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British Library Ca taloging in Publication Data. O'Callaghan, D.B. (Dennis Brynley ), An illustrated history of the U.S.A.. 1. United States, history. ppti.info 51MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF An Illustrated History of Britain ( Background Books) The United States Cavalry: An Illustrated History, Bryn O'Callaghan _____ ppti.infon.c AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THE USA -'"••• -Longman - Pearson Ed ucation Limited, Edinburgh Gall", Harlow.

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An Illustrated History of the USA book. Read 13 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. This is a companion volume to An Illustrated Hist. ppti.info - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. An Illustrated History of the USA(1) - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read online for free. Historia Usa.

Such crniarants wcrc, often unwilling to go. The Spanish ambassador in Loudon told ot'rhrcc condemned rrunin. Two agrcvd to go. Some Virglnl;l CllligLlIlb s;likd willin gly. M m y people wn e without work. And if rhe crops f:1iled. For Virginia had om' grl"ll all Lletion that England Ja 'k ed: pkntifulland. In England.

An Illustrated History of the USA Bryn O' Callaghan LONGMAN.pdf

T he captain and the princess Captain John Smith was the most able of the ori ginal j amestown scnlcrs. All energetic yl'ar- old so ldier and explorer, he had already had a life full of action whc-n he landed there III ] It was he who organized rhc first j amestown co lonists and forced them 10 work. If he had nor done rhar. A '- cording ro a slOry that he rold lar Fin ' y 'ars later, in 16] Pocahontas married the tobacco planter John Holte.

Jailles I. It W ;IS there th. When the son grcw up he ret ur ned to Virgi nia.

An Illustrated History of the USA Bryn O' Callaghan LONGMAN.pdf

Many Virginians today claim to he descended fro m him Jnd so from Pocahontas, A. To obtain a bride the would-be husbands had to pay the Company " pounds weight of best tobacco leaf. For a number ofyears after , military go vernors ran Virgin ia like a prison camp. They enforced strict rules to make sure that work was done. But it was not discipline that saved Virg mia. It was a plant that grew like a weed there: tobacco. Earlier visitors to America, like Sir Walter Raleigh.

In Rolfe shipped the first load afVirginia tobacco to England. London merchants paid high prices because ofits high quality. Soon most ofthe Virginia settlers were busy growing tobacco. T hey cleared new land along the rive rs and ploughed up the streets ofJamestown itself to plant mort'. T hey even used it as money. The price ofa good horse in Virginia, fa r exam ple. T he possibility of becoming rich by gro wing tobacco brought wea lthy Vi rgi nia' s affairs had be en controlled so far by governor s sen t ove r by the Virg inia Co m pany.

Now th e Compan y allowed a bo dy called the House of Burgesses to be set lip. The burgesses were elected representa tiv es from th e- va rio us small settlements along Virginia's rivers. T he y met to advise the governor o n the law s the colony needed. Tho ug h few realized it at the time. The H ou se of Burgesses m er for the first time in August In that same month Vir ginia saw another important beginning. A sma ll D ut ch warship anch ored at J am esto wn. On bon d were rwcnry captured black Africans.

The ship's capt ain sold them to the- settlers as indentured servant s. The blacks were set to work In the to bacco fields with w hitt' indentured servants from Eng land. Bu r there w as a very serious d ifference be tween their posi tio n and th at of th e whites working beside them. White se rva nts we re indentu red fo r a fix ed number of year s.

T he ir m asters m ig ht feat th e m badly. Black se rv ants had no suc h ho pe. T heir indenture W: IS for life.

U y lit had ru n out of money. T he English go ver nmen t put an end to the Company and nu de itself ro: Fierce Amerindian attack s 1Il had destroyed sever al scnlcm cn ts and killed over culonisrs. Our o f nearl y But their hardshi ps had toughened th e surv ivo rs. Bu ilding a new homeland III th e stea my river valleys o f Vi rgini: I had proved harder and tak en lo nger than anyone had expec ted.

Bur thi s first society of English people over seas had put down living ro ot s into the American so il.

Other struggles lay ahead, but by o ne thin g w as clear -. Virginia would survive. The lost colony The jamesto wn settlers were not the firs t Eng lish peopl e to visi t Vir ginia.

Twen ty yea rs ear lier the adventurer Sir Walter Raleig h had sent ships to find land in the N ew Wo rld where English people migh t settle. He nam ed the land they visited Virginia. In J uly , English settlers landed on Roa no ke Island, o ff [he coast of what is now th e stare of North Carolina. They built houses and a fo rt. But they ran out of food and made enemies of the local Amerindian inhabitants.

