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Android™ Application development cookbook: 93 Recipes for Building Winning Apps. Published by. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Crosspoint Boulevard. Android Programming Cookbook. 2 / First we have to have installed the Java Development Kit (JDK) from Oracle. If you do not, please you should. The Android OS has the largest installation base of any operating system in the world; there has never been a better time to learn Android development to write.

Android Development Cookbook Pdf

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Build feature-rich, reliable Android Pie apps with the help of more than proven industry standard recipes and strategies. Android 9 Application Development Cookbook, Third Edition, published by Packt We also provide a PDF file that has color images of the. The Android Developer's Cookbook Building Applications with the Android SDK The Android Developer's C DOWNLOAD PDF.

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Frequently bought together. Learn more Add to cart. Android Programming for Beginners - Second Edition. Paperback pages. Book Description The Android OS has the largest installation base of any operating system in the world; there has never been a better time to learn Android development to write your own applications, or to make your own contributions to the open source community! Table of Contents Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Views, Widgets, and Styles.

Chapter 4: Menus and Action Mode. Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Data Storage. Accessing external storage with scoped directories in Android N. Chapter 8: Alerts and Notifications. Lights, Action, and Sound — getting the user's attention! Chapter 9: Using the Touchscreen and Sensors. Listing available sensors — an introduction to the Android Sensor Framework.

Networked Applications. Gaming and Animation. Social Networking. Location and Map Applications. System and Device Control. At least, part of the revolution. Amongst all these offerings, two stand out as major players. Android is definitely here to stay!

This book is here to help the Android developer community share the knowledge that will help make better apps. Mobile computing. Operating systems Computers I. To, Nelson, II. A65S All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise.

For information regarding permissions, write to: Pearson Education, Inc. First Printing: October ISBN Jim To my dear mom. Utilizing Other Lifecycle Functions Recipe: Forcing Single Task Mode Recipe: Forcing Screen Orientation 31 33 34 Recipe: Using Buttons and TextView 36 Recipe: Launching Another Activity from an Event 37 Recipe: Implementing a List of Choices 43 Recipe: Launching a Secondary Thread Recipe: Creating a Runnable Activity Recipe: Canceling a Thread 51 55 57 57 Recipe: Handlers 58 Recipe: Using a Countdown Timer 61 Recipe: Creating an App Widget Alerts 72 74 Recipe: Using an Alert Dialog Box 75 Recipe: Building Layouts in the Eclipse Editor 83 Recipe: Declaring a Layout Programmatically 89 90 Recipe: Setting and Changing Text Attributes Recipe: Providing Text Entry Recipe: Creating a Form 95 98 Other Widgets: From Buttons to Seek Bars Recipe: Using Radio Buttons Recipe: Creating a Drop-Down Menu Recipe: Using a Progress Bar Recipe: Intercepting a Physical Key Press Recipe: Reacting to Touch Events Recipe: Listening for Fling Gestures Recipe: Using Gestures Images Recipe: Loading an Image for Manipulation Audio Recipe: Recording Audio Files Recipe: Manipulating Raw Audio Recipe: Using Sound Resources Efficiently Recipe: Customizing the Camera Other Sensors Recipe: Utilizing the Telephony Manager Recipe: Listening for Phone States Recipe: Dialing a Phone Number Bluetooth Recipe: Turning on Bluetooth Recipe: Discovering Bluetooth Devices Recipe: Pairing with Bonded Bluetooth Devices Recipe: Opening a Bluetooth Socket Recipe: Using Device Vibration Recipe: Customizing a Web Browser Recipe: Creating and Retrieving Shared Preferences Recipe: Using the Preferences Framework Recipe: Creating a Separate Database Package Recipe: Using a Separate Database Package Recipe: Retrieving Last Location Recipe: Updating Location Upon Change Recipe: Listing All Enabled Providers Recipe: Adding Google Maps to an Application Recipe: Adding Views to a Map Recipe: Creating a Backup of Runtime Data Recipe: Backing Up Files to the Cloud Recipe: Specifying a Run Configuration Recipe: Using LogCat Recipe: Using the Android Debug Bridge Recipe: Using the Hierarchy Viewer Recipe: With over 30 smartphones introduced in the last year and over 10, applications apps being added every month, the Android ecosystem is growing as well.

