CHESS LESSONS PDF
Chapter 1 – Errors Due to Lack of Knowledge. Chapter 2 – Evaluating the Position. Chapter 3 – Planning. Chapter 4 – Piece Play. Chapter 5. Light, Houdini, Stockfish, Rybka, Komodo, or Chessmaster. We recommend that you combine these lessons with “guided game play,” in which games are. GM Smirnov has developed lots of chess video lessons, articles, webinars and A chess piece, or chessman, is any of the 32 movable objects deployed on a.
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Considered by many to be the game's preeminent instructive writer, Mr. Silman is the author or coauthor of 39 books, including. How to Reassess Your Chess. GAMBIT. Perfect Your. Chess. World-class training from a super-grandmaster and his coach. Andrei Volokitin and. Vladimir Grabinsky. Lessons from a Certain Game. Winter-Alekhine. 9. Disastrous Consequences of Playing for a Draw from the. First Moves. Passivity in the Opening.
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They include classics like dominos, solitaire, and chess. We are lucky that the need to play in the first phase can be met through all kinds of games. Testing will be of great importance for this latter group. It is a pity that the complexity of chess is such that the students cannot start playing a real game after the first lesson. Most children will never get to the sheets with t!: A position can be played simultaneously against a maximum of 12 children. In a question and answer monologue.
Playing the weaker opponent who will always lose with good play is not very motivating for students. He does not really have to allow himself to be mated. Student versus student The games can be played between the students themselves.
We can He could leave pieces unprotected. In this form of exercise. What moves can I play now? I cannot go to a4.
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These strategies include: The students would then have to wait too long for their turn. A point to remember is that there may be insufficient control in the first stages of the game to apply the correct rules. In what ways can I defend myself? Especially when the position requires mating with the queen. By telling them what move he intends to play. Useful subjects for the simultaneous format are in particular positions in which one side dominates. Simultaneous display An excellent alternative for playing each other is playing against the teacher either an ex-student or one who is on higher step.
This role-modelling has proven its usefulness at every level.
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Other games. More than 12 is not advisable. Then there is something in it for both sides. What is already known predominates and a good result is probable. It is sensible to ask questions about the subjects that have been covered after five lessons or so. An ideal exercise situation. Give the side with the queen to the child and the computer will allow itself to be mated willingly time and again.
This can be found in the sheets marked with Repetition. All chess programs have been programmed according to the rules of the real chess games.
A bit more difficult is solving the problems when the same subjects are tested in new positions. It is also of importance to keep an eye on their knowledge level.
It is important not to let the level of knowledge and their level of skills differ too much. The testing sheets marked with Mix are suitable for the following reasons: The trick for the defender is to keep going as long as possible and for the attacker to do the job as quickly as possible. That is harder in the beginning.
In case this happens. The familiarity with the material coincides with the familiarity of the positions. The main portion of the chess hour after the lesson about mate must therefore consists of playing games. Finish a gamer-posit ion The main purpose of the chess lessons is to teach the children how to play better chess. The computer can also be of help in games with a legal position. The simplest method is to make a summary of the exercise material that was done.
When preparing for the examination it is sensible to let the children make a test examination first. We give chess lessons in the first place to build and to raise their skills 'how to learn and play better chess. It will put a severe strain on their enthusiasm. Ce rtificate The children may take an examination after the lessons of 'step one. Goals that are closer by have to serve as a real stimulus. We also have to realize that to give children the prospect of the certificate in the beginning of the year will not be a stimulus for very long.
The point in which they will receive the real certificate lies too far in the future. The certificate is not a goal in itself. But these can be a good stimulus to continue ' with the course material to the end. D' refers to the diagram on the top of the page. They can be found in the workbook that is meant for the students. Rd5xe5 would be best. The exclamation mark means a good move. The following symbols. The name of the reminder.
These have to be read and! If the rook remains on d5. The question mark means a bad move. The diamond is the name of the reminder.
The moves in the answers are sometimes accompanied by an exclamation mark or a question mark. When discussing the right part. For the sake of clarity. The children often already know the board from checkers.
Irrespective of the colour mostly The rest of this lesson. A chess board and a checkers board are about the same size. Instruction No one is likely to be entirely ignorant of chess in a new 'beginners' group. The pieces may be set up on their initial square after they have been introduced.