In less than a year they gave up and sailed back ro England. In 15l: U Ralei gh tried again. H is ships landed sett lers on Roanoke. The co lo nis ts were led by an artist an d ma pruakcr flam ed John White. Among them we re W hite's daughter and her h usband. On Aug ust 18th th e cou ple beca me the pa rents of Vir ginia Dare. In Au gu st Wh ite retu rne d to En gland fo r supplies. T hr ee years passed befo re he w as ab le to return.

Wh en his ships reach ed Roan o ke in August , he found th e sen lemcnr desert ed. There wa s sign of w hat had happened to its people exce pt a word carve d on a tree- "Croarou. Some believe that the Roanoke settlers we re carried off by Spanish soldiers fro m Flo rida. Others think that [hey may have decided to go to live with friendly Indian s on the mai nland. They were never seen.

Bur fo r Arn ericaus th e word has a spec ial meaning. So nwtimcs Americans call them th e Pi lgrim Fath ers. The ideas ofj o hn Ca lvin app ealed particularly st rongly to them. T he Europe th at the Pilgrim s lett behin d them was tom by religious qua rrels. For m or e than a th ou sand years Ro m an Ca tholic C h ristianity had been th e religi on o f mosr of its peo ple.

By the sixt eenth centu ry, ho w ever. T he people o fl lo lland welcomed the little group of ex ile Bu t the Puritans never felt at ho me the re.

After m uch tho ught and much prayer they deci ded to move again. Som e of the: A few years later a French lawyer a mcd john Calvin put forwa rd sim ilar ideas. Cal vin claimed th at each indi vidual W J. S dir ectl y and pers onally resp o nsible to God. Bccausc rhcv protested against the rcach ings and custo ms o f rhe Ca tholic Church.

T heir ideas spread qu ickly th ro ugh nor thern Europe. Pew people believed III religious toleration at this rime. In m ost co unt ries peo ple were expected to ha vc th e same religion JS their ruler.

T his was th e case in England. In the I s the English king. Hcnrv VIII, form ed a national church wi th himself as its head. In the later years of the sixteenth cen tur y m any En glish people believed th at this Church of Eng land was still too much like th e Catholic C hurch. They di sliked th e powl"r;o f its bishops.

T hey dislik ed its elaborate n'remon ies and th e rich decorarions ofits churc hes. Such people w anted th e Ch urc h of England to beco m e 1 ,. Whellj ames I becam e King of Ellgland in he wa rned the Puritans th at he: I lis bis ho ps bega n fining the Puritans and pu tting th em III prison. T o escape this per secutio n.

H olland wa s th e o nly co un try in Euro pe whose govern me nt allowed religious freedo m at rhis time. First they returned bridiy [0 England. Here they persuaded the Virginia Com pany to allow rhcm to settle in [he northern pan of its American lands.

On September The Mayflower C o m pact When [he Pilgrims arrived otT the coas t of Ame rica th ey faced m an y danger s and difficulties. They did not wa nt to put themselves III further danger by qu arreling with one another. Befo re landing at Plym o uth, th erefore.

In this do cument [hey agr eed to w o rk together fo r the good o f all. The ag reement was signed by all fo rty- o ne m en on boa rd the May. It beca me kno wn as the M ayflo we r Compact. In the Compact th e Plym o ut h settlers ag reed to SCt up a government- J "civil bod y pohtic't-oo m ake "just and cqua l Ia All of [hem. Pilg rims and St ran ger s alike. In th e difficult years w hic h fo llo we d.

It is rcmcm bored today as on e of the: T hey were accompanied by a nu mber ofo ther emigrants they called "Strangers. N ow it la ced a mu ch more dangerous voyage. At last, 0 11 No vem ber 9. Cape C od is far to th e no rth of the land g ranted to the Pilg rims by till' Virgmia C ompany. But th e Pilg rims did no t ha ve eno ug h food and wa ter , and many were sick.

T hey de cid ed to land at th e best place the y cou ld find. The frozen ground an d the deep sno w made it diffi cu h fo r th e m to build hou ses. TIley had very linle food. Befo re sp ring ca me. Bu t rhc Pilg rim s we re determined to succeed. The fifty su rvivors built be tter houses. T hey learned ho w to fish and hunt. Frien dly Amerin d ians gave th em seed co m and showed th em ho w to plan t it.

It was not the end oftheir hardships. O ther English Puritans follow ed the Pilg rim s to Am erica. T en yea rs later a much larger g ro u p o f alm ost a thousand colo nists settled nearby in w hat becam e rhc Bosto n area.

T hese peo ple left En gland [0 escape th e rul e of a new king. Charles I. C harles w as ev en less tolerant than his fathe r j ames had been of people w ho disagreed w ith his policies in reli gion and govc nuucnr.

The Boston settlement pro sper ed fro m the starr. Its popu lation g rew q uickly as m ore and more Puritans left En glan d to escape pe rsecu tio n. M any years later. T he ideas ofth e M assachusetts Puri tans had a lastin g influence o n American so ciety. One o f their fir st lead ers. J olm Winthro p, said that they sho uld build an ideal co mmunity for th e rest of mankin d to learn fro m.