There is enough diversity in device features and wireless carriers to appeal to just about anyone. Netbooks have always been a natural platform to adopt Android, but the inertia behind Android has fed the growth further into televisions and even automobiles. Android developers have many opportunities, and relevant apps reach more people than ever before, increasing the satisfaction of creating a relevant app.

Why an Android Cookbook? The Android OS is simple to learn, and Google provides many libraries to make it easy to implement rich and complex applications. The only aspect lacking, as mentioned by many in the Android developer community, is clear and well-explained documentation. The fact that Android is open source means anyone can dive in and reverse engineer some documentation.

Many developer bulletin boards have excellent examples deduced using exactly this method. Still, a book that has a consistent treatment across all areas of the OS is useful. In addition, a clear working example is worth a thousand words of documentation. Developers faced with a problem usually prefer to do a form of extreme programming; that is, they find examples of working code that does something close to the solution and modify or extend it to meet their needs.

This Android Cookbook serves to fill a need by providing many various self-contained recipes.

As each recipe is introduced, the main concepts of the Android OS are also explained. Who Should Read This Book? Users who are writing their own Android applications will get the most out of this cookbook. Basic familiarity with Java and the Eclipse development environment is assumed, but not required for the majority of the book. The motivation for each topic lends itself well for use as an Android course supplement. Chapters 1 and 2 give an introduction to the overall use of Android, but feel free to jump around and start using whatever is necessary.

This book is written first as a reference, providing knowledge mostly by example with greatest benefits through implementation of the recipes of interest. The main technique introduced in each recipe is specified in the section heading. However, additional techniques are included in each recipe as needed to support the main recipe.

After reading this book, a developer should Be able to write an Android Application from scratch. Be able to write code that works across multiple versions of Android.

Have a large reference of code snippets to quickly assimilate into applications. Appreciate the various ways to do the same task in Android and the benefits of each. Understand the unique aspects of Android programming techniques. It also focuses on the activity as a main application building block. Additional References There are many online references for Android. A few essential ones are Android Source Code: Fifteen years later and he continues to innovate, bringing research projects to production in both the consumer and mobile market.

He actively presents and participates in various Silicon Valley new technology groups.

Nelson To has more than ten applications of his own in the Android Market. He also has worked on enterprise Android applications for Think Computer, Inc.

The idea of an open source OS for embedded systems was not new, but Google aggressively backing it definitely has helped push Android to the forefront in just a few years. Many wireless carriers in multiple countries across various communication protocols have one or more Android phones available. Other embedded devices, such as tablets, netbooks, televisions, set-top boxes, and even automobiles, have also adopted the Android OS. This chapter discusses various general aspects of Android useful for a developer.

It provides a foundation for the creation of Android applications and a context for the recipes in the rest of this book. The Evolution of Android Google, seeing a large growth of Internet use and search in mobile devices, acquired Android, Inc.

Apple introduced the iPhone in with some ground-breaking ideas including multitouch and an open market for applications. Android was quickly adapted to include these features and to offer definite distinctions, such as more control for developers and multitasking.

In addition,Android incorporates enterprise requirements, such as exchange support, remote wipe, and Virtual Private Network VPN support, to go after the enterprise market that Research In Motion has developed and held so well with its Blackberry models. Device diversity and quick adaptation have helped Android grow its user base, but it comes with potential challenges for developers.

Applications need to support multiple screen sizes, resolution ratios, keyboards, hardware sensors, OS versions, wireless data rates, and system configurations. Each can lead to different and unpredictable behavior, but testing applications across all environments is an impossible task. Android has therefore been constructed to ensure as uniform an experience across platforms as possible. By abstracting the hardware differences,Android OS tries to insulate applications from device-specific modifications while providing the flexibility to tune aspects as needed.

This mostly works as long as the developer is well aware of this systematic approach. Still, as with any embedded platform, extensive testing of applications is required. Google provides assistance to third-party developers in many forms as Android Development Tool ADT plugins for Eclipse also as standalone tools including real-time logging capabilities, a realistic emulator that runs native ARM code, and in-field error reports from users to developers of Android Market applications.

The Dichotomy of Android Android has some interesting dichotomies. Knowing about them upfront is useful not only in understanding what Android is, but what it is not. Android is an embedded OS that relies on the Linux kernel for core system services, but it is not embedded Linux. Writing applications for Android utilizes the Java framework, but it is not Java. Standard Java libraries such as Swing are not supported. The Android OS is open source, which means developers can view and use any of the system source code, including the radio stack.

