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There are three different dimensions to the economic task. The present business must be made effective. The present business's potential must be identified. The effective business, Peter Drucker observes, focuses on opportunities rather than problems. How this focus is achieved in order to make the organization p. Peter Drucker on the Profession of Management. Managing in a Time of . Corporation (); Managing for Results (; the first book on what is now called.

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managing for results [Peter F. Drucker] on ppti.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The effective business, Peter Drucker observes, focuses on. Managing for Results history. □ MFR is based on key management concepts from authors like Deming and Drucker, Osborne and Gaebler. □ City's MFR. PETER F. DRUCKER. TRUMAN Drucker, Peter Ferdinand, .. cury and Pan paperbacks); Managing for Results (New York, Harper & Row, ; Lon-.

Explore the Archive Loading What is the first duty—and the continuing responsibility—of the business manager? To strive for the best possible economic results from the resources currently employed or available. Everything else managers may be expected to do, or may want to do, rests on sound economic performance and profitable results over the next few years.

Even such lofty management tasks as assessing corporate social responsibilities and cultural opportunities are not exempt from this presupposition. Accordingly, all business executives spend much, if not all, of their time on the problems of short-run economic performance. They concern themselves with costs and pricing, with scheduling and selling, with quality control and customer service, with purchasing and training. This is the subject matter of 90 out of any books in the business library, and conservatively of 90 out of any reports and studies produced within businesses.

They want to know how to organize for the task; how to tell the important from the time-wasting, the potentially effective from the merely frustrating. Despite the flood of data and reports threatening to inundate the manager today, he gets only the vaguest generalities. What is the major problem in it?


What is the principle for defining this problem and for analyzing it? For his job is work—very hard, demanding, risk-taking work. But I do claim that we know how to organize the job of managing for economic effectiveness and how to do it with both direction and results.

The answers to the three key questions above are known, and have been known for such a long time that they should not surprise anyone.

It is to direct the resources and the efforts of the business toward opportunities for economically significant results.

This sounds trite—and it is. What is the major problem? It is fundamentally the confusion between effectiveness and efficiency that stands between doing the right things and doing things right.

There is surely nothing quite so useless as doing with great efficiency what should not be done at all. Yet our tools—especially our accounting concepts and data—all focus on efficiency. What we need is 1 a way to identify the areas of effectiveness of possible significant results , and 2 a method for concentrating on them. What is the principle? That, too, is well-known—at least as a general proposition. Business enterprise is not a phenomenon of nature but one of society. This is true in the marketplace.

A handful of customers out of many thousands produce the bulk of the orders; a handful of products out of hundreds of items in the line produce the bulk of the volume; and so on. This is true of markets, end uses, and distributive channels. It is equally true of sales efforts: a few salesmen, out of several hundred, always produce two-thirds or more of all new business. It is true in the plant: a handful of production runs account for most of the tonnage. It is true of research: a few men in the laboratory produce all the important innovations, as a rule.

As studies at the New York Telephone Company have shown, this is true even in respect to employee sickness. Thus, results and costs stand in inverse relationship to each other. And now, translated back into common language, economic results are, by and large, directly proportionate to revenue, while costs are directly proportionate to number of transactions. The only exceptions to this are the purchased materials and parts that go directly into the final product.

It even costs just as much, as a rule, to actually make the product, to package it, and to transport it for a small order as for a large one. They will allocate themselves according to the number of events rather than according to results.

In fact, the most expensive and potentially most productive resources i. Business Strategies Building Economic Performance into a Business Conclusion: When I wrote it, more than twenty years ago, my original title was, in fact, Business Strategies.

Indeed, when my publisher and I tested the title with acquaintances who were business executives, consult- ants, management teachers, and booksellers, we were strongly advised to drop it. Yet in retrospect I am glad we changed the title. On the inside there are only costs. It pioneered practically everything to be found in these books: But it also—and in this it still stands alone—showed how to analyze the environment and how to position a business in it.