The Puritans of' M assach usc n s believed that go vern m ents had a d ut y to nub: T hey pa ssed laws to for ce peo ple [0 attend church and lavvs [0 punish d ru nks and adu ltere rs. Even m en who let their hair grow lon g co uld be in tro uble. Hoger Willia ms. I Ic o bjected part icularl y to the fact rhar the sa me me n con t rolled both th e ch ur ch and the government. William s believed th at church and Slate sho uld be se parate and rhnr neit her should interfere w ith the othe r.

Williams ' repeated cri tic isms made the M assach usetts leade rs angry. In th ey Sl'! H men to arrest him. But Williams escaped and Wl'! O n th e sho res ofNarraganse tt Uay William s and his followers set up a novv co lon y called Rho de Island , Rho de Island pro m ised its citizens co m ple te religio us freedo m and separatio n of church and state.

To this day these ideas arc still vny Im po rtant to Am eri cans. T Ill' leade rs ofMassachusens coul d no r fo rgive th e peo ple of Rh ode Island for thinking so differ ently fro m th em selves.

T hey called rhc brea kaway col o ny "the land of th e opposite-minded. By the end of thc seve nteen th Cl'ntury a strl ng of Englis h colo nies stretc hed along the eas t roas t of. N orth Am er ica.

Mo re o r less in the middle was Penn sylvan ia. Under a charter fro m the English king. C harles II, Pen n was the proprieto r. Penn belo nged to a religiou s group, the SO 'il't y of l-ricnds, comm on ly called Q uake rs. Q uak ers refused to sw ear oat hs o r to lake pan ill w ars. These custom s had helped to ma ke th em 'Try unpopular wi th English governments.

When Penn pro m ised his fellow Q uakers that in l'cnuvvlvau ia they would he free 10 follow their own ways. Prom Ireland came sett lers who ma de new f. T hey were know n as th e Pen nsylv ani a Ijurch. T his was beca use English people at rhis time called most no rth Euro pean, " Dutch," N ew York had previously been called N ew Amsterdam , h had first been set tled ill ,.

A few years t iler. Th e last English colo ny to be fo un ded in North Am erica was Georgia. Thanksgi vi ng Evcr v year the four th T hu rsda y in November Am ericans celebrate a holiday called T han ksgiv ing. In November. T he Pilg rim s were joined at their feast by local Amerindi an s.

T nt' Wam pan oag and Pcquamid pe opl e o f the nearby fores ts had sha red corn w ith the Pilg rim s and shown rbcru the bes t places to catch fish. Later th e Am eri ndians had g iven seed co m 10 th e English sett lers and sho w n them ho w to plant cro ps th at would grow we ll III th e American so il, W itho ut them th ere would ha ve been no T hanksgiv ing,.

Minuit buys Manhattan In the s settle rs fro m Holland founded a co lon y rhcy called N ew N ether lands alo ng the ban ks of the H ud so n Rive r.

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At the m outh of th e Hud so n lies M anhattan Island. An Amerindian peo ple called the Shinnccock used rhc island fo r hu nti ng and fishing , although rhcv did no t live on it. In Peter Minuit. H e paid th em about tw ent y-four d ollars' worth of clorh. Like all Am erind ians, the Shiunccock believed that land belon ged to all me n. T hey thoug ht tha t wh at th ey were selling to the D utch wa s the rig ht to sha re MJl1h;l!

T hese diffe rent beliefs about land o wnershi p were to be a m aj o r cause of co nflict between Euro pean s an d A merind ians for ma llY years to co me. And the bargain price that Peter M in uit paid lo r M allharran Islan d became part of American folk lo re.

Most peo ple divid ed rhcm iTHO three main g ro ups. Each g rou p had its OW II w ay o fl ifc and character. Since rhc"tim e of the Pilg rim s the peo ple of New En gland had spread inlan d and along the coast. Most w en. N cw Jtn. Oth er N ew Englan de rs depend ed o n ti l t' sea for a living. They felled the trees of the reg ion's forests to build ships. B OS lOll and ot her coas tal towns g rew int o busy po ns.

Their prosperity depended on trade. The ne ares t colonies to the so uth of New England w ere called the Middle C olonies. The biggest w -crc N ew Yo rk and Pen nsyl vani a. Philade lphia wa s the capital ofPennsylv ania. Cities and trade In 17 10 most Am eri cans were far me rs. But important towns had grown IIp w hose people earned their living by trade and manufact uring.

An Engli sh visitor marveled at the speed with w hich it had grown. Long before most English cities. The only exception to this was when the moon was shining. All three towns owed much of their prosperity to the profits of the transatlantic tra de tha t they carried on with England. Their ships exporte-d furs, rirnbcr.

