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AN INTRODUCTION TO THEORIES OF PERSONALITY 8TH EDITION PDF

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Eighth edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall/Pearson Education, pages, , English, Book; Illustrated, An introduction to theories of. Introduction to Theories of Personality, An, 8th Edition. Matthew H. Olson, Hamline University. B.R. H. Hergenhahn, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Hamline. Study Introduction to Theories of Personality, An (8th Edition) discussion and chapter questions and find Introduction to Theories of Personality, An (8th Edition ).


An Introduction To Theories Of Personality 8th Edition Pdf

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Introduction to Personality 8th ppti.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), LEVEL CHAPTER 7 Psychodynamic Theories: Freud's Conceptions Week 5. edition pdf - an introduction to theories of personality 8th edition ppti.info personality psychology - wikipedia fri, 08 mar gmt personality psychology. this an introduction to theories of personality 8th edition, but end occurring in Rather than enjoying a good PDF later than a cup of coffee in the afternoon.

None of the theorists stated explicitly that his or her views applied only to males or to Whites or to U. If the world in which people live and the factors that affect their upbringing are so different, then surely as a result their personalities can be expected to differ.

They do, as demonstrated by a rapidly growing body of research. For example, consider a classic study comparing the personalities of Chinese college students in Hong Kong with Chinese students in Canada. In the same study, recent Chinese immigrants to Canada demonstrated a similarly low level of introversion as the Hong Kong Chinese. Let us note a few examples.

A study of stress on the job found that women managers reported more frequent headaches, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and eating disorders than did men managers.

Another study compared the death rates of men and women 45 years after they took various psychological tests. The tests, given in the year , measured vocational interests, degree of masculinity-femininity, and occupational preferences.

The average age of the subjects when they were tested was approximately All this attention sounds impressive and it does represent a major advance after years of neglect.

However, comparatively less research has been conducted on personality in African and in South American nations than in English-speaking countries or many of the countries of Europe and Asia. Also, much of the research that has been conducted among these populations has not been widely published in English-language sources.

Another problem limiting the applicability of crosscultural personality research is that the majority of studies use college students as subjects; it is questionable whether we can generalize results obtained from college students in the United States to the population as a whole.

In this text we offer research results from a more diverse selection of people. Studies are cited from more than 40 countries and from a variety of age groups, cultures, religions, and ethnic backgrounds. Assessment in the Study of Personality reliability The consistency of response to a psychological assessment device.

Description

Reliability can be determined by the testretest, equivalent-forms, and split-halves methods. Types of validity include predictive, content, and construct. To assess something means to evaluate it. The assessment of personality is a major area of application of psychology to real-world concerns. Consider a few everyday examples. Clinical psychologists try to understand the symptoms of their patients or clients by attempting to assess their personalities, by differentiating between normal and abnormal behaviors and feelings.

Only by evaluating personality in this way can clinicians diagnose disorders and determine the best course of therapy. School psychologists evaluate the personalities of the students referred to them for treatment in an attempt to uncover the causes of adjustment or learning problems. Research psychologists assess the personalities of their subjects in an attempt to account for their behavior in an experiment or to correlate their personality traits with other measurements.

Indeed, much of your success in the workplace will be determined by your performance on various psychological tests. Therefore, it is important that you have some understanding of what they are and how they work. Reliability and Validity Assessment techniques differ in their degree of objectivity or subjectivity; some techniques are wholly subjective and therefore open to bias.

The results obtained by subjective techniques may be distorted by the personality characteristics of the person making the assessment. The best techniques of personality assessment adhere to the principles of reliability and validity. Reliability involves the consistency of response to an assessment device.

If you took the same test on two different days and received two widely different scores, the test could not be considered reliable because its results were so inconsistent. No one could depend on that test for an adequate assessment of your personality.

Several procedures are available to determine the reliability of a test before it is used for assessment or research. In the equivalent-forms method, instead of taking the test a second time, the subjects take two equivalent forms of the test. This approach is more expensive and time-consuming than the test-retest method because it requires that psychologists develop two equal forms of the test. In the split-halves method, the test is administered once, and the scores on half the test items are compared with the scores of the other half.

