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Carte nautiche elettroniche dell'I.I.M. e cartografia tecnica regionale: studio di fattibilita per una URL for Proceeding, ppti.info e-mail: [email protected] web site ppti.info . ELENCO CARTE INGLESI MAR MEDITERRANEO - MAR. ppti.info alphabet flags. Alfa. Bravo. Charlie. Delta. Echo. Foxtrot. Golf. Hotel. India. Juliet. Kilo. Lima. Mike. November. Oscar. Papa. Quebec.

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scarica il catalogo in pdf - Garda Yachting Charter. ppti.info Views. 5 years ago. Brossura, · Colori, · Edizioni, · Frangente, · Edizione, · Mare, · Carte, · Foto. The map has been reproduced in facsimile twice, as Carte nautique sur vélin de .. Florence, Archivio di Stato, Carte nautiche 15, a signed but undated nautical. Edizioni Magnamare, Carte Nautiche, Portolani, Nautica, Patente nautica, Navigare, Vela, Yacht, Sub, Fari, Adriatico, Mediterraneo, Carteggio nautico.

Casanova studied the chart in detail in the late nineteenth century and suggested that it should be dated to c. It is otherwise undecorated, and has no other long legends. Stevenson describes the atlas briefly,33 while Bonasera provides reproductions of the six maps in the atlas, but little analysis. London, British Library, Add. This map is the subject of the present study. Archivio di stato in Firenze Florence, Bonasera has a few pages on this map in La cartografia nautica anconetana see n.

Other studies of the map include L. Milanich and Nara B. Five Centuries of Exploration: A New Edition of E. The Case of Conte di Ottomano Freducci and Fra Mauro a specialist to paint the sovereigns on one or both of these charts.

The legends are longer than those on most other nautical charts. The chart has water damage and pieces of parchment missing along the northern margin and also in Turkey, which resulted in the loss of most of the legend describing Turkey.

This is an elaborately decorated nautical chart which is very similar to Add. It also covers a smaller geographical area: The legends it omits with respect to Add. To judge from the reproduction of the chart in the auction catalogue,36 the legends on this map are of the same length as those on Add.

Lucca, Biblioteca Statale, MS. I know of no earlier published image of the chart. It is a luxury chart that has images of the same sovereigns as Add. The damage to the chart has rendered some of the legends totally illegible, and others partly illegible, but where the legends are legible, they are all but identical with those on Add.

One noteworthy difference between the Lucca chart and Add. On the one hand, it is unfortunate that this important map in Lucca has languished unstudied so long, but on the other, it is a windfall that the very close similarity of the Lucca chart to Add.

Conte Freducci anconitano la facta in ancona, but lacks a date. Filippo, Studi biografici e bibliografici sulla storia della geografia in Italia, vol. Angelo made two other atlases in this same style: Treasures of the Polish National Library Warsaw, , pp.

Geographicae tabvlae in charta pergamena, z roku Warsaw, , p. There are images of all of the maps in the Greenwich atlas on the internet site of the National Maritime Museum. By permission of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. This atlas has not been carefully studied, and I know of only one published image of one of its maps.

The city images are larger and more artistically elaborate, but fewer in number, than those in his atlas in The Hague. I know of no bibliography on or reproductions of this atlas. The atlas is reproduced in facsimile by Stevenson. This tends to suggest that Freducci thought about these charts as being in a different category.

The maps have numerous small images of cities, but there are no long legends. Bonasera La Cartografia, p. I know of no published reproductions of the maps in this atlas. This atlas is very similar to the preceding, including the small images of cities, but it also has which Add.

Courtesy of Yale University. In these works Freducci uses information from Fra Mauro, a cartographer who lived about eighty years earlier, but the legends seem to be the result of reworking by Freducci.

Again Freducci seems to show an interest in the eastern Mediterranean. Bonasera, La cartografia nautica anconetana see n. The legend on the Turin chart reads Lacus fortunatus sancti ubi sunt multe insule que dicuntur insule sancte beate cccLxvii.

The addition of multe before insule is not surprising, but I have not seen sancti following fortunatus in any other nautical chart.

Michaelis Venetiarum prope Murianum Venice, , col. Mapping a Continent: In fact Angelo also made two other atlases in the same style: The new information revealed above, namely that Conte di Ottomano Freducci was the cartographer of Borgiano V, and that he used information from legends in Borgiano V in Add. The sequence of events seems to have been as follows. Fra Mauro, probably in the s, created, as a dress-rehearsal for his mappamundi of c.