Their merchants also traded with one another. This inrcr-Amcn can rrade helped to produce a feelin g between the cities that they all belonged to the same Ame rican nat ion. Th e people of the M iddle Colonies we re- usually more toleran t of religiou s and other differences than the New Englanders. Many of thc m also had Ge-rman, Dutch or Swedish ancestors rathe r than English ones.

In th eir hot and fertile river valleys wealthy landowners farmed large plantations, T he y lived in fine hou ses, w ith wide. Most of the work III the fields was done by black slaves. Slavery w as rare the other American colonies. Bur the pros perity of the plantation-owning southerne rs was already beginning to depend upo n it. The houses o f the southern plantation owne rs had exp ensive fu rniture, m uch o f it imported from Europe. Close b y stood groups o f smaller, mort' simple buildin gs -c srablcs.

And almost always a river flowed near by. In all three grou ps o f colonies mos t people still lived less than fifty miles from the Coast, This was called "t he tid ewater' period o fse ttlemen t. Those peopl e furthest inland had traveled up tid al riv ers like the James ami the H udson, clearin g the trees and setting up farms alo ng their bank s, During the fift y years after sett lers moved deeper into rhc counucur.

T hey tra veled west IIll0. T hey spr ead wes twar d along the river valleys in Virg inia, the C aroli nas and Georgia. T hey moved no rth alon g the ferti le valley ofrhc Mohavvk River o f New Yo rk. Making a new settlement always bega n in the same w ay.

The sett lers cleared the land oft rees, then cut the trees into logs and planks. They used thes e to bu ild Ahouse and a ba rn. They then ploughed bet ween the tree stumps. If thei r soil was fertil e the sett lers lived well. But If the soil was rocky. Settl ers with po or soil often left their farms and moved wes twa rd, to tr y again on more ferti le land. As they trave led inland they passed fewer and fewe r far ms and villages. At lasr there we re none at all. This area. Fresh waves ofsettlers pu shed the frontier steadily wes twa rds in their sea rch fo r fertile soil.

T hey would often pass by land that seemed unsuitable for farming. Because of rhis, frontier farms and villages we re often separated by milt'S of unse ttled land. A fam ily m ight be a da y's journey from its near est neigh bors. Fo r such reasons the people cffron ticr ro m munitics had to rely upo n themselves fo r almost everyth ing th ey needed.

They grew their own food and built their own houses. They made the clot hing they wore and the tools they used. They developed their own kinds of music, cntcrrainm cnr. Daniel Boone and the Wilderness Road In th e s land-hungry Am erican settle rs movlIlg westwards w ere stopped by a major obs tacle, the Appalachian Mountains.

This thickly fores ted mountain tJnge runs rou ghl y parallel to the Atlantic coast of N orth America and stretc hes for hund reds of miles. When sett lers reached the foot hills of the Appalachians the y fou nd waterfalls and rapids bloc king the rivers they had been followi ng wes twards. In In s a hunter and explorer nam ed D aniel Boone led a party of settlers mro the mountain s.

Boone is said to have claimed that he had been " o rdained by Go d to settle the wilderness;" With a party o f thi rty axmc n he cut A track called the Wilderness Road throug h the forested Cumberland G Ap, a natural pass in the Ap palachians. Beyond the Cumberland Gap lay rich. In the years which followed , Boone's Wilderness Road enabled thousands of settlers to move with horses, w agons.

They now make up the American sta tes of Kentucky and Tennessee. A special spirit, or attitude, grew out of th is fron tier wa y o flife. People needed to be to ugh, ind ependent and self-reli ant. Yet the y also needed to work to gether, helping each other with such tasks JS d earing land and building hou ses and barns.

The com binatio n of these ew e idcas c-a strong belief that individuals had to help themselves and J need fo r them to cooperate with aile anorh cr--csrrengrhcncd the feeling that people were equal and th at nobod y should have special rights and privileges. Th e fronti er wa y of life helped democratic ideas to flourish in Ameri ca.

T oda y's Am eri cans like to think rhar m any of the best values and att itudes of the modern United Stat es CJn be tr aced back to the frontier experiences of their pioneer ancestors. Governors and assemblies All th e Eng lish colon ies In America sha red a tradition of represent ative govern m.. This means that in all of them peo ple had a say in ho w they w er e governed. Each colo ny had its own gov ernmen t. At th e head of th is governme nt was a go vernor, chosen in most cases by th e En glish king.

T o rule effectively , these govern o rs depended upo n th e cooperat ion of assemblies elected by th e colo nists. In most o f th e colo nies all white male s who o w ned some land had the right to vote, Sinc e so m any colon ists owned land. T he struggle betwee n th em. In North Amer ica. Ca nada. Lo uisiana. It includ ed all th e land s drained by the Mi ssissippi River and its rnburatic s.