Stereotype threat

This is the fastest approach because the test is given only one time. Validity refers to whether an assessment device measures what it is intended to measure.

Does an intelligence test truly measure intelligence? Does a test of anxiety actually evaluate anxiety? If a test does not measure what it claims to, then it is not valid and its results cannot be used to predict behavior.

For example, your score on an invalid intelligence test, no matter how high, will be useless for predicting how well you will do in college or in any other situation that requires a high level of intelligence.

Theories of Personality

A personality test that is not valid may provide a misleading portrait of your emotional strengths and weaknesses. As with reliability, validity must be determined precisely before a test is applied. Psychologists use several kinds of validity, including predictive validity, content validity, and construct validity. From a practical standpoint, the most important kind of validity is predictive validity—how well a test score predicts future behavior.

As part of the selection process, you are given a lengthy paper-and-pencil test to complete. If the majority of the applicants over the last 10 years who scored above, let us say, 80 percent on the test became successful astronauts, and the majority of those who scored below 80 percent failed as astronauts, then the test can be considered a valid predictor of performance in that situation.

In establishing predictive validity, we must determine the correlation between a test score and some objective measure of behavior, such as job performance. To determine content validity, psychologists evaluate each item to see if it relates to what the test is supposed to measure. For example, the Sensation-Seeking Scale is a test designed to measure the need for stimulation and excitement.

How can we tell if a new test that promises to measure anxiety really does so? A standard way to determine this is to correlate the scores on the new test with other established and validated measures of anxiety, such as other psychological tests or some behavioral measure. If the correlation is high, then we can assume that the new test truly measures anxiety.

Methods of assessment. The personality theorists discussed in this book devised unique methods for assessing personality, ways that were appropriate for their theories. By applying these methods, they derived the data on which they based their formulations. Their techniques vary in objectivity, reliability, and validity, and they range from dream interpretation and childhood recollections to paper-and-pencil and computer-administered tests. Ideally, multiple assessment measures are used to provide a range of information about a person.

Self-Report Inventories self-report inventory A personality assessment technique in which subjects answer questions about their behaviors and feelings. The self-report inventory approach involves asking people to report on themselves by answering questions about their behavior and feelings in various situations.

These tests include items dealing with symptoms, attitudes, interests, fears, and values. Test-takers indicate how closely each statement describes their characteristics or how much they agree with each item. First published in , the MMPI was revised in to make the language more contemporary and nonsexist. Items were also rewritten to eliminate words that over the years had acquired alternative meanings or interpretations.

The revision, the MMPI-2, is a true-false test that consists of statements. These items cover physical and psychological health; political and social attitudes; educational, occupational, family, and marital factors; and neurotic and psychotic behavior tendencies. Some items can be scored to determine if the test-taker was faking or careless, or misunderstood the instructions. I am often very tense on the job. Sometimes there is a feeling like something is pressing in on my head. I wish I could do over some of the things I have done.

I used to like to do the dances in gym class. It distresses me that people have the wrong ideas about me. The things that run through my head sometimes are horrible. There are those out there who want to get me. I give up too easily when discussing things with others. The MMPI-2 is used with adults in research on personality, as a diagnostic tool for assessing personality problems, and for vocational and personal counseling.

The number of questions was decreased from to , to reduce the time and effort needed to administer it. Both forms of the test have their shortcomings, however, one of which is length. It takes considerable time to respond diligently to the large number of items.

Also, some of the items on this and other self-report personality tests deal with highly personal characteristics, and some people consider the questions an invasion of privacy, particularly when someone is required to take the test to get a job. Nevertheless, despite the length and privacy issues, the MMPI-2 is a valid test that discriminates between neurotics and psychotics and between emotionally healthy and emotionally disturbed persons.

Thus, it remains a highly valuable diagnostic tool. Developed in and revised in , this test is designed for use with normal people ages 12 to It consists of items that call for a true or false response.

