INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULICS PDF
PDF | Introduction to Hydraulics for Industry Professionals is a learning package for students or professionals who are looking to build their fluid. Customer-driven. Solutions. Parker Hydraulics is in the. 'solutions business', offering our customers the widest array of solutions and services available. Hydraulic systems are used in modern production plants and manufacturing industry. On an excavator, for example, not only are all working movements (such .
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Typical hydraulic circuits for control of industrial machinery are described in this Graphical hydraulic circuit diagrams incorporating component symbols are. Industrial ppti.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. This booklet is intended to be a handy reference guide to basic hydraulic principles and the mathematics of hydraulics. Suggestions for trouble-shooting of .
The is two units similar to the joined together to make one assembly. The Series Open the catalog to page 9 Gear Products Power Units Power Units Proportional Control Valves Directional Control Valves Gear pumps made of floating bushing, pressure balanced design, with an extruded body in high strength aluminum alloy and endcover and flange in cast iron. These valves provide a compact hydraulic circuit at a reduced cost, eliminating interconnecting piping.
Applications: Machine tool and multiple industrial applications. Specifications: Rated Flow: Up to lpm 90 gpm. Rated Pressure: Up to bar 4, psi. Function: Relief, Open the catalog to page 11 Heavy Duty Welded Excellent monoblock design results in fewer leakage paths. Hardened and plated spools provide superior impact and corrosion resistance. Open center circuits use pumps which supply a continuous flow. The flow is returned to tank through the control valve's open center; that is, when the control valve is centered, it provides an open return path to tank and the fluid is not pumped to a high pressure.
Otherwise, if the control valve is actuated it routes fluid to and from an actuator and tank. The fluid's pressure will rise to meet any resistance, since the pump has a constant output. If the pressure rises too high, fluid returns to tank through a pressure relief valve. Multiple control valves may be stacked in series . This type of circuit can use inexpensive, constant displacement pumps. Closed center circuits supply full pressure to the control valves, whether any valves are actuated or not.
The pumps vary their flow rate, pumping very little hydraulic fluid until the operator actuates a valve. The valve's spool therefore doesn't need an open center return path to tank. Multiple valves can be connected in a parallel arrangement and system pressure is equal for all valves. Open loop and closed loop circuits Open loop circuits[ edit ] Open-loop: Pump-inlet and motor-return via the directional valve are connected to the hydraulic tank. The term loop applies to feedback; the more correct term is open versus closed "circuit".
The flow is returned to the tank through the control valve's open center; that is, when the control valve is centered, it provides an open return path to the tank and the fluid is not pumped to a high pressure.
If the pressure rises too high, fluid returns to the tank through a pressure relief valve. Multiple control valves may be stacked in series. Closed loop circuits[ edit ] Closed-loop: Motor-return is connected directly to the pump-inlet. To keep up pressure on the low pressure side, the circuits have a charge pump a small gearpump that supplies cooled and filtered oil to the low pressure side.
Closed-loop circuits are generally used for hydrostatic transmissions in mobile applications. Advantages: No directional valve and better response, the circuit can work with higher pressure. In a diagram with a double logarithmic scale for the viscosity axis. Viscosity data indicate whether a pressure medium is light or viscous at a certain temperature and hence whether friction between the fluid layers is smaller or greater.
RE data sheet. It changes as temperature changes. The hydraulic fluid to be used is selected according to the prevailing operating conditions such as: Manufacturer's data For determining the application limits of a hydraulic system and consequently for the selection of the hydraulic fluid. The component manufacturer Rexroth. DIN 51 Factory Mutual. DD additives reduce friction values Hydrostatic drives with high thermal stress. Class H: DD additives hold contaminations in balance.
April Field of application Operating temperatures Notes Flame-retardant. Polyalpha olefins synth. It is the resistance that material particles put up to the force during mutual shifting. For example: Thanks to additives. Especially hydraulic hoses and hose connections must be intensively observed and inspected. Pressure fluids may only be used.
While dissolved air and minor surface foam hardly show any adverse effects.
Danger If leakage on the hydraulic product can lead to the contamination of water and soil. Safety aspects Hydraulic fluids based on mineral oil are water-endangering and inflammable. When hydraulic systems are used properly. Since the oil contains very small air bubbles.
Oil changes must be made properly and thoroughly. The contamination to be removed by means of filters enters the hydraulic system from the surroundings via the filling connection or past the seals.
Moving parts in the hydraulic system such as pumps. This type of contamination is termed internal contamination. The majority of malfunctions in hydraulic systems are caused by strongly contaminated hydraulic fluids. When the hydraulic system is flushed. Components are often preserved for intermediate storage. Aging residues in hydraulic fluids.
Fresh pressure fluid. The preservatives bind dirt and dust. The contamination ingression rate to be expected depends exclusively on the contamination of the surroundings and the design of systems and components. Especially during commissioning of the system. This dirt also gets into the hydraulic fluid when the system is commissioned. Seal material. Main flow filtration Control 1 8 7 10 3 6 2 5 4 1 Built-on return flow filter 2 Filling filter 3 Breather filter 4 Suction filter 5 Hydraulic pump 6 Cooler 7 Hydraulic pump 8 High-pressure filter 9 Off-line filter 10 Underpressure switch Off-line filtration 9.