To enable us to follow all events on the board well. The students then will learn the names without effort during the course of the chess lessons. Pieces will be set on the board: A few data are given at the end of the lesson under Information.
A student may set up the black pieces on the board. Giving names to squares It is handy for the chess lessons to be able to name squares. They are going to play against each other on the board. We can combine the presentation of the pieces only the name! The board is correctly placed when a white square is in the lower right hand corner.
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The letters a through h are found on the lower side of the board and on the right of a b e d e f g h The initial position will then be 'populated' slowly. Let the students check whether the board of their neighbour is placed correctly. The explanation may be supported by analogy of streets and house numbers. Useful concepts for the following lessons are: It happens that some of these boards have capital letters instead of small letters.
Repeat this exercise. An exercise with other squares does not do any harm. The letters and numbers on some boards are only on one side. Start by pointing out a square in the corner. Check whether the students point out the right square and whether all boards are correctly placed. Putting a sticker of small letters is a good solution.
We already know that there is a white square in the right-hand corner. Put a piece on the board and let them name the square if necessary close to the edges first. It prevents confusion later on when using notation. On some demonstration boards. The position of the coordinates differs from board to board.
We then have a choice. It is important that children imitate this on their own board. In the diagram Q the white knight is located on square g7. We find the name by first looking down and then to the right.
The game starts from the initial position. It is sufficient if children know how we arrive at the name of a square. The chess pieces king. A few mistakes indicate quick work or working without sufficient concentration. Giving names to the squares is not always exciting. Point out the mistake only. A Explanation: The names of the squares on which the pieces are standing. Summary Chess is played on a board. Parts of the board have a name: Adapt the number of examples to your situation.
The names of the squares are found by first looking for the letter and then for the number. Squares are wrongly named. If this is insufficient. Eight white pawns are placed in front of the above pieces. The circles. The Netherlands and Germany took it for a courier ' loper' and ' Laufer'.
In the original version. The pawns were the foot soldiers of the game as of old. Wrong squares were indicated. He can be easily recognized by the cross on his head. It was in the past featured with twisted tusks that pointed to each other. Incidental mistakes occur most of the time because the children work too quickly or without concentration. The king was called Shah in Persia.
The horses have been horses from the start. These were changed to their present form during the crusades. Let the student read through the reminder or allow another student to help. The queen was the weakest piece in the original version. She was changed into the strongest piece during the Renaissance. The bishop developed from the elephant.
The game of chess owes its name to him. The French mistook these tusks for a fool ' s cap cap 'n' bells. We will therefore start with the rook. Counting the number of possible moves In the latter case. We move the rook from e4 to b4. The rook goes straight: We play the rook to the other squares. The rooks are not allowed to land on the same square. White has played a rook move. The students can exercise the moves of the rook on their own board alone or in twos.
They have to look for the rook in their own chess set. To keep the lesson fresh and varied. The queen can do a lot and she is therefore very strong. Ask for the shortest and longest bishop move e.
She can play like the rook and like the bishop. After having dealt with rook and bishop. The queen in the diagram. If she stands on e5. There is a bishop for the white and one for the black squares. Let them move the bishop from d5 one. Bishops are different. The way the knight moves is the most com- They can of course never change their square colour. Avoid that the bishop is only played to the edge. In the corner. A bishop on b7 can never come to g3.
That is its maximum. A bishop on d5 may choose out of 1 3 squares on an empty board. After the rook. She can move in eight different directions from the middle of the board. The move or jump of the knight must be demonstrated well and several times. That can be simply drawn and cut.
A knight in the centre of the board gives a nice circle. The way a knight moves also imitates follows the letter L. The knight jumps in the diagram Q from d4. It does not really matter what way a student uses. Also show a king of the other colour.
In order to make the visual image and the control easier. There are several ways to explain its movement. We have chosen for one diagonally. Do not only place the king in the middle of the board. A good visual prop is a 'board' of 3x2 squares standing and lying. Children may have learned the move of the knight differently.
On such a board a knight jumps from one corner to the other corner. The way the king moves is easy again. Knight and bishop are roughly worth the same because each bishop only can come on one square colour. The way the pawn moves is left for another lesson. Allow the children to play as much as possible with the pieces! A rough knowledge of the value of the pieces is indispensable for the following lessons.