In th e middle of the eig hteent h n ' lH u ry most of the for ests and plains of bot h o f thcsc vas t areas we re still un expl or ed by Europeans. From onwards , ChJ. Lawrence River and set up trading posts there.

T he two most impo rtant of these poses late r grew into the cities of Q uebec and Montreal. The o ther French e xplo rer was Ik nr: La Salle. La Salk' was J.


Th e soil w ill produ ce everyt hi ng tha t is g rown in France. La Salk' paddled for thousands of mi les down the Mississip pi. At last he reached th e Gulf of M exico. Some year s later the French set up a tradin g post th ere. In future years thi s became the city of N ew Orleans.

The French claim th at Louis iana belon ged to them worr ied both the British government and the American co lo nists. A glance at a map explains why. Suppose France sent sol diers to occupy the Mississip pi valley.

They would be able to kee p lilt' co lonists to the cast ofthe Ap palachian M ount ains an d stop th em fro m m oving westwards. This is known to Am erican s: IS the f-rench and Ind ian Wa r. Led by their forcefu l Prim e Mi nister. In th ey took Quebec. In 17 ,0 M ont real fell to them. TtK' war w as ended by the Peace o f liaris, whi ch wa s signed in Trade laws and "sleeping dogs" Until th e s most A m erican s see med q uite co nte nt to be ruled by Bri tai n.

An llu p0rtant reason for th is w as th e presen ce of rhc Fren ch in N orth Am erica. So lon g as Fran ce held Canada and Loui siana. Another re aso n th e coloni sts accep ted British rul e wa s that rhc British govern me nt rar ely interfered in co lonial affairs. A cent ur y earlier the B rit ish Parliamen t had passed some laws called Navigat io n Act s. These listed certa in products called "enu m era ted co mmodities" th at the co lo nies we re forbi dden to e xpo rt to allY count ry ex cept Eng land, It w as easy for the colonists to avo id obeying th ese law s, The long American coa stline made sm uggling easy, T he co lonists di d not care m uch eithe r ab o ut import taxes , or duti es.

Few merchants bothe red to pay them. And agai n. Ships could unload th eir carg oes o n h undr eds of lo nclv wharves wi tho ut customs o ffi cers kno wi ng. Britain had wall an Em pire. But its victory led directl y to conflict wi th its American co lo nies. Even befo re rhc final defeat of the French. T o prev cm wa r with th e Amerindian tr ibes w ho live d III the area. Geo rge It fo rbade co lonists to set tle west of'thc Ap palachians unt il propl'r treaties had been m ade wi th th e Am erindians.

When a Uritish Prim e M inister named Ho bert Wa lpok was asked why he did not do more to enforce the tr ade laws. The trouble began w he n late r British politicians forgot his ad vice and aw o ke the "sleeping dogs.

The king 's pr oclam at io n angere d the co lonists. They became ang rier still when the British govern me nt told them that they must pay new tax es on im ports ofsuga r, co ffee.

The gove rnm en t also told them rhar the y m ust feed and find sh elt er for British so ldiers it planned to keep III the colonies. Thes e o rders seem ed perfectly fair to Brit ish politician s. It had cos t Bri tish taxpayt"rs a lor of money to defend the colo nies during th e French and Ind ian War. SOl11 l' oft his money? Bur the colonists di d o bject. M erch an ts believed th at the new im po rt taxes w ou ld m ake it more diffi cu lt fo r the m to tude at a pr ofit.

Other co lon ists bel ieved th at the tax es would raise th eir cos ts ofliving.

T hey also feared that if British troops stayed in Amer ica th ey mi gh t be used to for ce them to obey rhc Uritish govern me nt. This last o bjectio n was all carlv example o f 3 belief that became an import ant rradir io n in American political life-that peopl e sho uld!

In 17 ,5 the British Parliament passed ano ther new law called the Stamp Act. It said that the col oni sts had to buy special ta x stam ps and attach rhem to newspapn s, licenses, and legal paper s suc h as wills and mortg ages. Ever since the earlv yea rs of th e Vir ginia settlement Americans had claimed till.

Now they insisted that as "freeborn Englishmen" th ey could be taxed only by their own colonial assem blies. We hav e no rcprcscntanvcs in the Uritish Parliament , they said, so what right do cs it have to tax LIS?

In representat ives from nine colonie, met in N ew York. All over rhc colonies merchant s and shopkeepe rs refused to sell British goods until the Act w as wi thdrawn.

In Boston and other cities ang r y mobs attacked government officials selling the stamps. Most colon ists SImp ly refused to use them. Tea 1'. He believed in the idea of "no tax ation w itho ut rep resentation. On March 5. Angry words w ere e xchanged. St icks and STOnes beg an to fly through the air at the so ldiers.