Filters perform certain tasks depending on their location in the system. The housing with the filter connection protrudes directly into the tank. This means that the hydraulic fluid coming from the system is filtered before being fed back to the tank.
When the filter element is taken out. The filter element can be quickly and easily taken out by removing the cover. The filters are generally provided with a connection for a clogging indicator. An important feature is that a strainer encloses the filter element. A great advantage of this filter design is good accessibility and consequently maintenance-friendliness.
The maximum flow must be taken into account for the selection of the filter size. The following aspects are decisive for the use of pressure filters: Pressure filters should generally be fitted with a clogging indicator.
A connection for a clogging indicator is generally provided. Upstream of particularly critical components. The filter housings must withstand the max. This type of filter must be provided with a filter element that withstands also higher pressure differential loads without any damage.
The requirements for this filter type are laid down in DIN Depending on the required cleanliness class. Design measures such as pressurization of oil tanks are often uneconomical when compared with the highly efficient breather filters offered on the market today.
A significant part of contaminants gets into hydraulic systems through unsuitable venting equipment. Filler and breather filters basically consist of an air filter 1 for filtering the air flowing into the tank and a filling strainer 3 for retaining coarse particles when the system is filled with fluid. The filters should be fitted with a connection for clogging indicators 2.
As more and more particles are retained by the filter. The filter cake built up on the surface can result in a reduction in the filtration rating.
The particles to be removed are also retained in the deeper layers of the filter. For surface filtration. For these filters. Particles that get into the filter medium due to their small diameter can pass through the filter without any hindrance. The consequences are: Coarse filters protect the system against coarse particle contamination They reduce the risk of a sudden failure or total loss.
For each class. Classification according to NAS 14 cleanliness classes are available for the classification of the hydraulic fluid. Differential pressure clogging indicators Backpressure clogging indicators. Through the use of these indicators. With these fully electronic clogging indicators. A piston with attached magnet is moved against the force of a spring inside the clogging indicator. A pressure peak suppression and cold start suppression are additionally integrated.
For a permanent indication of the element contamination electronic clogging indicators were developed. With the electrical variant. The closer the poles come to each other. On visual clogging indicators. If protective equipment must be bridged to allow servicing work to be carried out. The trainer must make the required documents available to the trainee.
The higher-order machine operating instructions must be observed.
Warning For this reason. It may only be used when the corresponding safety data sheet is available and all precautions prescribed therein were taken. Only when the operating instructions are strictly observed can accidents and damage to property be avoided and the trouble-free operation of the hydraulic system be ensured.
The use for the intended purpose. The operating instructions are intended for information purposes and for the prevention of risks when hydraulic components are being installed in a system. When competitors' products are used. The hydraulic system may only be operated when in technically perfect condition. Hydraulic oil based on mineral oil is water-endangering and inflammable.
Uncontrolled access by external persons to the direct operating area of the hydraulic system is prohibited even in case that the hydraulic system is at rest. In the case of an emergency.
These are the fundamental safety regulations that must be observed for every project task. The output torque of the motor or engine is converted by a convertor into a rotary or linear movement as required by the machine. In the following Project 01 you can impart knowledge of the general structure of a hydraulic power unit. Project The basic components of a hydraulic system are: In the project order.
The valves such as directional. This task is assumed by a transmission. A simple hydraulic power unit consists of: In this project task. The power is transmitted by the hydraulic fluid. The components of a hydraulic system listed above can be designed as individual components or. This is equally valid for the engine of a passenger car as for the drive of the projects described in this project manual such as the drive of: The drive power is made available by an electric motor or combustion engine.
The task of drive engineering is to provide a drive for a machine or system that ensures optimum performance of the technological function. Notes on the detailed technical information about hydraulic power units: A hydraulic accumulator is not provided.
The customer wishes to get information about the structure of a hydraulic power unit with pilot operated vane pump. In the list of the hydraulic power unit components he requests the provision of short information about the selected components.
Are all customer requirements met? Are there further possibilities of meeting the customer requirement or simpler ways of project execution? Have unforeseeable problems occurred? Planning and organizing the execution of the customer order. Preparation of a schematic circuit diagram and selection of the required drive elements and accessories with short description. Hydraulic design and dimensioning of the power unit. Accepting and understanding the order.
Drive power unit Item 5. Items Table Warning Caution If work on electrohydraulic components is carried out improperly. This can cause injury when the system is opened. Before starting work on the training stand. Hydraulic systems can store pressure energy at rest. Relevant sources of regulations are given in the introduction of the present manual.
Check on the system pressure gauge that the system is depressurized. This also includes knowledge of the design of hydraulic systems inclusive of the drive power unit.
Any power losses are not considered. P Energy converter e. The listing on the next page shows influencing factors that have to be taken into account when rating a hydraulic power unit. Rated Dp for a pressure filter. State of art with regard to minimum requirements is.
Both must be specified by the component manufacturer. Since manufacturers usually indicate only the sizes in technical data sheets how much is displaced during one revolution of the pump?