Conte di Ottomano Freducci came into possession of this chart. In the cartographer Giorgio Calapoda, also known as Giorgio Sideri, who was born in Crete and worked in Venice from to , made a nautical chart in a style very different from that of his other charts see fig. Courtesy of the Polish National Library. The map was copied from a map by Fra Mauro.

This scenario is perhaps rendered more likely by a connection that Tony Campbell has noted between the Freduccis and Calapoda, namely that they all followed the Benincasa Grazioso and Andrea style of nautical charts.

We do not know whether the cartographers advertised the charts as being derived from the work of the cosmographus incomparabilis Fra Mauro, but the demand certainly existed.

The area depicted on the map ranges from the Transylvanian Alps in the north to the Sea of Marmora in the south, and includes parts of Hungary and Transylvania, as well as Wallachia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Thrace. Banfi, while acknowledging the similarity of style between the map in MS. This distinction does not seem valid to me, as the MS. Afonso V. I, fl. On stylistic grounds it seems very likely that the maker of the map in MS. However, it should also be noted that the handwriting on the map in MS.

There is a final and important point to be made regarding the connections between Freducci and Fra Mauro: We cannot be sure of the nature of this document: Freducci made three similar charts, Add.

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As Add. At the beginning of this article I listed other maps that revise or replace traditional nautical chart legends, but Add. The additions that Freducci made to the standard nautical chart legends contain curious and recondite pieces of information see the commentaries on the legends below , so it seems that considerable effort went into the revision. On flags as part of the paid-for artistic decorations on manuscript maps specified in the commission see R.

The Case of Conte di Ottomano Freducci and Fra Mauro It is worth trying to see what we can determine about the nature of the commission by examining the legends on Add.

It should be noted that the legends are in Latin. When Freducci made Add. If the client had merely wanted long legends, Freducci could have copied the long legends in Italian from the predecessor to Borgiano V, so the client must have specified legends in Latin. The legends on Add. Thus the new legends show a greater interest in ethnography and politics than the legends they replace, which were geographical in nature.

The addition of legends on Scotland and England suggests an interest in Britain. There is perhaps some confirmation of this latter interest on the part of the client for Add. For example, in the legend about the Sultan of Babylon Cairo Legend 5 , he adds information about the succession of Mamluk sultans, and in the legend on the Baltic Legend 11 he adds information about fishermen building huts on the winter ice and fishing through holes in it, and also describes the trade that passes across the sea.

Indeed, it seems that the client had an interest in trade, for the new legend about Russia Legend 10 and the material added to the legend about the King of Nubia Legend 4 and the Sultan of Babylon Legend 5 also contain significant data on trade. Thus we can conclude that the client for Add. The fact that the client did not ask Freducci to include the New World which his chart in Florence, Archivio di Stato, carte nautiche 15, shows that Freducci could do indicates a client with chiefly Old World interests.

Life in Pisa at the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century was difficult, as Florence was plotting and fighting to recapture the city, laying siege to it three times between and He was granted citizenship of Messina and Palermo, and was senator of Palermo in the years , , , and Neither of these cities is close to Ancona, where Freducci worked, but no doubt both the cartographer and the client travelled on occasion.

Lucca MS. The coat of arms was no doubt an extra-cost feature, like most other artistic decorations of nautical charts. One question regarding the legends on Add. One possibility that bears mentioning, but which I think can be quickly dismissed, is that Add. There are other facts that tend to confirm that the legends on Add.

First, the legends on Add. It would make sense that a cartographer whose family had ties to the sultanate would be the first to compose a legend about the Ottoman sultan and empire see Legend 8 below , and the fact that this legend casts the sultan and his realm in an entirely positive light makes it even more likely that the author had ties to the sultanate.

For while a few Renaissance humanists had positive views of the Turks, and others saw them in neutral, pragmatic terms as trading partners, the general attitude toward the Turks in Renaissance Europe was overwhelmingly negative. Renaissance Humanists and the Ottoman Turks Philadelphia, For discussion of the Turkish menace reflected in early sixteenth-century German hymns see Sydney H.

Bohnstedt, The Infidel Scourge of God: In this case the conquest of Mauritania was incomplete, and the historian Procopius c.