One of the crowd tried to rake a soldie r's gu n and the soldier shor him. Without any o rde r fro m the officer in charge. Seve ral others we re wounded. H e w ro re a letter w hic h inaccur ately described the happeni ng as an unprovoked attack on a peaceful grou p of citizens. H e sent om copies of the lette r to all the colon ies. T o make his account mo re. Adams' letter and Rever e's picture were seen by thousands of people throughout the colonies.

T ogcrhcr they did a great deal to strengthen o pposition to B ritish rule.

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All this o pposi tion forced the British governm ent to withdraw the Stamp A ct. But it was determined TO show the colo nists that it had the right TO tax them. Parliament passed another law called the D eclaratory Act. This stated that the British governme nt had "fi. Col onis ts soon began calling these laws the " Intolerable Acts. More soldiers were sent there to keep order. T he po wer s of the colo nial assembly of Massachusett s wac greatly reduced.

In the British plac. A special customs office w as set up in Bosron to collect the ne w duties. Again the colonists refused to pay.

Riot s broke out in Boston and the Briti sh sent so ldiers to kee p order. It was no t until , w hen the British removed all the duties C'xcept for the one on tea, that there was less t rouble. O n june 1, , llritish warships rook up position at the mout h of BOSTOn harbo r to make sure that no ships sailed in or o ut. A few months later, in Septem ber , a gro up of colonial leaders came to geth er III Philadelphia. But some co lonists in M assachusett s wer e determined to keep th e qua rrel go ing.

In December , a group of them disguised them selves as Mohawk Am erindians. T hey boa rded British merchant ships in Boston harbor and threw cases of tea mro the sea. The Continent al Cong ress claimed to be loya l to the British kin g. But it called upon all Americans to support the peop le o f M assachu setts by refusing to buy British goods. M any colonis ts we nt furth er than this. T hey began to organize themselves into grou ps of part-time so ldiers.

Their order s we re to. Sig nal ligh ts were hung fro m th e spire o f Bosto n's ralles r church and rwo fast ride rs, Paul Revere and Willia m Dawt"S. In th e village of Lexingto n th e British fo und scvc lHy American m iliti am en, farmers and tradesm en. These par t-ri m e so ldie rs w ere known as "Minu rcm cn. T he British co mma nde r ordered the M inut em en to return to th eir homes. T hey refused. T I1l'n so meone, no bod y knows w ho , ti red a shot.

O ther sho ts carne fro m the lin es of British so ldiers. Eight M inut emen fell dead. But by th e time they set off ro retur n to Hosron hund reds more M inut em en had gathered.

Fro m th e th ick woods o n each side o f the Boston road they sho t do wn. T he soldiers we re still und er arrack w hen they arrived back in Bosto n. A ring ofarmed A meri cans gathered rou nd the city. T he next month. May , a second Conti nent al Cong ress m et in Philadelphia and began to an as an A meri can natio nal government.

It set up an arm y of 17, m en under the comma nd of George Washi ngton. Wash ington w as a Virginia landow ne r and sur veyo r wi th "ex perience of fightin g in the French and Indian War.

T he Cont inenta l C ongress also sent rep resent atives ro SC1. Nsd orr" , ktub by a" tyt.. By the following yea r th e fig hting had spread beyo nd Massach usetts. It had gro w n in to a fu ll-scale w ar. On July 2, , the Continen tal C o ng ress finally took th e step that mall YAmericans believed w as inevi table. It n it all po litical tics w ith Britain and declared that " these U ni ted C o lonies an. Aft er repea ting that th e colonies were now "free and ind ependent sta tes.

One o f th e first m embers o f the Conrincnral Cong ress to sign th e D cdaratio n oj bJdl'pmdmlt' w as. J oh n H anco ck o f M assach usett s. Hanco ck picked up the pen and w rot e his name in large. It abo set our the ideas behind th e chan ge that w as bein g made.

It claimed [hat all m en had a natural right to " Life, libert y and the pursui t of happiness. Colonial leaders had also studied them in the writings ofa n Engli sh political thinker named j o hn Locke.

M enlike J etTerso n co m bined Lo cke's ideas with their o w n l'xpcn encc o f. Thomas Paine, the voice of revolution O ne of th T w o years later. Paine beca me om: It had an eno rm ous effect on Am erican op inion and prepared people's minds for independence. It was read on fronnc r farms and on city street s.

T his new definition said that governments should cons ist of represent atives elected by the people. It also said that the main reason that govern men ts existed w as to protect the rights of individual citizens. George Washington descr ibed its arguments as "sound and un answ er able. Its words ate still remem bered in times o f difficulty by Americans today. After some early successes. Wash ington's army w as more o f all armed mob than an effective fighting fo rce.

Few of the men had any mili tar y tr aining and many obeyed onl y those orders rhar suited them. O fficers quarr eled cons tantly ove r th eir rank and. Washington set to work to tr ain his me n and turn them into disciplined soldie rs. Our thi s took time. In September , only tw o 11I0mhs aft er the Dedaration of independence. Wdshington wrorc to Ius brother that he feared that the Am ericans w ere very close to losing thr- w ar.

