MINERAL NUTRITION OF HIGHER PLANTS PDF
Marschner's Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Book • 3rd Edition • Edited by: Petra Marschner. Browse book content. About the book. Search in this book. PDF | In this chapter, a brief overview of the history of plant mineral nutrition is provided. Marschner's Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Book. An understanding of the mineral nutrition of plants is of fundamental importance in both basic and applied plant sciences. The Second Edition of this book.
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Purchase Marschner's Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants - 3rd Edition. Print Book & E-Book. Price includes VAT/GST. DRM-free (Mobi, EPub, PDF). × DRM-. tion of these materials from the environment and their internal distribution to places where they are needed. Although carbon nutrition is not consid ered in this. Mineral Nutrition of. Higher Plants. Second Edition. Horst Marschner. Institute of Plant Nutrition. University of Hohenheim. Germany. ACADEMIC PRESS.
Parte 1 de 13 Preface to First Edition Mineral nutrients are essential for plant growth and development. Mineral nutrition of plants is thus an area of fundamental importance for both basic and appUed science. Impressive progress has been made during the last decades in our understanding of the mechanisms of nutrient uptake and their functions in plant metabolism; at the same time, there have also been advances in increasing crop yields by the supply of mineral nutrients through fertilizer application.
It is the main aim of this textbook to present the principles of the mineral nutrition of plants, based on our current knowledge.
Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants
Although emphasis is placed on crop plants, examples are also presented from noncultivated plants including lower plants in cases where these examples are considered more suitable for demonstrating certain principles of mineral nutrition, either at a cellular level or as particular mechanisms of adaptation to adverse chemical soil conditions. Plant nutrition as a subject is closely related to other disciplines such as soil science, plant physiology and biochemistry.
In this book, mineral nutrients in soils are treated only to the extent considered necessary for an understanding of how plant roots acquire mineral nutrients from soils, or how roots modify the chemical soil properties at the soil-root interface. Fundamental processes of plant physiology and biochemistry, such as photosynthesis and respiration, are treated mainly from the viewpoint of how, and to what extent, they are affected or regulated by mineral nutrients. Crop physiology is included as an area of fundamental practical importance for agriculture and horticulture, with particular reference to source-sink relationships as affected by mineral nutrients and phytohormones.
Mineral nutrition of plants covers a wide field. It is therefore not possible to treat all aspects with the detail they deserve.
In this book, certain aspects are covered in more detail, either because they have recently become particularly important to our understanding of mineral nutrition, or because many advances have been made in a particular area in the last decade.
Naturally, personal research interests and evaluation are also factors which have influenced selection. Particular emphasis is placed on short- and long-distance transport of mineral elements, on source-sink relationships, and on plant-soil relationships.
It is also the intention of this book to enable the reader to become better acquainted with the mechanisms of adaptation of plants to adverse chemical soil conditions.
The genetical basis of mineral nutrition is therefore stressed, as well as the possibilities and limitations of "fitting crop plant to soils", especially in the tropics and subtropics.
Instead of extensive explanations of basic processes, emphasis is placed on representative examples— tables, figures, schematic presentations—illustrating the various aspects of mineral nutrition.
In a textbook of such wide scope, generalizations cannot be avoided, but relevant literature is cited for further and more detailed studies. In the literature, preference has been given to more recent publications.
Nevertheless, representative examples of classical contributions are also cited in the various sections. Although this book is written by one person, it is nevertheless the product of cooperation at various levels. My interest in plant nutrition and my scientific career in this field are due to the inspiration of Dr.
The book as it is presented here would not have been accomplished without the excellent support of two colleagues.
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Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! An annual anal Embed Size px. Plants appear to be composed of relatively few different cell types Martin et al.
Each of these cell types is thought to perform a distinct physiological function and, consequently, to have a unique ionome Punshon et al. In this Special Issue, Conn and Gilliham review the phenomenon of cell-specific accumulation of mineral elements in plants. They describe the techniques used to determine both the tissue and subcellular distributions of mineral elements and present the tissue distributions of diverse elements including K, P, Ca, Na and Cd.
They speculate on the physiological reasons for these distributions and the transport processes that are likely to generate them. They observe that the accumulation and tissue distributions of Ca, Na and Cd can be defined by the expression of key transport proteins and suggest how this phenomenon might be utilized to prevent the accumulation of toxic elements by plants.
Similar observations are made by Miwa and Fujiwara , who report that the misexpression of genes encoding B transporters alter the uptake and distribution of B in plants, and by Kobayashi et al.
Indeed, the role of transport proteins in the uptake and distribution of mineral elements is highlighted by many articles in this Special Issue. These articles reveal that the expression of genes affecting transport processes influence plant adaptation to soils with extreme phytoavailabilities of mineral elements Eticha et al. Traditional agronomic countermeasures can be employed to address these problems and plant breeders are developing crop genotypes that tolerate these adverse abiotic environments better, through either conventional breeding or transgenic strategies.
Crop production on acid soils is primarily limited by Al toxicity Marschner, ; Mengel et al. The presence of excessive Al in the rhizosphere inhibits root elongation Marschner, ; Mengel et al.
Resistance is generally conferred by the release of organic acids, such as malate, citrate and oxalate, at the root apex that form Al-complexes and reduce the phytoavailability of toxic Al species in the root elongation zone Ma et al.
In some plant species, such as wheat and maize, the release of organic acids is constitutive, whereas in other plant species, such as soybean, sorghum and rye, it is induced by exposure to Al Ma et al.
