BROWN PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING PDF
Principles of language learning and teaching / ppti.infos Brown.- 4th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN Galk. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (5th Edition) Author: H. Douglas Brown Second Language Learning and Language Teaching · Read more. Douglas Brown - Principles of Language Learning and ppti.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. livro sobre ensino de LE.
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H. Douglas Brown - Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 5th Edition. pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Interactive Principles, Roles of the Interactive Teacher, Foreign Language Interaction Analysis, Questioning Strategies for Interactive Learning. About Books [PDF] Download Principles of Language Learning and Teaching by H. Douglas Brown: The sixth edition of Principles of.
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Close Send. Grammar is necessary but, if we always teach it in the traditional manner, could result boring. For me, it is better not to focus too much attention on it; in secondary boring means not meaningful to learn and it is the opposite we are working for. This is because the "school term has working days 49 weeks , the three weekly sessions minutes each make a total of 90 to hours of study per grade" Sep , p. A1 level, also named as Breakthrough, with 90 hours of study COE, , means that students who finish first grade: "Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type.
Can interact in simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help COE, ". As we can see, the goals are reasonably set; when a student finish the first grade should know to communicate personal information, talk about possessions, the downtown, the family with the help of the other speaker who must be patient and helpful. So, students must reach this first level, at least, but anyone is saying that when finishing this first grade they have to be able to communicate in all situations.
What I mean is that the common myth of "I learned nothing in secondary" is incorrect; If a person wants to learn a language, it is greatly related to time of study so, what students learn in secondary is only the base to continue learning during high school and college.
Unfortunately, few people continue practicing after leaving school and starting to work. One of my classmates in the university said once: "Speaking English is like playing the guitar, if you do not practice it you will forget it".
This lack of practice, or use, of the language tends to erase everything we learned In this new school year, a thirteen years old girl who comes from Atlanta, Georgia, and who speaks in English better than does in Spanish, is one of my first grade students. It comes to my mind because is not common to have students with the performance of hers. When the first class finished she approached to my desk and introduced herself, truly I did not expect it; I was shocked for a moment and, then, realized that I was thinking in Spanish.
What I did, as soon as I could some students stood around to listen to the talk , was something I call myself "plugging English language" and start to think in English.
So, this thinking in my mother tongue really avoided automaticy in such case, and I think it is more or less the same when students first have to analyze grammar structures or rules and then speak; it stops the fluency and it is just the opposite to get that automaticy.
As a conclusion of this principle, I would like to say that it is a guide we can work with but, automaticy takes a lot of time and effort in order to be acquired and, due to time, size of groups, students' interests, teachers' practicum as the more important issues, automaticy is not achieved in this level.
Principle 2: Meaningful learning "Meaningful learning will lead toward better long-term retention than rote learning" Brown, , p. As said before, we work with a functional approach; there is an introductory unit and five units in first grade program RES, SEP Each unit's purpose is clearly stated and each one has two or three well defined functions with sample productions.
These sample productions are specific samples of language to be learned; for instance: Unit 2. Unit purpose: The purpose of this unit is to enable students to give and obtain information about possessions and to describe actions that are in progress at the moment of speaking.
Function 2. Sample production: What are you doing? From this point of view, I can deduce that, what every individual considers worthy to be learned becomes meaningful. Talking about kids, or teenagers, we as teachers have to go a little farther by really incorporating what they think is worthy.
We have to start by always specifying and explaining the purpose of each unit, what it serves for, when and where to use language. This is only the beginning; we can not just change our program. In the emotional field, we have to know our learners, not from our own perspective or beliefs but, to talk and find what they think is meaningful.
For instance: Kids love to play so, include games. Kids love music so, include songs. We can not change or avoid the functions but, we can introduce some readings about what they like.
Our job is to make learning meaningful by presenting it as something worthy and useful to learn, maybe as a tool for reading books in college, for surviving in another country, for a good job, for knowing foreigners, for passing exams, for getting good grades, or even to score.
Teachers have to fixate a worthy cause for learning English and observe, ask, or interview students in order to know what it is meaningful for them and associate topics to their interests or background knowledge. In my experience I have seen that some activities do not work in the same manner in all classrooms; in fact, I have worked a little different in Miahuatlan than when I worked in Huatulco Bays. The contexts are very different: In Huatulco most students like reaggaeton music.