This source code is one of the first resources for seeing examples of Android code in action, and it helps clarify the usage when documentation is lacking. This also means developers can utilize the system in the same way as any core application and can swap out system components for their own components. However,Android devices do contain some proprietary software that is inaccessible to developers such as Global Positioning System GPS navigation.

However, which is the best choice for embedded devices that live in the cloud? Netbooks, which fill the gap between smart phones and laptop computers, could presumably go either way and they have.

Android has started to utilize the cloud more. Google also backs a web-based market, so Chrome OS enjoys the same developer leverage that Android currently has. This points to a convergence that might have been in the cards all along.

Devices Running Android There are more than 40 Android phones in the market from more than ten manufacturers.

Other hardware also runs Android, such as tablets and televisions. Software can access information on the target device using the android. Build class, for example: The Android OS is organized into the following images: The flash memory is used like read-only memory hence, some call it ROM , but can it be rewritten as necessary for example, with over-the-air Android operating system updates.

The microprocessor then executes instructions and pages portions of the system and data images into RAM as needed. The radio image resides on the baseband processor, which connects to the radio hardware. A comparison of some of the early and more recent smart phone models is shown in Table 1. It shows that the processing hardware architecture is similar across devices: The screen size is given in pixels, but the dots per inch dpi vary depending on the physical screen size.

For example, the HTC Magic has a 3. This equates to pixels per inch, but is classified as a medium pixel density device by Android which averages as dpi. Table 1. Data from http: Some devices offer 4G, some have FM radio, some have slideout keyboards, and some have a front-facing camera.

Knowing the differentiators helps a developer create great applications. In addition to the built-in hardware, every Android device comes with a secure digital SD card slot. An SD card provides additional storage space for multimedia and extra application data.

However, until Android 2. It was released in October Most smartphones that have followed also utilize a 1-GHz microprocessor. Other distinctions of the Nexus One are the use of two microphones to cancel background noise during phone conversations and a backlit trackball that lights up different colors based on the notification. As seen in Table 1. Motorola Models Motorola built the first cell phone in the s and has had diverse success in the cell phone market since.

More recently, the wireless division was wavering for a direction until it focused efforts on Android. In addition, Motorola has put out close to ten additional phone brands running Android. Samsung Models Samsung has been a strong force in the mobile market and is starting to come into its own with Android devices. The Samsung Moment was introduced in November , but does not have hardware capability for multitouch.

It will not be upgraded beyond Android 2. It is also one of the first phones to offer Bluetooth 3. A tablet computer is loosely defined as having a screen of 4.

Because many have 3G wireless service, they tend to be more like smartphones with large screens. Archos was one of the first to market an Android tablet in late It has a diagonal screen size of 4.

Archos has since introduced a 7-inch model called the Archos 7. These models come with an actual hard drive for more data storage. Dell has also introduced a 5-inch tablet called the Streak with plans for both a 7inch and a inch screen size model. Samsung offers the Galaxy Tab with a 7-inch screen. One downside is the inability for many of these tablets to access the Android Market, although that should soon change.

A comparison of some tablet computer models is shown in Table 1. Android is mainly used for GPS navigation but can also support web browsing.

It brings the Internet to televisions in a natural way, but it also provides access to the Android Market from the television. In general, most of the differences are transparent to the developer and not covered further here.

Android 9 Development Cookbook - Third Edition

However, a few hardware differences are important to understand to assist in writing device-independent code. Screens, user input methods, and sensors are discussed here. A benefit of TFT displays is a longer lifetime. Overall,Android devices are categorized into small, normal, and large screens and low-, medium-, and high-pixel density.

Note that the actual pixel density might vary but will be chosen as one of these. A summary of currently available device screens is shown in Table 1. Note that Table 1. There are three types of touchscreen technology: When a finger, stylus, or any object applies pressure, the two layers touch together and the location of the touch can be determined.

Resistive touchscreens are cost-effective, but only 75 percent of the light shows through, and until recently, multitouch was not possible. When a finger or any conductive object touches the layer, some charge is drawn off, changing the capacitance, which is measured to determine the location of the touch. Capacitive touchscreens allow as much as 90 percent of the light through, although accuracy can be less than resistive. When a finger or any object touches the screen, the waves are absorbed.