Success began to come to rhc Americans in O ctober The British com man der was cur otffrom his supplies and his men we re facing starvation. The Am ericans marched their prisoners to Boston. H ere. Uenj ami n Frank lin. From 1nH onwa rds most of the figh ting rook place in the sou thern colonies. It was here that the wa r came to an end. In Sept em ber George Washington. Com wnllis was trap ped. O n October 17, 1, he sur rendered his ar my to Washin gton.

Lord North. It is all over! He carne partly to fight for a new and free society, Bu r he came also to avenge the death of his father. Lafayette served without Pay in he American arlllY and became a major-general on the sta ff o f George Washin gton , In the next four years he fough t in nlJny batt les. H e won Washington's respect and fnendship and played a part in the final defeat of the British at Yorktown in When the wa r ended Lafayett e returned to Prance.

Th ere he continued to su ppo rt Am erican int erests. Whl'll the French revolution brok e our in , political 0PPOlll'lltS had Lafayette imprisoned and cook aw ay his estates. But LafJyeu l"s American friend s di d not forget him.

In Congress vot ed him his unclaimed general's pay of S24, A few years later it granted him land in Louisi ana. In the now agin g Lafavene returned to visit the U nited Stares. The Ameri can peo ple greeted him JS a hero, J living sy mbol o f the birth o f their nation. No rth was righ t. T he Briti vh star red to withdraw heir forces from Ame rica and Brit ish and American representatives began to discuss peace term s.

In ti ll' Treaty of Paris. T he treaty granted the new U nite d Stares all of North America from Canad a in the nort h to Florida ill the sou th, and from the Atlantic coas t to rhc M ississippi River. B'Jt it wa s not one natio n. In m ost Americans felt more lo ya lt y to their o wn state tha n to the new U nited States.

T hey saw themselves fir st as Virginians or N ew Yo rkers rathe r tha n as Am ericans. Each ind ivid ual A me rican state had its OW II govern ment and behaved vcry much like an independent co untry. It mad e its own law s and its o w n decisio ns ab out ho w to Hill its affairs. T he first big problem that faced th e new U nited States w as ho w to join together these so me times quarrels o m e little co untries into on e uni ted na tion.

During th e War of Independence the sta res had ag reed to w or k to geth er in a na tion al C on gr ess to w hich each sta te sent rcprcseneauves. T he ag ree m ent tha t set u p this piau for the sta tes to coo perate with o ne another w as called the Anicks of Confede ratio n. It had beg uu to o perate in C o ngr ess could vot e to set up a United States army and navy, but it co uld o nly obtain soldiers an d sailors by asking th e sta tes fo r them.

It could vo te to spend m on ey. T his caused serio us problems. W hen. Wh en th e War o f Independence was over. Some set up tax bar riers against others. N ew Yo rk placed heavy im port du ties o n firew ood impo rted from th e neigh bo ring state of Connecticut and on chickens and eg gs fro m ano ther neig h bo r. N ew J ersey. In some places states ev en began fig hting one an ot her to decid e the o w ne rship of part icula r pieces of fron tier land. I f "shi. T he weak ness ofits government m ade it di fficult fo r the new U nited States to win th e respect o r th e hel p offoreign na tions.

The Bri tish felt that th e Am erican go vernm ent was so weak th at it was no t wort h dealing w ith. Even Fran ce. Thomas j eff erso n. All o f th em were rich men. T hey believed tha t a stro nge r cent ral government would pro tect their property and business inter ests. The o rigi na l pu rpose of the Constitu tional Convcn non was simply to revise the Art icles of C on federation. But the delega tes did mort" than th is.

They starte d afresh and worked out a co mpletely new sys tem o f government for the U ni ted States. Many A me ricans became worried about the future. How could thcv w in the trust ofother nat ions if they refused to pay their debts?

H o w could the Count ry prosper if the states contin ued to q uarrel among therusclvcsf George Washing to n w as usually all optimist. But even he w ro te: The Constitution gave the U nit ed Sta res a " fede ral" system of govern me nt. A federa l system is on e in which the power 10 rule IS shared.

A cen tral. It was clea r t hat fo r the United Stat es to sur vive there would ha vc to be. T he new Co nstitut io n still left th e individual state gov ern ment s wi th a wide range of powers.

Hut it m ade the federal government much stronger than befo re. It gan' it the po wer to collect taxes, to organ ize arm ed fo rces, to ma ke treaties w ith fo reign co untries and to co ntrol tr ade ofall kinds. Co nfederat ion. In February , Congress asked each state to send delegat es to a meeting o r "conven tion;" in Philadelp hia to talk about such changes.