In Miahuatlan most students like Durango styled music. Students from Huatulco have a constant relation with English speakers, in fact many students work in tourism affairs on vacations. Students from Miahuatlan have little contact with English native speakers. The point is to highlight that what it is considered meaningful can not be generalized and from that the importance of not to trust only in our beliefs or what most people believe.
One clear example of how to make something meaningful is when asking permission to enter the class or go to the bathroom; in my class, a student who does not ask it in English can not enter or go the bathroom. It seems cruel but, it is not, most of the times they do it in English without a marked effort. This survival questions also help, besides practicing language, to create a respectful atmosphere in class.
Sometimes it is funny because some of them can not pronounce as it should but, at the end, they can and, at the same time, realized on the importance to learn such expressions.
This relation between important, or worthy, and meaningful opens a gate to best know students' interests, likes, dislikes, emotions, and feelings because it is the keyword for learning or wasting the language, for learning to use the language in life or just get good grades, to be committed or just pass exams. Principle 3: The anticipation of reward "Human being are universally driven to act, or "behave," by the anticipation of some sort of reward-tangible or intangible, short term or long term-that will ensue as a result of the behavior" Brown , , p.
In my case, I am teaching only first-graders who, most of them have never studied English before and have graduated from governmental elementary schools. First I would like to say that I have been teaching for ten years. I started working at private schools and I have been in governmental secondary level for four years. I mention this because it is well known that what motivates these students to learn English is far different.
At English private schools, students do want to learn English for several purposes. In secondary English is just another subject matter. At this point I want to focus the attention to secondary school and not to only compare both systems. So, what motivates most students to learn the language is getting a good grade or qualification.
Some students really work hard to achieve it, by all means; some memorize the content, some cheat, some only want to be graded by homework, some study for the exams, etc.
Principles of language learning and teaching
The only reward to learn the language goes from 6 to For some youngsters this is not very fulfilling. And they show it, by being rebellious, by skipping classes, by saying that they understand nothing, by being noisy or lazy in class, by not doing homework, by forgetting their textbook or materials, by walking around the classroom, sometimes snapping their classmates or starting a fight in extreme cases , etc.
Well, this extrinsic motivation decreases while the school year goes on. Some teachers suggest creating rewards for students who show interest and work hard to learn. Some of my colleagues suggest to make fake checks that can be traded for something in the cafeteria or at a store, to make invitations to lunch, to choose teachers for a day, to make diplomas, to post students' photos on an honor frame in the class or on the bulletin board, to give small presents such as stickers, or bigger ones such as dictionaries or magazines even tough is a little expensive.
The main idea is to provide colored cards when students participate in class.
He suggests elaborating three different colored cards and when a student participates will be given with a card and, depending on the type of participation, the color of the card which means extra points. The value of the green card is one point, the blue one, two, and the orange one, five. The size of the card is 9 cm x 5 cm. I modified a little the concept and I use them as following. At the beginning of the class I stand up at the door with a package of green cards.
Students come from another class but, before entering to the English classroom, they must say "Good morning. May I come in?
Then, using pop sticks each pop stick has the name of each student written on it , which are randomly picked up, a student has to answer the question "What day is it today? After that another pop stick is picked up and the next student has to answer to the question "What's the date? Since the fourth unit the question "What time is it?
The Cards are given by oral participation mostly but, also for writing, listening and reading exercises. These exercises could be from the textbook, games, competition in teams, on the notebook, doing drawings. Before the class ends, when the roll-call takes place, students say aloud how many points they gathered during the class and the number of points are written on the list.
It seems very complicated but, it is not. Writing down the points takes maybe three minutes. Then students leave the classroom and go to their next class. The method itself has pros and cons. I will enlist some of them that in my experience, have taken place. Pros 1. A large amount of language is practiced orally.
Oral production is evaluated day by day. The teacher immediately notices which students are having problems with the content. Grades are not based only on a monthly exam. Obtaining cards encourage participating. Obtaining cards creates daily work habits. Few times students reject an opportunity to participate.
Cards, because are something material, create a nice sensation of achievement. Students notice immediately their mistakes and correct them. Cards create the cooperative habit when working in teams.