The CPI has three scales to measure test-taking attitudes and provides scores on 17 personality dimensions, including sociability, dominance, self-control, self-acceptance, and responsibility.

Assessment of self-report inventories. Although there are self-report inventories to assess many facets of personality, the tests are not always appropriate for people whose level of intelligence registers below normal, or for people with limited reading skills.

Research has shown that even minor changes in the wording of the questions or the response alternatives on self-report measures can lead to major changes in the results. For example, when adults were asked what they thought was the most important thing for children to learn, This is also the tendency for test-takers to give answers that appear to be more socially desirable or acceptable, particularly when they are taking tests as part of a job application process.

When a group of college students took a selfreport test with the instructions to make themselves appear as good, or as socially acceptable, as possible, they were more careful with their answers and took longer to complete the test than did students who were not deliberately trying to appear good Holtgraves, Despite these problems, self-report inventories remain the most objective approach to personality assessment.

Their greatest advantage is that they are designed to be scored objectively. Virtually anyone with the proper answer key can score these tests accurately. This objectivity in scoring, combined with the widespread use of computers, has led to automated personality assessment programs for the MMPI-2, the CPI, and dozens of other tests. Apparently, many people feel a greater sense of anonymity and privacy when interacting with a computer and so will reveal more personal information.

Clinical psychologists developed projective tests of personality for their work with emotionally disturbed persons. The theory underlying projective techniques is that when we are presented with an ambiguous stimulus, such as an inkblot or a picture that can be understood or interpreted in more than one way, we will project our needs, fears, and values onto the stimulus when asked to describe it. Because the interpretation of the results of projective tests is so subjective, these tests are not high in reliability or validity.

It is not unusual for different test administrators to form different impressions of the same person, based on the results of a projective test; in such a case, the interscorer reliability of the test is considered to be low. Nevertheless, such tests are widely used for assessment and diagnostic purposes.

Rorschach Inkblot Technique. The Rorschach was developed in by the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach — , who had been fascinated by inkblots since childhood. As a youngster he had played a popular game called klecksographie, or blotto, in which children gave their interpretations of various inkblot designs. Rorschach was known to be so intensely interested in inkblots that as a teenager, he acquired the nickname Klecks, which means, in German, blot of ink.

Later, when Rorschach was serving a hospital residency in psychiatry after receiving his M. Rorschach noticed consistent differences between the responses of patients and the responses offered by school children to the same inkblots.

In developing his inkblot test, Rorschach created the inkblots by dropping blobs of ink on blank paper and folding the paper in half see Figure i. After trying numerous patterns, he settled on 10 blots because he could not afford to have more than 10 printed. A study conducted by Boucher, Rydell, Loo, and Rydell has shown that stereotype threat not only affects performance, but can also affect the ability to learn new information. In the study, undergraduate men and women had a session of learning followed by an assessment of what they learned.

Some participants were given information intended to induce stereotype threat, and some of these participants were later given "gender fair" information, which it was predicted would reduce or remove stereotype threat. As a result, participants were split into four separate conditions: control group, stereotype threat only, stereotype threat removed before learning, and stereotype threat removed after learning.

The results of the study showed that the women who were presented with the "gender fair" information performed better on the math related test than the women who were not presented with this information. This study also showed that it was more beneficial to women for the "gender fair" information to be presented prior to learning rather than after learning. These results suggest that eliminating stereotype threat prior to taking mathematical tests can help women perform better, and that eliminating stereotype threat prior to mathematical learning can help women learn better.

From J. Aronson, C. Steele, M. Salinas, M. Lustina, Readings About the Social Animal, 8th edition, ed. Aronson In , Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson performed the first experiments demonstrating that stereotype threat can undermine intellectual performance. As would be expected based on national averages , the African-American students did not perform as well on the test. Steele and Aronson split students into three groups: stereotype-threat in which the test was described as being "diagnostic of intellectual ability" , non-stereotype threat in which the test was described as "a laboratory problem-solving task that was nondiagnostic of ability" , and a third condition in which the test was again described as nondiagnostic of ability, but participants were asked to view the difficult test as a challenge.