In common bean Phaseolus vulgaris , Al-resistance is effected by the Al-inducible release of citrate into the rhizosphere Rangel et al. In this Special Issue, Eticha et al. They then reveal that, although the initial restoration of root growth is dependent upon Al-induced expression of genes encoding citrate transporters of the MATE family, in the longer term, Al-tolerance is achieved by the maintenance of citrate synthesis in the roots of resistant genotypes through post-translational regulation.
The implication is that continued synthesis and release of organic acids must be achieved to confer Al resistance and the potential for crop production on acid soils. Mn toxicity also limits crop production on acid soils. Mn is required by plants for the manganese-protein in photosystem II and the manganese-containing superoxide dismutase and also acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymes that catalyse redox, decarboxylation and hydrolytic reactions Marschner, Other symptoms of Mn toxicity are caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species in the cell wall.
Large differences in Mn tolerance exist both between and within plant species Marschner, They also conducted a proteomic study to identify proteins whose abundance was altered in response to high Mn availability in rice leaves, observing an increased abundance of proteins related to stress responses and changes in the profile of proteins related to photosynthesis.
B is essential for cross-linking the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II in primary cell walls, but high tissue B concentrations are toxic to plants Brown et al. Miwa and Fujiwara propose that plants maintain their tissue B concentrations within an optimum range by regulating B transport processes and review the properties of B transporters responsible for the uptake and distribution of B in plants.
[PDF] Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, Second Edition (Special Publications of the Society for
They observe that the activity of these transport proteins is finely regulated in response to B phytoavailability, and that the combined over-expresssion of AtNIP5;1 and AtBOR1 allows transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to grow better than the wild-type in environments with low B phytoavailability, whereas the over-expression of AtBOR4 confers increased tolerance of high B concentrations in the environment.
Similarly, greater expression of BOR genes in barley and wheat has been associated with an increased tolerance to high B concentrations in the environment Reid, Thus, transgenic strategies based on expression of B transporters might enable the engineering of crops with greater yields in soils with low or high B phytoavailability.
In many agricultural soils, there is rarely sufficient phytoavailable N, P or K to supply enough of these elements for the rapid growth of crop plants during their early growth.
Hence, these elements are supplied as fertilizers in both intensive and extensive agricultural systems. It is therefore important to optimize the efficiency with which fertilizers are used in crop production.
Ultimately, sustainable crop production is achieved when stable levels of food production and quality are maintained without compromising economic profitability or the environment. Considerable within-species genetic variation has been observed in all these measures for the mineral elements frequently supplied in fertilizers, including N, P and K see reviews by Hirel et al.
Several articles in this Special Issue explore the phenotypic traits and genetic factors affecting nitrogen use efficiency, phosphorus use efficiency and potassium use efficiency by crops. Masclaux-Daubresse et al. They observe that the over-expression of genes encoding nitrate transporters, nitrate reductases or nitrite reductases rarely has any effect on NUE.
However, the over-expression of genes encoding glutamine synthases, asparagine synthases or glutamate synthases GOGAT often increases the yield of transgenic plants and, concomitantly, improves NUE.
They also observe that the over-expression of alanine aminotransferase can increase the nitrogen uptake efficiency NUpE and yields of plants grown with a low N supply, and that ectopic expression of Dof1, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in organic acid metabolism, increases the accumulation of amino acids in transgenic A.
These observations are broadly consistent with reports that genes encoding glutamine synthases or the NAC transcription factor NAM-B1, which accelerates leaf senescence and the remobilization of nutrients to seeds, occur in quantitative trait loci QTL controlling NUE in various plant species Hirel et al.
They also provide a context for the papers by Couturier et al. Forest soils have extremely low N availability and woody plants show characteristic adaptations to cope with seasonal N demand for growth Cooke and Weih, In autumn, deciduous trees remobilize N from their senescing leaves for storage in woody tissues over winter.
Couturier et al. They also observe that the expression of Pt-CAT11, which encodes a cationic amino acid transporter, increases in the phloem of senescing leaves, noting that the abundance of Pt-CAT11 transcripts was strongly correlated with leaf glutamine concentrations, and demonstrate that Pt-CAT11 transports glutamine.
Simultaneously with the increased expression of Pt-CAT11, they observe an increase in the expression of arginine biosynthesis genes in the stem. Thus, they speculate that leaf proteins are converted to glutamine in senescing leaves, which is then loaded into the phloem by Pt-CAT11 and transported to the stem, where it is converted first to arginine and then to Bark Storage Proteins for winter storage.
Beatty et al. The rank order of genotypes in these efficiency characteristics was consistent between environments, suggesting that trials scored in controlled environments can be used to identify phenotypic and genetic targets for improving NUE in spring barley. This has also been observed for other crops grown in low N environments Fageria, The phytoavailability of P limits crop production worldwide and crop genotypes with better P-fertilizer use efficiencies are being sought Vance et al.Skip to content.
The regulatory roles of aquaporins in cellular water transport have been reported in previous studies [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. Although reviewed at some length in several recent books, discussion of these topics is clear and succinct.
Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants
Functions of Mineral Nutrients: Similar comments can be made about the content of Chapter 4 concerned with plant population management.
Nitrogen N Nitrogen N , one of the most important mineral nutrients in higher plants, is involved in plant metabolism as a constituent of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, chlorophyll, co-enzymes, phytohormones, and secondary metabolites [ 40 , 41 ]. The reviews will be valuable to those teaching photosynthesis to undergraduate and postgraduate courses for their breadth of coverage, depth of comment and balance.