And it. You've reached the end of this preview. Now, monopoly and bigness are, of course, not the same thing and ought not be confused. But Drucker is able to track the point at issue still further to challenge its historical as well as its logical basis. This assumption does not always obtain. It may be true of some, but is not necessarily true of all, historical periods. Because Drucker knows the traditional meaning of monopoly and the structural differences between past and present economic conditions, he can refocus an errant discussion.

Other examples suggest themselves.

Managing for Results

Drucker reaches the heart of this twentieth-century phenomenon by appreciating the sudden irrelevance of earlier systems of thought. A similar understanding characterizes his many obiter dicta on Marxism as well as his famous essay on John Maynard Keynes. Drucker writes:. But it aimed at the restoration and preservation of the basic beliefs, the basic institutions of nineteenth-century laissez-faire politics; above all, it aimed at the preservation of the autonomy and automatism of the market.

He can read the implications of the lengthening transition from research to practical application and can see the need for an essentially new relationship between science and technology.

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He recognizes as well the dangers of the abrupt telescoping of accustomed product life cycles. Such a revolution, no matter when it occurs, demands major innovation in social and political institutions. Although the form of that innovation must follow the new objective reality created by technological change, the values that shape it and the human ends it is to serve still lie within human control.

When I first met Peter Drucker, 15 years ago, he shared with me ideas that have deeply influenced my work ever since. Chief among them was that beyond just making a profit or creating wealth for stakeholders, the essence of a company is making a difference, being really useful, and creating something the world truly needs. Why is such a creed so important? Where does that strong sense of company purpose come from? According to Drucker, in every single case it can be traced to an individual, though not necessarily the founder.

As long as this kind of purpose stands, Drucker said, a company will survive and thrive.

Drucker also shared with me that an effective purpose should articulate not only the things that a company will do but also those that it will not do.

I usually ask them to ponder the purpose of their organization. What justifies its existence? What things will it do and not do? What important benefits, beyond profits or shareholder value, does it strive to produce? How does it contribute to something the world truly needs? How does every little thing made by the company help it build a positive and constructive legacy?

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As they endeavor to answer these questions, executives naturally begin to think about their roles as citizens and human beings. This often helps them not only to become more deeply conscious of the purpose of their work and that of their companies, but also to reinvent the very meaning of their leadership journey.

Now more than ever, technology demands of business hardheaded adaptation to objective circumstances and increasingly vigilant commitment to ultimate social purposes. Business must clearly understand and meet both obligations to be successful—even to survive—under these modern conditions.

In Japan, Drucker finds, the decision-making process is different from its American counterpart in three essential ways: From his long acquaintance with the Japanese way of doing things, Drucker knows that this otherwise inexplicable sequence of foot-dragging and full speed makes perfect, if unfamiliar, sense. Unlike American managers, whose decisions typically focus on the merits of a single option and whose concerns are more tactical than strategic, the Japanese take great care first to define the precise nature of the issue at hand.

Only then do they methodically review every available course of action. By contrast, American managers do not as a rule discipline themselves to consider all possible alternatives. More important, they do not regularly force themselves to think through the kind of issue it is that confronts them. Though the compromises made are roughly comparable to those implicit in any Japanese consensus, they are structurally deficient in a way the Japanese ones are not. Coming after the fact, American compromises and the inevitable trade-offs they involve can play havoc with the systematic logic of the original decision; coming before the fact, Japanese compromises are by definition included—and accounted for—within the decision itself.

Ideas for Drucker have both an external historical or cultural context and an internal logic of argument. The first gives them their shaping assumptions and conceptual vocabulary; the second, their systematic cogency. The first roots them in time and place; the second makes them more generally applicable.

The first underscores their relativity; the second stresses their universality. Drucker does not deny the tension between context and logic. Rather, by looking closely at both, he is repeatedly able to define the relevant terms of discussion, reduce them to first principles, uncover improper assumptions or inferences, and identify hidden contradictions.