The waves are measured to determine the location of the touch. It is the most durable solution, but more suitable for large-scale screens such as automatic bank tellers.

All Android devices use either resistive or capacitive touchscreen technology, and with a few early exceptions, all support multitouch.

In addition, each Android device needs an alternative method to access the screen. This is through one of the following methods: Other than the microphone that every phone has, the first additional sensor introduced on phones was the camera. Different phone cameras have varying capabilities, and this is an important factor for people in selecting a device. The same type of diversity is now seen with the additional sensors.

Most smartphones have at least three basic sensors: All provide 8-bit precision data. The orientation sensor is a virtual sensor that uses the accelerometer and magnetometer to determine the orientation. For comparison, the Motorola Droid contains the following sensors: It provides much more accurate data and can sample up to 1kHz.

In addition, the Droid contains two more sensors. Overall, it is important to understand each Android model has different underlying hardware. These differences can lead to varying performance and accuracy of the sensors. Features of Android The detailed features of Android and how to take advantage of them provide a main theme throughout this book. On a broader level, some key features of Android are major selling points and differentiators.

It is good to be aware of these strong points of Android and utilize them as much as possible. The system manages priorities of applications and threads within a single application. This has the benefit that background tasks can be run while a user engages the device in a foreground process.

For example, while a user plays a game, a background process can check stock prices and trigger an alert as necessary.

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App Widgets are mini applications that can be embedded in other applications such as the Home screen. They can process events, such as start a music stream or update the outside temperature, while other applications are running. Multiprocessing has the benefit of a rich user experience.

However, care must be taken to avoid power-hungry applications that drain the battery.

The Android Developer's Cookbook: Building Applications with the Android SDK

If utilized well, it can transcend a need for detailed instructions. After a finger touches the screen, drags and flings are natural ways to interact with graphics.

Multitouch provides a way to track more than one finger down at the same time. This is often used to zoom or rotate a view. Some touch events are available transparently to the developer without the need to implement their detailed behaviors.

Custom gestures can be defined as needed.

It is important to try to maintain a consistent usage of touch events as compared to other applications. The tactile feedback and definite placement of keys provided by a hard keyboard tends to make typing much faster for some, whereas others prefer the sleek design and convenience offered by a software-only input device. With the large variety of Android devices available, either type can be found. A side effect for developers is the need to support both.

One downside of a soft keyboard is a portion of the screen needs to be dedicated to the input.

This needs to be considered and tested for any user interface UI layout. Android Development This book is focused on writing Android code, the main aspect of Android development.

However, dedicating a few words to the other aspects of development, including design and distribution, is appropriate. When even one is omitted from an example, its absence impedes those unfamiliar with the Android setup. Therefore, every recipe contains the necessary files to get code working. Each file is shown as a code listing with the full filename as the title. This helps to convey where the file lives in an Android project. At the same time, when too many files are shown, it clouds functionality.

Therefore, two coding styles are slightly different than would be expected in a normal application: The text explains the functionality clearer than inline comments could, and bolded code shows the main lines needed to get the particular technique working. In practice, actual code should have more comments than presented in the recipes. Strings are explicit and do not point to a global resource. In this book, however, when only a few strings are needed for a recipe, the strings are made explicit rather than including a whole additional file just to define them.

People just starting with Android are served well to use Eclipse for the development environment with the Android plugin. As discussed more in Chapter 2, this ensures proper Android project setup and context, and Eclipse even adds a placeholder icon figure.

It also helps with more advanced tasks, such as signing an application for distribution. It leads to faster development and more realistic testing.

All code examples in this book have been tested on an actual device running Android 2. Some functionality for example, Bluetooth pairing or sensor changes is difficult and opaque when using the emulator.

Therefore, it is recommended that initial testing be done with an action Android device. Designing Applications Well Three elements are needed for an excellent application: Often, the last element is paid the least attention because most developers work alone and are not graphic designers. Google must realize this because it has created a set of design guidelines: These can be found at http: Good design cannot be stressed enough. It sets an application apart, improves user adoption, and builds user appreciation.

In fact, a device can be called an Android device only if it passes compatibly tests with the Android APIs. However, if an application makes changes to the underlying system, compatibility is not guaranteed.