This terminus post quem tends to confirm that it was Freducci himself who was responsible for revising and expanding the legends for Add. Transcription, Translation, and Commentary on the Legends The legends are transcribed beginning in northwest Africa, and proceeding counterclockwise: On the difficulties of the Roman occupation see Marlene C. Dewing London and New York, , vol. Empire and Successors A. The original Greek text was not published until They were never under Roman law both because the area they live in is mountainous and difficult and also because they were not worth much respect.

The men are wild and beastlike and in this part of the realm the people eat human flesh. Commentary This legend on Add.

The legend replaces a traditional nautical chart legend that first appears on the c. As mentioned earlier, he reverted to the traditional legend in his atlas at the Hispanic Society in New York, which tends to confirm that he regarded Add. He depicts the king holding a sceptre in one hand and a shield with a prominent boss in the other, and wearing a distinctive crown and a cape but no other clothes; his skin is dark brown see fig.

The image on Lucca MS. As noted above, the part of the legend which says that the Mauritanians were never conquered because of their mountainous terrain probably comes from Procopius in his description of the Vandalic War; Procopius was first published in a Latin translation in , so it seems likely that legend was composed after that time. I have not found any source for the assertion that Mauritanians eat human flesh. It is tempting to think that this represents information about cannibals elsewhere in West Africa that Freducci simply gathered into the legend on Mauritania, but in fact very few sources mention cannibalism in West Africa.

Legend 2 — Mansa Musa and Guinea Rex iste dictus mussamellus dominatur prouintie ghinee et est non minus prudens et sapiens quam sit potens Abet secum Mattematicos excellentes hominesque liberalibus artis preditos: He has with him excellent mathematicians and men versed in the liberal arts, and he has great riches, as he is near the branch of the Nile which is called the Gulf of Gold.

From this is brought a great quantity of gold dust or tibr, and this is a passage through his kingdom, and these regions abound in all the things that there are above the ground, particularly in dates and manna, and the best of all other things that can be had — they only lack salt. A legend about Mansa Musa, who ruled from Only two early Renaissance works come to mind that mention cannibals in West Africa. George H. Kimble London, , with mentions of cannibals on pp.

Pereira wrote his work between and , but it was not published until , so it is not a likely source for Freducci. The passage is briefly discussed by W. The Case of Conte di Ottomano Freducci and Fra Mauro to ,86 and who was famous for his pilgrimage to Mecca in ,87 first appears on the Catalan Atlas of ,88 and was repeated on nautical charts into the early sixteenth century with little variation. Iste dominus vocatur Rex musamelli dominus prouintie Giuneue et iste est ditior et nobilior omnium istarum partium propter magnam habundantiam Auri quo habbundant in sua terra et est de progenie de ham.

This sovereign is called King Mansa Musa and he rules the province of Guinea, and he is richer and nobler than all others in these regions because of the great abundance of gold which abounds in his land, and he is of the progeny of Ham.

Quinn eds. Studies in Honor of John E. Woods Wiesbaden, , pp. Ebrisa, , and in this edition the legend in question is transcribed and translated into Spanish on p. The map is also reproduced in Pujades i Bataller, Les cartes portolanes see n. This collection of travel narratives was translated into Latin the next year as Itinerariu[m] Portugalle[n]siu[m] e Lusitania in India[m] [Milan], , and the passages appear in the same chapters, specifically on ff.

Crone London, , pp. In these lands there is a population of blacks that have lips so thick that they have to put salt on them to stop them putrefying. These barter gold dust for salt, and it is their habit to go at a certain time of the year to a pre-established place and there they put as much gold for the salt as seems fair to them.

Then they go away; and come back the next day to see if the gold has been taken, and then they take the salt. But if the gold has been moved but not taken, then they add some more. And they go on like this until [everyone] is satisfied; and they never see or speak [to their trading partners] except on some very rare occasions. The legend relating to the river of gold reads iste fluuius exit de Nilo, in quo multum aurum repperitur, i. On Add. I do not know of a source that mentions Mansa Musa being a musician, but the image of him playing the violin is probably intended to allude to his support of culture.

See John O. Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, xxxvi , pp. Several images of Mansa Musa as he is depicted on nautical charts are reproduced in Pujades, Les cartes portolanes see n.

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Ge B These have many cities and towns and in these regions there are many fruit trees and many precious things are found, manna and dates and other things, and in these mountains towards Mauritania astronomy was discovered.