More specifically, he treats wages and wage policy in such a way as to unmask the quite different starting assumptions of employer and employee. He attacks the arbitrariness of the yearly accounting period, pointing up the great distance between an abstract convention and the reality it is to represent. He shows the typical criteria for promotion within management to be structurally contradictory—that is, in conflict with binding economic objectives.

This breadth of critical vision is, in turn, an apt expression of an instinctively holistic process of thought. As a number of Drucker-watchers have argued, his mind gravitates neither to the isolated fact nor to the mechanically causal explanation. Instead, Drucker responds most richly to the kaleidoscopic patterns and configurations among facts and to the process-based explanation of their significance. Separate, random data become facts, and isolated facts take on importance only by virtue of their participation in—and relation to—wholes larger than themselves.

For example, his insistence on marketing as the essential, ubiquitous task of management attests to a view of business as a process necessarily oriented toward the creation and satisfaction of customers. Similarly, he extrapolates a few ideal patterns from the mass of individual variations of production and organization principles. In fact, when Drucker writes of the profession of management, he invariably conceives of it as a discipline that teaches its practitioners to identify the constellations of significance in the otherwise chaotic flow of information and circumstance.

It does far more than simply impart useful information. It provides a case study in how to think. Though often pointed and prescriptive, it rarely loses its tone of calm rationality or strays from its primary commitment to objective analysis. Quite the opposite: It is remorselessly fair-minded.

I knew Peter Drucker for 30 years. Aside from the personal career advice he gave me, his view of the responsibility of business to society and of management consultants to clients has had a profound impact on my life. In the Next Society, the biggest challenge…may be its social legitimacy: Too many business leaders pay lip service to social responsibility.

They see it as more about image which can be delegated to the PR department than about substance which is core to strategy. Their predominant concern remains maximizing short-term shareholder value—a narrow focus that Drucker decried. They focus almost entirely on the economic side of management. All too often cost-cutting and layoffs are their prescriptions.

A root cause of the problem is education. Drucker considered management one of the liberal arts and therefore believed that managers should be educated in the humanities and the social sciences.

I wholeheartedly agree. Management innovators have produced an abundance of concepts and tools to help corporations improve their economic performance. Where are the concepts and tools to help them improve their social performance? As disseminators of knowledge in the business world, management consultants can and should help organizations become better corporate citizens and regain public trust.

The best way to help a client improve its performance is to build on its strengths, including the best aspects of its culture. Drucker also believed that a consultant should respect all his clients and remember that he lives off their knowledge. This makes eminent sense: If consultants are to disseminate best practices, they must be not only good teachers but also good students.

The corporation is entering a new era—one in which it will have to reinvent itself not just to compete but also to prove its social legitimacy. As change agents, management consultants will have a critical role to play.

To some, this unflappable deliberateness proves maddening beyond words. Impatience of mind turns over the authority in argument to the itch of irritation and removes it from the sway of reason. When reading Drucker, one responds not only to the fair-mindedness but also to the obvious grace and cultivation of language. His prose is refreshingly literate; his scope of reference, enormous; his offhanded manner of phrasing significant observations, disarmingly and deceptively simple.

One is inclined to believe what Drucker says because one trusts the voice doing the saying: It neither threatens nor perplexes but holds out the promise that even the most complicated topics are malleable to experience, orderly thought, and plain good sense.

Consider, for a moment, the following excerpt from Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices.His experiences in Europe had left him fascinated with the problem of authority.

Character is not developed that way. Assumptions about mission, core competencies, and customers not only must fit reality, but also must be consistent with each other. When reading Drucker, one responds not only to the fair-mindedness but also to the obvious grace and cultivation of language. Malcolm rated it it was amazing Mar 16, Kevin Kaiser.

Pricing on Purpose. Establishing controls and appropriate reporting mechanisms facilitates the process of self-control as well as the processes of developing oneself and others.

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