All three groups received the same test. Steele and Aronson concluded that changing the instructions on the test could reduce African-American students' concern about confirming a negative stereotype about their group.

Supporting this conclusion, they found that African-American students who regarded the test as a measure of intelligence had more thoughts related to negative stereotypes of their group.

Additionally, they found that African Americans who thought the test measured intelligence were more likely to complete word fragments using words associated with relevant negative stereotypes e. Adjusted for previous SAT scores, subjects in the non-diagnostic-challenge condition performed significantly better than those in the non-diagnostic-only condition and those in the diagnostic condition.

In the first experiment, the race-by-condition interaction was marginally significant. However, the second study reported in the same paper found a significant interaction effect of race and condition. This suggested that placement in the diagnostic condition significantly impacted African Americans compared with European Americans.

However, in certain situations, stereotype activation can also lead to performance enhancement through stereotype lift or stereotype boost. Stereotype lift increases performance when people are exposed to negative stereotypes about another group. Although stereotype boost is similar to stereotype lift in enhancing performance, stereotype lift is the result of a negative outgroup stereotype, whereas stereotype boost occurs due to activation of a positive ingroup stereotype.

Conversely, these participants did worse on the math test when instead their gender identity—which is associated with stereotypes of inferior quantitative skills—was made salient, which is consistent with stereotype threat. In one case, the effect was only reproduced after excluding participants who were unaware of stereotypes about the mathematical abilities of Asians or women, [46] while the other replication failed to reproduce the original results even considering several moderating variables.

However, research has also shown that stereotype threat can cause individuals to blame themselves for perceived failures, [48] self-handicap , [2] discount the value and validity of performance tasks, [49] distance themselves from negatively stereotyped groups, [50] and disengage from situations that are perceived as threatening. This, in turn, can lead to self-regulatory efforts, more anxiety, and other behaviors that are commonly perceived as suspicious to police officers. For example, a woman may stop seeing herself as "a math person" after experiencing a series of situations in which she experienced stereotype threat.

This disidentification is thought to be a psychological coping strategy to maintain self-esteem in the face of failure.

Although much of the research on stereotype threat has examined the effects of coping with negative stereotype on academic performance, recently there has been an emphasis on how coping with stereotype threat could "spillover" to dampen self-control and thereby affect a much broader category of behaviors, even in non-stereotyped domains.

For example, women might overeat, be more aggressive, make more risky decisions, [59] and show less endurance during physical exercise. Perceived discrimination has been extensively investigated in terms of its effects on mental health, with a particular emphasis on depression. You can help by converting this section , if appropriate. Editing help is available. April Additional research seeks ways to boost the test scores and academic achievement of students in negatively stereotyped groups.

There are many ways to combat the effects of stereotype threat. In one study, teaching college women about stereotype threat and its effects on performance was sufficient to eliminate the predicted gender gap on a difficult math test.

However, other research has found the opposite effect. In one study, women were given a text "summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown to be the cause of women's underperformance in math", and then they performed a math exercise. With regard to performance monitoring and vigilance, studies of brain activity have supported the idea that stereotype threat increases both of these processes. Forbes and colleagues recorded electroencephalogram EEG signals that measure electrical activity along the scalp, and found that individuals experiencing stereotype threat were more vigilant for performance-related stimuli.

Another study used functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to investigate brain activity associated with stereotype threat. The researchers found that women experiencing stereotype threat while taking a math test showed heightened activation in the ventral stream of the anterior cingulate cortex ACC , a neural region thought to be associated with social and emotional processing.

A study conducted by Boucher, Rydell, Loo, and Rydell has shown that stereotype threat not only affects performance, but can also affect the ability to learn new information. In the study, undergraduate men and women had a session of learning followed by an assessment of what they learned.

Some participants were given information intended to induce stereotype threat, and some of these participants were later given "gender fair" information, which it was predicted would reduce or remove stereotype threat. As a result, participants were split into four separate conditions: control group, stereotype threat only, stereotype threat removed before learning, and stereotype threat removed after learning.