A legend about the mountains first appears on the Catalan Atlas of , and that legend was repeated on later charts with little variation: Know that in this mountain there are many good cities and castles that fight against each other, and also in these mountains there is an abundance of bread, wine, oil and many good fruits.

Ge B , which adds to the traditional legend information about the extent of the mountain range and the savage beasts in it.

The legend is transcribed in Ramon J. Llompart i Moragues et al. The assertion that astronomy was discovered in the Atlas Mountains derives from the ideas that Greek god Atlas, by supporting the heavens, had knowledge of them, and the association of Atlas with Africa. This assertion appears in Isidore, Chronicon 16; Isidore, Etymologiae Et auri pondo que ipsum arriua et equum quater contineret indigene omnes fere sunt idolatre: He is almost always at war with the king of India whose name in the local language is Prester John, and their battles are so incredible that they might be thought portentous falsehoods, yet whatever is said about them is true.

The inhabitants of the region are almost all idolaters, but as these areas are good for trade and many merchants come there, they have men of every school of thought and sect. Moldenke and Alma L. Donkin, Manna: Stephen A. Barney et al. Cambridge and New York, , p. Recreation for an Emperor, edited and translated by S. Banks and J. Binns Oxford, , pp. For further discussion see Volker R. The Case of Conte di Ottomano Freducci and Fra Mauro Commentary This is a much expanded version of a traditional nautical chart legend, but in this case there is no evidence that the new material comes from Fra Mauro, and I have not been able to determine the source of the additions.

Nubia of the Saracens: Similar legends appear on later charts, for example on the Catalan Atlas and the Catalan Estense mappamundi; the sovereign is first represented on the Catalan Atlas. The text about the king of Nubia giving to his idols his own weight in pearls and gems, and also in gold, is puzzling. Freducci depicts the King of Nubia holding a bow, with a quiver lying on the ground see fig.

The Evidence of Maps 12thth cent. Anderson and Derek A. Welsby, eds. See P. Also see U.

Wagoner, Tidings of the King: The relocated image of the King of Nubia is similar to that on Add. The last sentence of the legend contains some information on trade, and this same interest is reflected in other legends on the map see Legends 5, 10, and Legend 5 — The Sultan of Babylon Cairo Hic princeps babilonie cui nomen est uernaculum gram soldam est potemtissimus tamen eius inperium non est ereditarium sed sorte ductum nec potest quiquam deputari nisi verne et seruo ter taltim [for saltim] empto: Great Sultan].

He is very powerful, yet his rule is not hereditary, but is transferred by lot, nor can anyone be chosen for the role unless he is a home-born slave and a slave sold three times. He is very wealthy in treasure because of the many ships carrying gold, spices of both kinds, and pearls that cross his territory and the rivers under his power and because of the many taxes he orders collected, since he is the lord of Syria, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Medea, and other provinces, and particularly of the Holy Land.

Commentary This is a very substantial expansion of the traditional nautical chart legend about the Sultan of Babylon, which confusingly is the designation of the sovereign of Egypt: The first legend about and depiction of the Sultan of Babylon are on the Catalan Atlas of ; the legend is short: This is the form of the legend that Freducci uses on his chart: This Sultan of Babylon is called Al-Nasir Muhammad and he is very great and powerful among the others of this region and he controls all of the Holy Land.

The detail that the sultan must be a thrice-bought slave is an exaggeration of the Mamluk system of succession.

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The sultan of Egypt was chosen from the mamluks, a warrior class of slave origin. There were a few cases in which the sultan was unsure whether a mamluk had been purchased, and the sultan would buy him again, probably as a mere formality, in order to be able to manumit him according to the law.

But Western descriptions of the system are exaggerated. Felix Fabri, who stayed in Cairo in and , said that a mamluk could not become sultan unless he was bought and sold twice, and Francesco Suriano c. Freducci also adds information about the transit trade and taxes levied by the Mamluk sultanate. He does not explicitly say that the sultan taxed the ships carrying gold, spices, and pearls that cross his territory, but seems to imply this, and does speak of the taxes the sultan earned through his control of Syria, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Medea, and the Holy Land.