It takes a while before the students are sufficiently familiar with the way the pieces move. A rough ranking list is sufficient for the moment. Summary The rook. The pieces differ in their importance and value. The probable order that they will give is queen.
The students should make an order of ranking. The queen is worth the most. Counting the various options gives the students a good first impression of the activity of this piece.
The players make a move in turn and White starts just like in a real The concept of check will be introduced at a later stage. A point list will be introduced at a later stage.
The knights could then be allowed to capture each other. The pieces have to move clockwise. The purpose of this game is to exercise the way the knight jumps in a playful manner. The children have to return these to their original square in the diagram Q.
This is a very useful exercise. The area in the middle of the square is the ' inner circle'. That means capturing them.
That part of the board serves as a barrier. The aim of the game is to let the children exercise the way the pieces move. Capture is not allowed.
The maximum is four pieces for each player. Whoever has captured the most pawns is the winner. Both players have two knights. The knights are not allowed to capture each other.
Add the queen and a knight and let these play as well. In the position in the diagram fi the white and the black knight must 'eat' the pawns of the other colour. This block of pawns serves our purpose very well draughtsmen will do too. The pieces are not allowed to move beyond the middle half of the board i.
The children have not yet memorised the initial position. Ask once more how the knight moves and set up pawns The game can also be played individually with only the white pieces..
It is not necessary to erect a barrier.. The aim of the game is to bring the pieces move by move to their correct place in the initial position. White begins. The squares in between from where and to where the knight moves get a plus sign a knight on e4 can jump to f5 and f The knight is compared too much to other pieces. All squares to where the piece may move in one move get a plus sign.
Even children who already know the way the pieces move a bit longer. A I Rb4: The queen can do 'anything' has been taken too literally. Asking once more how the queen moves is often sufficient. A piece can play unexpected moves. Ask him if the piece shown is allowed to go to the square with the wrong plus sign.
Too many plus signs when the queen is discussed. Looking at the reminder will also help. After a few plus signs have been written down by the child. He will then often realize his mistake. There are too many plus signs for the moves of various pieces. The bishop moves to a square of a different colour. A white-squared bishop becomes a black-squared one. If it is White's turn.
In this case. The easy pieces only need to be covered briefly. That requires attention. The bishop disappears from the board and does not take part in the game any longer. Many of the children will still make knight moves with hesitation. In this lesson. On the left side in the diagram.
The black bishop on the right side attacks the knight. It does not matter that there are pieces 'in the way' on e4 and f4. He can capture the knight. In the right side of the diagram. This can be further illustrated by replacing the black knight by a white one diagram right. Replace white with black pieces. Nothing special. The knight can jump over both one's own and enemy pieces. In the following examples. In the lower right side the king can capture the knight. In this type of position. Children and especially young ones have trouble with jumping Besides 'normal' capture.
Capturing is not obligatory! Capturing is. In the upper right side of the split diagram the bishops attack each other. On the left side in the diagram fi the queen attacks the rook. Let one of the students come to the demonstration board to point out the attack and to make the capture. Rt7-h7 or f4. But Black can safely attack the white bishop by playing 1. They take the knight. The game ' Which knight eats the quickest '. When it comes to attacking. In the diagram Q the queen has to attack the rook in a safe manner.
In contrast. During 'attacking actions'. If children now also let it play eight moves without hesitation including two captures. This can only be accomplished by means of a diagonal attack. To them. A good move is e. We let the children participate on their board as much as possible.
Attacking pieces should be done with the necessary care. We should realize however that the job of transferring relatively complicated positions on the demonstration board to their own board is quite difficult for the children. A knight can attack any other piece without being captured itself.
Rf7 -g7. The black knight can capture the bishop if it moves to c6. That is not a duty. The children switch colours after each game. In the diagram 1 ' the bishop on f3 could attack the black rook from either c6 or g4. The knight can only be caught on the edge and on some squares close to the edge of the board. A knight jumps and. The opponent can attack your pieces too and capture them! If you attack an enemy piece. Each extra piece means more and more complex interaction!
Other pieces of the opponent may act as spoil-sport when attacking a piece yourself. Summary Enemy pieces that are under attack. It is also possible for the teacher to play the side of the knight simultaneously The queen.