T he smallest state, Rh od e Island, refused , but the other twelve ag reed. T he mee ting became known as the Constitutional Convention. They chose Ccorgc Washington 10 lead th eir discuss ions.

The Constitmion ma de arrangements for the election of a nat io nalleader called the Presiden t to take cha rge of th e federal government. He would head th e "execu tive" side ofthe natio n's government. It would be his job to run the country's everyday affairs and to sec thai people obeyed th e laws.

The delegates to the Constitu tional Convention disag reed about th e changes th at were needed. So m e were anxious to protect the rights of the indi vidual stares. The rules and a rra nge me nt s for Ihe Government of t he U.

N ew York was then the country's capital city. O n Ap ril 30, , Washing ton stood on a bakony there and sw ore a solemn oa th " to preser ve, protect and defend the Constitu tio n of the U nited States.

Washingto n believed that political parties we re har mful. H e said late r that it was " the int erest and duty o f a w ise people to discourage " them. Even so , he favo red a strong feder al govern me nt , so he tended to go vern in a f ederalist mann er.

The way that he dealt with the " Whiskey Rebellion" of w as an exam ple of thi s. The main crop grow n by farmers in wes te rn Pennsylvania w as corn. Some of thi s they mad e. When the federal governme nt placed a tax on th e whiskey t he Pennsylvania farmers refu sed to pay it. They bu rned do w n the houses of th e federal tax collectors. Washingto n sent an army of IS,tXX me n to suppo rt the rights of the federa l government.

Faced by soldiers, the rebels went ho me quietly. The Wh iskey Rebellion collapsed wit hout any figh ting. The soldie rs arrested a few of the leade rs, but later the President pardoned them. Aft er thi s there was no more organi zed resistance to paying the w hiskey tax. But ma ny fro ntier farmers went on making w hiskey that was never taxed.

They made it in st ills hidden away in the w oods. Such illegal " moonsh ine" whiskey-so called becau se it was often made at night-continues to be made to this day. The law-makin g, or "legislative, " powers of the federal go vern ment we re given to a Congress. This was mad e up of representatives elected by the peo ple. Congress wa s to consis t oftwo part s, the Senate and the I louse of Representatives.

In the Senate each sta te would be equally rep resented, with two me mbers, whatever the size ofits population. T he numbe r of representatives a state had in the I louse of. Representatives, however, would depend upon its populat ion. Finally, the Constitution set up a Supreme Court to cont rol the "j udicial" part o f the nation's govern me nt. The j ob of the Supre me C ourt w as to mak e decisions in any disagreem ents about the meaning of the laws and the C onstitu tion.

The Constitution made sure rhar there was a "balance ofpo wer" between these th ree mai n parts, or ' " branches," of the fede ral government. T o each bu nch it gan' powt'rs that the or her two did not have; each had ways ofsro pping w ron gful actions by either of the other two. T his was to make sure that no one person or group could become powerful eno ugh to take complete control ofthe nation 's govcmmcm. The American peo ple had rebelled agamst being ruled in an undemocratic fashion by Britain.

T hey did not want to replace the unrepresentative rule of the kin g and parliament in Lon don w ith the rule ofa tyranni cal cent ral gove rnment in the U nited States itself Many Am er icans had another fear. T his w as that the federal governme nt might try to we aken tilt' Pvwcr of the stat es to run their own individ ual affairs.

To rem ov e thi s danger the C onstitution said e xactly what pow ers the federal governme nt sho uld have and w hat pow ers should be reserved for rhc states.

It said that the states would be allowed [Q ru n their internal affairs as they wished. Before the new sys te m ofgovernment set OUt in the C on stitution cou ld begi n.

People made speeches and w rote newspaper articles both fo r and against the Cons titu tion. Finally, those in favo r won the argume nt. In june It was the ninth state to do so. The C on stitut ion we nt into effect in M arch But it w as still not really complete. In 1 ten amendment s, or add itions , were made to it. Together these tell amendments arc called the Bill of Rights.

The reason fo r the Bill of Rights w as that the original Co nstitu tion had said no thing about the righ ts and freedoms o f indi vid ual citizens. T he UiH of Rights altered this. It pro mi sed all Americans freedo m o f religion ,. T he Court'S new C hiefjusricc.It set up an arm y of 17, m en under the comma nd of George Washi ngton. As always The War of Bet w een and B ritain and Fran ce were at w ar.

T hey began to organize themselves into grou ps of part-time so ldiers. He led his expedition wes twa rd, discovering the Mississip pi River and travelin g beyond it int o Te xas and Oklahoma. It had an eno rm ous effect on Am erican op inion and prepared people's minds for independence. Excellent review on the history of the USA. The Boston settlement pro sper ed fro m the starr.

KARLA from Vermont
I relish searchingly . Browse my other posts. I have always been a very creative person and find it relaxing to indulge in polo.