On the Mamluk sultans see Peter M. Jacques Masson Cairo, , pp. For general discussion of the spice trade during this period see John L. The image of this sultan on Lucca MS. Legend 6 — The Red Sea Hoc mare dictum est rubeum non quod eius aqua uiusmodi [i. Through this sea the people of Israel crossed while fleeing the Pharaoh, and when their enemies were destroyed, they escaped. Here there come spices and many ships from the Indian Ocean, but they cannot reach the end of the sea because the water is not deep enough to keep them afloat, and because in the deepest shallows there is a large amount of magnet, and the ships must be nailed together with wooden nails lest they be held in place [by the magnet].

Incidentally in the second half of the sixteenth century the Ottomans, who controlled the Eastern Mediterranean and Egypt after , mounted a serious challenge to the Portuguese monopoly on the India-to-Mediterranean spice trade: Pearson ed. Tort i Donada eds. The Case of Conte di Ottomano Freducci and Fra Mauro Commentary This is an expansion of a traditional nautical chart legend, but there is no evidence for the use of Fra Mauro as a source. This sea is called the Red Sea, through which passed the twelve tribes of Israel.

Know that water is not red, but the bottom is of this colour. Over this sea pass most of the spices that come to Alexandria from India. This sea is called the Red Sea, through which passed the twelve tribes of Israel, but not because the water is red, but because the bottom is red. And through this sea the ships of Indian merchants carry spices which they bring to Cairo and then to Alexandria.

Thus we see that Freducci added considerable material to the traditional nautical chart legend in his new legend on Add. There are in fact extensive shallows in the Red Sea, but I do not know from what source Freducci might have garnered this information.

The whole legend is transcribed by J. And the nature of the Liver Sea [i. Red Sea] is such that it attracts ships on account of the iron in the ships because the bottom of this sea is said to consist of rocks of lodestone, which has attractive power. Legend 7 — Mount Sinai Mons sinai in quo deus dedit legem Moixi et in eodem loco iacet corpus beate catarine Virginis. Commentary This is a traditional nautical chart legend, which Freducci did not modify at all on Add. A similar legend first appears on the Catalan Atlas, in a mixture of Catalan and Latin: For discussion of the passage in Ptolemy see G.

The Latin and English are from Scott D. Westrem, Broader Horizons: A[vv — A[vi]r, disputes the claim that ships in the Indian Ocean are not made with nails because of the danger presented by magnets, asserting that it is rather because there is little iron available in the region. Sinai with the Monastery of St Catherine at its summit.

There are very similar images of and legends about Mount Sinai on four other works by Freducci, namely his chart at the Hispanic Society, his atlas at Yale see fig. The frequency with which he used this image and legend perhaps reflect his interest in the eastern Mediterranean mentioned above. Legend 8 — Turkey Hic inperator qui appellatus magnus turcus eorum hominum maximus et tres abet coronas et inperia Vltra alia regna et dominia estque dominus thexauri multi et diuitiarum hac maxime hobedientie sub eius dictionem est mare superum gretiam totam: These places with great obedience are under his control: The legend is also transcribed y Ramon J.

The legend on the chart of Benincasa is transcribed by E. On Grazioso Benincasa generally see C. Feroso [i. Michele Maroni], Grazioso Benincasa marinaro e cartografo anconitano del secolo 15 Ancona, To the right of the image of the sultan on Add. Que Asia incipit a partibus maris Rubei vsque ad flumen Krixii versus meridiem; et finit ad flumen de Latana versus tramontanam. Et comprehendit Tartariam et totum orientem.

The third part of the world is called Asia because of a king named Arcuis Diaschones who ruled it. Graham Pollard ed. Harley and David Woodward. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , pp.

The most complete review on portolan research except for cartometric analysis. Choix de documents geographiques, conserves a la Bibliotheque nationale, Paris Carte Pisane photo reproduction in near original size Dilke, O. Carignano c. Bologna Fischer, Friedrich Theobald: Facsimile delle carte nautiche di Francesco Pizigani dell' anno , Venezia Was not at hand but may be of importance.

Fischer, Theobald Ed. Text in crude version on the Internet here.

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Gaspar, Joaquim Alves: Dead reckoning and magnetic declination: unveiling the mystery of portolan charts. Hapgood, Charles H. Wiesbaden Jones, Alexander: Astronomical papyri from Oxyrhynchus. Philadelphia Lang, Arend W.One possibility that bears mentioning, but which I think can be quickly dismissed, is that Add.

Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, xxxvi , pp. But one aspect of his family history about which there are records bears discussion here, as it sheds light on one of the legends on Add. Westrem, Broader Horizons: Asia stretches from the Red Sea, that is from the River Nile.

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