Jumping over the counters is not allowed. Both games have an extra rook. Both players have two knights and the knights are now allowed to capture each other. By then. We can come back to this little game after a few lessons. Knight 's jump This exercise was outlined in lesson 2 above. This is a difficult exercise.
The importance of the centre squares d4. This chase will only succeed with correct play if the rook is exposed but protected! If catching the bishop does not succeed. The concepts of mobility knight in the centre and vulnerability knight more towards the edge play a role.
The idea is to capture as many as possible without being captured yourself. Let them make the move. Capturing is a nice job and the more captures the better! Setting up the diagrammed position on their own board is a good prop. It is sufficient to point out that the same piece must play every time. Capturing too few pieces. Which knight 'eats ' the quickest? The diagram '0' comes about by replacing both kings by one of their opponent's knights.
Only these knights are allowed to play in this exercise. The enemy piece that can then be captured will get a circle. What is more likely however. The error could be caused by unfamiliarity with this aspect. This exercise sheet requires a good introduction. B Explanation: The students have to write a plus sign on the squares where the indicated piece can go in one move. His reasoning: Set up the position and ask what other pieces can also be captured.
Even at step 5 level. As a result of the dedicated effort to capturing. Capturing your own pieces. The point is that. Not easy. They have to capture all the enemy pieces surrounding them as quickly as possible. The child is already content after capturing one piece.
They can find the best move by comparing all possible attacking moves. Which piece should attack? The piece that attacks can itself be captured.
Therefore the motto is: The correct move will get an arrow. We therefore repeat the suggested move on his own board and ask: Position 8 or 1 0 is wrong. There is a correct attack but the opponent is able to capture a piece with the attacked piece see answers.
Choosing the right approach from the start will pay offi The students must first look for all possible attacks in the diagram setting a plus sign on the squares is enough. The condition is that their own piece cannot be captured.
The cause is often that the child is too involved with his own action. We make the move on the child's own board and ask: Ne4-f6 8 1. Nc5-d3 1. Bg2-d5 Nb7-d6 1 2 1. Bc6-e4 Rf5xaS 5 1. Qd5-d2 or 1. Qd5-a2 1 0 1. Rg2-g6 1. Qd5-f7 9 1. BaS-b4 1. Rd5-dl or 1. Be2-h5 2 1. Be2-g4 7 1. Rd5-e5 Bc6xg2 4 1. Rb8-d8 1 1 1. Qa8-h8 6 Many people think that the pawn is the easiest chess piece. To vary the way that the teaching material is presented.
The pawn on b2 in the diagram.
That is not correct. The pawn on g3. After explaining how a pawn moves. The pawn moves straight ahead. The pawn captures The pawn on c5 has lost its right to move two steps forward and can only move one step forward.
It is not allowed to capture the bishop on g4. A pawn that reaches the other side of the board changes into a queen. Let the children explain how the pawn may have arrived on b2.
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Black always plays from above downwards. The c-pawn may capture on d5 or move to c5. We call this promotion. The pawn on a6 cannot move. A suitable question the children could think about is: The pawn on e5 has a choice of capturing the The different possibilities are illustrated in the diagram fr. Pawns cannot move backwards. Pawn b2 may be promoted on b 1 or by capturing on c l.
White plays 1. We now set up the diagram Q and play 1. Set up the e-pawns in their initial position on an empty board. We never make an exception in order not to confuse. The pawn on h2 may move one or two squares forward. Pawn b7 may move one or two squares forward.
We also look at the possibilities of the black pawn using the diagram. In the diagram 1 ' we give two possible options. A playful way is to play together starting with the 'Initial position ' from lesson 2.
The white queen stands on a white square. Summary A repetition of the rules of the pawn: Of course. We will stick to that principle throughout the course. Capturing 'en passant' capture while passing will be covered at the end of the first step. That is.. We conclude the lesson by repeating how the initial position should be set up. The pawns win with good play. It is therefore allowed to begin.
You also win if your opponent cannot move anymore. Bishop or knight versus pawns In the diagram Q on the left. This pawn mass looks enormous.
The bishop could nail the pawns down. With correct play the pawns will win easily. Queen against pawns In the diagram D. The bishop player wins when all the pawns have been captured or when the last pawn has been nailed.