The results of the study showed that the women who were presented with the "gender fair" information performed better on the math related test than the women who were not presented with this information.

This study also showed that it was more beneficial to women for the "gender fair" information to be presented prior to learning rather than after learning. These results suggest that eliminating stereotype threat prior to taking mathematical tests can help women perform better, and that eliminating stereotype threat prior to mathematical learning can help women learn better. From J. Aronson, C. Steele, M.

Salinas, M. Lustina, Readings About the Social Animal, 8th edition, ed. Aronson In , Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson performed the first experiments demonstrating that stereotype threat can undermine intellectual performance.

As would be expected based on national averages , the African-American students did not perform as well on the test. Steele and Aronson split students into three groups: stereotype-threat in which the test was described as being "diagnostic of intellectual ability" , non-stereotype threat in which the test was described as "a laboratory problem-solving task that was nondiagnostic of ability" , and a third condition in which the test was again described as nondiagnostic of ability, but participants were asked to view the difficult test as a challenge.

All three groups received the same test. Steele and Aronson concluded that changing the instructions on the test could reduce African-American students' concern about confirming a negative stereotype about their group. Supporting this conclusion, they found that African-American students who regarded the test as a measure of intelligence had more thoughts related to negative stereotypes of their group.

Additionally, they found that African Americans who thought the test measured intelligence were more likely to complete word fragments using words associated with relevant negative stereotypes e. Adjusted for previous SAT scores, subjects in the non-diagnostic-challenge condition performed significantly better than those in the non-diagnostic-only condition and those in the diagnostic condition.

In the first experiment, the race-by-condition interaction was marginally significant. However, the second study reported in the same paper found a significant interaction effect of race and condition. This suggested that placement in the diagnostic condition significantly impacted African Americans compared with European Americans. However, in certain situations, stereotype activation can also lead to performance enhancement through stereotype lift or stereotype boost.

Stereotype lift increases performance when people are exposed to negative stereotypes about another group. Although stereotype boost is similar to stereotype lift in enhancing performance, stereotype lift is the result of a negative outgroup stereotype, whereas stereotype boost occurs due to activation of a positive ingroup stereotype.

Conversely, these participants did worse on the math test when instead their gender identity—which is associated with stereotypes of inferior quantitative skills—was made salient, which is consistent with stereotype threat. In one case, the effect was only reproduced after excluding participants who were unaware of stereotypes about the mathematical abilities of Asians or women, [46] while the other replication failed to reproduce the original results even considering several moderating variables.

However, research has also shown that stereotype threat can cause individuals to blame themselves for perceived failures, [48] self-handicap , [2] discount the value and validity of performance tasks, [49] distance themselves from negatively stereotyped groups, [50] and disengage from situations that are perceived as threatening.

This, in turn, can lead to self-regulatory efforts, more anxiety, and other behaviors that are commonly perceived as suspicious to police officers. For example, a woman may stop seeing herself as "a math person" after experiencing a series of situations in which she experienced stereotype threat. This disidentification is thought to be a psychological coping strategy to maintain self-esteem in the face of failure.

Although much of the research on stereotype threat has examined the effects of coping with negative stereotype on academic performance, recently there has been an emphasis on how coping with stereotype threat could "spillover" to dampen self-control and thereby affect a much broader category of behaviors, even in non-stereotyped domains.

For example, women might overeat, be more aggressive, make more risky decisions, [59] and show less endurance during physical exercise. Perceived discrimination has been extensively investigated in terms of its effects on mental health, with a particular emphasis on depression.

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You can help by converting this section , if appropriate. Editing help is available. April Additional research seeks ways to boost the test scores and academic achievement of students in negatively stereotyped groups.It was not compatible with either the subject matter or the methods of the new psychology.

Uniqueness or Universality? Assessment in the Study of Personality reliability The consistency of response to a psychological assessment device. Digital Access Code.

You already know how important personality is. I used to like to do the dances in gym class.

As part of the selection process, you are given a lengthy paper-and-pencil test to complete. Past or Present? Relevant Courses. Although trained as a scientist, Freud did not use the experimental method.

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