Discipline and bad attitudes are better managed by taking out cards when not accepted behavior occurs.
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Cards are also given when a student finds me in the corridor or in the street and uses the language. I would like to support these statements with some personal opinions using this method.
The most important issue is that students practice the language and not only write it, read it or even translate it. Oral production is evaluated by asking or answering questions, in paired role plays, and when conversations are taking place, it is also checked pronunciation, fluency and, in my case, I prefer to correct mispronunciations at those moments. I really appreciate to qualify oral production and not only writing or reading on exams.
After a week or two, students with fewer points of the list ring the bell; they need help. It is important to notice and do something about it because if not, this issue becomes into a con. In fact, getting points in class is much more important than the exam. The exam usually consists on twenty to twenty five points which are added to the list. In class, students who regularly participate obtained more than seventy points in class.
So the exam is not as important as participating during the lessons. Besides, in the period of exams, some students could be sick , depressed, have a problem at home or whatsoever situation out of their control which really could affect their performance when answering a paper exam. One of the issues I like most of this method is that whenever students want to know how many points they have in the list, they only have to ask, or if there is enough time, the teacher read the amount of points at the end of the class, or students ask about it when they are giving the cards back before leaving the classroom.
It permits to calculate the final grade, and to work in improving it by participating more during the lessons. In the seminar, in Applied Linguistics, our teacher Sam Johnson told us something that I think is very important: "Many students are there against their will- prisoners of the system with a love-hate relationship towards English". As it is well-known, sometimes teenagers are not willing to participate.
It could be fear to seem ridiculous or not being so cool to their friends, fear to make mistakes, to stand in front of the class, or others sometimes students can be very cruel to their classmates.
The cards are changing those attitudes. And what seemed to be a problem at first, turned on a competition to get more cards. Honest to say that students with more cards in the list are chosen as leaders when forming teams. It is not a surprise to me that students' motivation differs from class to class.
The changes of mood at their age are constant. So, they have to participate regularly to obtain the cards which mean their final grade. As said above, the fear to participate and do it wrong has changed with the cards. Because cards are given by only participating, students do not waste an opportunity to get more cards and, really, I see the effort to answer or to complete the tasks in the classroom. With the use of pop sticks randomly picked up, all students have the same opportunity to participate.
Students really take risks to get more cards and the fear decreases a lot. It is not very important if they make some mistakes, the importance lay on being part of the class and practice the language.
I think that the cards, because of they are something material, give the sensation of achievement. The qualification or grade is not only an abstract concept, it is something you can handle and keep in your pocket or backpack during the class.
It is like working and getting a check. You don't want to waste opportunities for getting more checks.
I see it like that. If the card is not given in those interventions, it means that the performance was low for the level required to answer or the student could not answer and another student is asked the same question or the same situation. This way, students notice what their mistakes were or, if they spoke correctly, or completed a task, how to manage themselves in some communicative situations and be part of it.
Forming teams is sometimes a bit difficult. Some students do not get along with some of their partners. Also, some do not want to actively collaborate to complete the tasks. The captain of the team is given with the total of cards and all the team decides who deserves a certain number of cards because of the work and effort to reach the completion of the assigned task.
H. Douglas Brown - Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 5th Edition.pdf
This way, usually, all students cooperate in such tasks and one important thing is that, when somebody does not understand a lesson, some of their partners re-explain how it must t be done. I truly believe that leadership rises from these teams whose members collaborate interchanging points of views and explaining at students' levels.Show related SlideShares at end.
Cards are also given when a student finds me in the corridor or in the street and uses the language. Brown has lectured to English language teaching audiences around the world. Some other three students, also second graders whom I usually meet during the break, always greet me with "This is Jairo's sweater" and point at their partner Jairo when doing so because an activity of saying whom the garments belonged to in class.
It is important to notice and do something about it because if not, this issue becomes into a con. Discipline and bad attitudes are better managed by taking out cards when not accepted behavior occurs. Principles introduces key concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling.
Bibliography with quick access to important works in the field. The method of cards which I use to evaluate with, is based on extrinsic motivation but, also acknowledgement and praise are part of class; students gain cards according to their performance and at the same time they are praised with affective rewards such as "well done, excellent, very good, etc.