The students will discover themselves that it is better not to capture a protected pawn to be discussed in the next lesson. The students will switch colour after every game. The minimum number of moves in this position is 1 8. Promotion game The eight pawns in the diagram Q have to be moved to the other side. The player with the most points after two games is the winner. Another example: Then Black sets up a piece. Point White sets up a piece.
White sets up the same piece on the other side. This little game can best be demonstrated in a simultaneous display. The teacher plays the side of the pawns. The knight has to capture as many pawns as possible and avoid being captured itself. Black sets up the same piece in a straight line on the other side of the board.
To capture a protected pawn will cost the queen. A pawn that promotes counts for one point use the black pawns to keep track of the score. More difficult variations are: The players will play a 'best-of-two' match. Explaining the rules once more is the obvious solution. This is a real popular assignment for the student.
The pawn moves are in the wrong direction. The pawn jumps or makes other illegal moves.. A 8 Explanation: The students must write a plus sign for all possible pawn moves. They will quickly correct these direction problems in the exercises. Another challenge for the most advanced kid in the group is to construct the maximum number of moves.
The cause of this mistake is that the student has missed the relationship between the starting point of the pawn and the position of the board. These errors only occur in positions in which no pawn move is possible. With good play. The problem may persist for a longer period during games. Point out that pawns are sometimes unable to move.
Keep telling him that White's initial position starts on the 1 st rank and Black's on the S th rank. From this position. The pieces that can be captured get a circle. In the diagram 1 ' we have shown the position that will allow the children to reach it quickest.
Indicate that pawn moves are not always possible. The piece next to the board has to be inserted in such a way that a good attack is possible. The inserted piece can be captured. A 1 rook on the 2nd rank or on the 7 Ra3. If by any chance more than one piece can be attacked. Set the position up on the board. We set the piece on their own board and ask: The attacked piece is protected.
The cause is often that the student is focussed too much on his own action. Qh6 4 Be6 or Ld7 1 1 Kg8 5 Nd5. The piece to be attacked should be unprotected. The inserted piece itself should. At this point it is good idea to repeat the order of ranking of the pieces see lesson 2.
Let them think of a few positions on their own board. The queen is worth more than a knight. It will be clear that the knight' s moves to b3. It can move away to d7. Black can defend himself not only by moving away but also by 'protecting' the knight. Black plays the rook to c8. On those squares the queen still can capture the knight. Diagram Q may be used to defend by ' moving away '.
White will not capture with his queen on c5. An incorrect way of protecting is I. We call this a mutual attack. A third way to defend is by 'capturing'. All their attention is devoted to the protection of their own pieces while other factors are ignored.
The black bishop on the left is attacked by the white rook. Nc2-d4 is wrong.. The black queen attacks the white knight on the right. As a result. The example in the diagram 'fr is similar. Anticipating the moves and watching the opponent's game is hard for beginning chess players. Whereas this succeed in protecting the bishop. Anticipating your opponent's moves watching his game is an important facet of the game of chess. Black may move his knight away.
There are two forms of capture: Nc2-a3 or he may move. Black can protect the bishop by 1. Allow the children to look for the two correct answers and let them make the moves on their own board 1. In this example the board is rather empty. Both methods are correct. Note that. The attacked knight may move away to c4. The pawn that plays He then thinks in turn of a new example. The student next to him may then point out the various ways in which the attacked piece can be defended.
This manner of defending will be dealt with more extensively in lesson 6. Let the student set up positions that involve an attack themselves. White may play 1. On the right side. Qc3xa5 or protect it e. We include interposing for completeness' sake. You may safely leave interposing out of the lessons for the time being. The threatened queen on g2 may move to f2 smart. In the diagram c: The ways to defend that we have covered so far are summarised in the diagram.
White can also capture the attacker by 1. Another special way to protect. White can move the rook away or the bishop can capture the knight.
In games of beginners interposing occurs primarily in order to get out of check. On the right i n the diagram the knight on h6 is in danger.
The students must attack and defend with equal material. It does not have a safe square to go to. Summary You may defend yourself against an attack in four ways: In some cases more than one way is correct.
Whoever has captured everything.The queen covers all the escape squares. Capturing your own pieces. The students may use the summary on the board later on when absorbing it.
The pawn jumps or makes other illegal moves.. The player with the most points after two games is the winner. This can be found in the sheets marked with Repetition. Children should have their own board during the entire lesson.
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