and how you can design it to enhance your story and appeal to your audience. What would be an appropriate typeface? Something serious, like Times Roman? Something whimsical, like Comic Sans? Something else?

Would it help your readers if you added headings in order to divide your narrative into shorter sections? Would photographs or other visuals show details better than you can describe them with words alone?

If you're writing about learning to read, for example, you might scan in an image of one of the first books you read in order to help readers picture it. Or if your topic is learning to write, you could include something you wrote. Getting Response and Revising The following questions can help you study your draft with a critical eye. Make sure they know your purpose and audience. Do the title and first few sentences make readers want to read on?

If not, how else might you begin?

Does the narrative move from beginning to end clearly? Does it flow, and are there effective transitions? Does the narrative get sidetracked at any point? Is anything confusing? Is there enough detail, and is it interesting? Is there enough information about the setting and the people?

Can readers picture the characters and sense what they're like as people? Would it help to add some dialogue, so that readers can "hear" them?

Will they be able to imagine the setting? Have you made the situation meaningful enough to make readers wonder and care about what will happen? Do you narrate any actions clearly?

Does the action keep readers engaged? Is the significance of the narrative clear? Does the narrative end in a satisfying way?

What are readers left thinking? The preceding questions should identify aspects of your narrative you need to work on. When it's time to REVISE, make sure your text appeals to your audience and achieves your purpose as successfully as possible. Editing and Proofreading Readers equate correctness with competence. Be careful that verb tenses are consistent throughout. If you write your narrative in the past tense "he taught me how to use a computer" , be careful not to switch to the present "So I look at him and say.

Check to see that verb tenses correctly indicate when an action took place. If one action took place before another action in the past, you should use the past perfect tense: "I forgot to dot my i's, a mistake I had made many times. Whenever someone speaks, surround the speech with quotation marks "No way," I said. Periods and commas go inside quotation marks; exclamation points and question marks go inside if they're part of the quotation, outside if they're part of the whole sentence: Inside: Opening the door, Ms.

Cordell announced, "Pop quiz! Taking Stock of Your Work How well do you think you told the story? What did you do especially well? What could still be improved? How did you go about coming up with ideas and generating text?

How did you go about drafting your narrative? Did you use photographs or any other graphics? What did they add? Can you think of graphics you might have used? How did others' responses influence your writing?Lunsford John J. Delotavo Jr. One of the great gifts that a writing class can give students, therefore, is confidence in their own authority. Exercises 2 through 5 highlight the importance of developing evaluative criteria, which in our experience has been the step that most frustrates students.

How does such research support an understanding of the changing nature of American society? It is quite reasonable to worry that Anselm's argument illegitimately moves from the existence of an idea to the existence of a thing that corresponds to the idea. When you show your students that they have a wide range of sources and forms available to them, their arguments will probably improve.

Showing a picture of the fictional artist lends a bit of reality to the piece, and choosing a white model for the picture may play into the racial situation of the story. You might ask the students then to try to make the same argument without depend- ing on the fallacy: We cannot escape this naturally human function of language.

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