To ensure forward compatibility of an application when future Android updates are installed on devices, follow these rules suggested by Google: Do not directly manipulate settings without asking the user. A future release might constrain settings for security reasons. For instance, it used to be possible for an app to turn on GPS or data roaming by itself, but this is no longer allowed.

Do not go overboard with layouts. This is rare, but complicated layouts more than 10 deep or 30 total can cause crashes. Do not make bad hardware assumptions. Not all Android devices have all possible supported hardware. Be sure to check for the hardware needed, and if it does not exist, handle the exception.

Ensure device orientations do not disrupt the application or result in unpredictable behavior. Screen orientation can be locked, as described in Chapter 2. Note that backward compatibility is not guaranteed with Android.

It is best to declare the minimum SDK version as described in Chapter 2, so the device can load the proper compatibility settings. Utilizing other new features on older targets is also discussed at various places throughout the book. Robustness In the same vein as compatibility support, applications should be designed and tested for robustness. Following are a few tips to help ensure robustness: Android libraries are constructed specifically for embedded devices and cover many of the requirements needed in an application.

For the other cases, Java libraries are included. However, for cases where either can be used, the Android library is best. Take care of memory allocation. Initialize variables. Try to reuse objects rather than reallocate. This speeds up application execution and avoids excessive use of garbage collection. Test thoroughly, including different environments and devices if possible. Installing and Upgrading There are many places on the Internet that discuss detailed step-by-step instructions on how to install the Android SDK.

For example, all the necessary links can be found on the Google website http: Therefore, the general procedure outlined here serves to emphasize the most common installation steps for reference. These steps should be done on a host computer used as the development environment. Install Eclipse Classic for example, version 3. In the case of Windows, this just needs to be unzipped in place and is ready to use.

The Android Developer Cookbook Book

Install the Android SDK starter package for example, version r Browse to the location where the SDK was unzipped and apply. Android JUnit tests can be configured here, too. A main driver in OS improvement is the increased capability of hardware on new devices. Some legacy Android devices cannot support the new version requirements and are not updated with new OS releases. This leads to a user base with a variety of different possible experiences.

The developer is left with the task of checking for device capability or at least warning devices of required features. This can be done through a check of a single number: Android OS 1. Smart virtual soft keyboard, support for third-party keyboards. AppWidget framework. Live Folders. Raw audio recording and playback. Interactive MIDI playback engine. Video recording APIs. Stereo Bluetooth support. Removed end-user root access unless tethered to computer and using SDK. Speech recognition via RecognizerIntent cloud service.

Support for multiple screen sizes. Gesture APIs. Text-to-speech engine. Android OS 2. Embed Quick Contact accessible in applications.

Applications can control the Bluetooth connection to devices. HTML5 support.

Microsoft Exchange support. Multitouch is accessible through the MotionEvent class. Animated wallpaper support. Voice dialing using Bluetooth. Car and desk dock themes. Better definition of multitouch events. Cloud-to-device APIs. Applications can request to be installed on the SD memory card. Wi-Fi tether support on select devices. Thumbnail utility for videos and images.

Multiple language support on keyboard input. Application error reporting for Market apps. Android is starting to mature in that releases are less frequent. Although possible, the over-the-air updates are logistically tricky and carriers prefer to avoid them. Hardware manufacturers also appreciate a level of stability, which does not mean the first flashed devices in stores need an immediate update.

However, when a release is made, the level of additional features for developers remains high and worthwhile to utilize. Emulator and Android Device Debug The emulator launches a window on the development computer that looks like an Android phone and runs actual ARM instructions. Note the initial startup is slow, even on high-end computers. For example, the tablet screen size can be tried without purchasing a tablet. Note that a target virtual device must be created before the emulator can properly run.

A handy list of keyboard shortcuts for emulator functions is shown in Table 1. This ensures full functionality and real-time issues that cannot be fully recreated with the emulator.

Some settings on the Android device need to be changed to enable developer usage. More details about Android debugging are provided in Chapter Graphics and Animation. Still, as with any embedded platform, extensive testing of applications is required.

The Android Asset Packaging Tool aapt autogenerates this file. As a new user, these step-by-step tutorial guides will give you all the practical skills necessary to become competent and efficient. Figure 1. Another attribute is android: Android System Programming. Launching GitHub Desktop All activities extend the abstract class Activity or one of its subclasses.

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