Typical frame sizes are. Hydraulic fluid reservoir: Hydraulic fluid reservoirs are selected on the basis of practical experience such as: The topic of cooling is not dealt with in this simple engineering task. Calculation formula for the selection of the hydraulic motor: Electric motor: For rating the electric motor. The selection of the required carrier components such as coupling.
The factors that have an influence on the selection of a return flow filter are listed on the previous page. In industrial applications. The provision of a drain valve is always recommended for changing the hydraulic fluid. When selecting the return flow filter. For converting the displacement into power per unit of displacement the following formula can be applied: The following must be known for rating the hydraulic pump: For the selection. General note: In contrast to the following project tasks.
For the simplified rating of a return flow filter. A component arrangement drawing and a general layout of the training system are therefore not provided.
Planning steps Planning of the project objective and the proceeding. Hydraulic power unit Project schedule: The hydraulic pump usually aspires the hydraulic fluid from a storage tank suction side and displaces it to the pump outlet pressure side. In terms of construction, hydraulic pumps can be differentiated as follows: Gear, internal gear, screw, vane, radial piston and axial piston pumps.
Hydraulic pumps are displacer pumps, the displacement of which can be either fixed or variable. Hydraulic pumps that feature an adjustable displacement are called variable displacement pumps. In the following Project 02 you can impart knowledge of the interrelationship between the hydraulic variable displacement pump, the displacement and pressure build-up through resistances in the hydraulic system.
In the project order, the trainee is made familiar with the characteristic curves of a pilot operated variable displacement vane pump and the direct relationship between the displacement and the system pressure. This project task is to help the trainee to understand the following: With the help of the control set up on the training system, the trainee can recognize that when the system pressure increases as resistance at the pressure port of the hydraulic pump, the total displacement reduces.
The resistance is realized by means of a hand lever valve, with the system pressure being steplessly variable via a pressure relief valve operated in parallel. Notes on the detailed technical information about hydraulic variable displacement pumps: Project definition In a hydraulic power unit, the hydraulic energy is to be provided by a variable, pilot operated vane pump. The power that can be generated by the hydraulic pump is to be measured in an experiment set-up.
The customer wishes detailed information about the pros and cons of this vane pump, including a flow characteristic curve, from which the relationship between increasing system pressure and losses of the vane pump can be seen. Accepting and understanding the order, among others, through discussions with the customer. Planning and organizing the execution of the customer order; among others, through the selection of components from a technical data sheet RE vane pump, pilot operated.
Working out the set-up of a hydraulic control on the training system, documenting the characteristic curve required by the customer and providing explanations with regard to the characteristic curves and power losses. Direct operated pressure relief valve; the cracking pressure can be adjusted by means of a spring. Notes for the trainer: The pilot operated, variable vane pump is not included as individual component in parts list table It is an integral part of the hydraulic power unit from Project The designations of components in the parts list and the component arrangement are Rexrothspecific designations.
Also the grid layout is Rexroth-specific and adapated for use on the training system. Safety notes To ensure the operability of plant and machinery, and consequently to allow the recognition of potential risks, safety regulations must be observed before and during the execution of the order.
If work on electrohydraulic components is carried out improperly, risks of injury and a safety risk can arise operation of the system, including danger to life. Execution of the order Set-up of the control as described in the following: Mount the components required according to Table Connect the hydraulic control according to hydraulic circuit diagram Fig.
For connections, to which pressure gauges with minimess hose DZ 1. Hand-tighten the pressure gauge measuring lines hand tight at the relevant minimess connection of the hydraulic hose. The proper and tight fit of hose connections of components can be easily checked by slightly turning the hoses. Make sure that pipes or hoses are connected to all connections - in this case also to minimess lines, or that the connections are plugged by means of plug screws or protective caps.
Leakage oil may drip through open connections and cause a slipping risk. Before commissioning the hydraulic control, i. Completely close throttle valve item 1. To this end, turn the adjustment element clockwise to the mechanical limit stop. Close shut-off valve item 1.
Switch the hydraulic pump on and check and the set up control for any leakage. Adjust the system pressure on pressure relief valve item 1. Check the set pressure on the variable displacement pump of the drive power unit zero stroke pressure 50 bar.
Flow measurement 5. Open shut-off valve item 1. Open throttle valve item 1. Flow measurement by means of the measuring glass; to this end, close shut-off valve item 1. Record the filling quantity and enter the measured value in Table Take flow measurements as described in points 6. After completion of practical work, switch the hydraulic pump on the training system off! Turn pressure relief valve item 1.
No pressure gauge may indicate a pressure! Enter the individual values as points in Diagram The resulting curve is the typical characteristic curve of the pilot operated, variable vane pump.
The values were measured at an oil temperature of approx. When the hydraulic pump is switched on. In the following Project 03 knowledge can be imparted with regard to the use of single-rod cylinders as machine elements. Biased on the control set up on the training system the trainee is to learn that the use of a meterout throttle on the piston rod side involves a risk of pressure intensification. Flow control valves are used to change. On the basis of this project task.
The extension velocity can be varied by means of a throttle valve. Neglecting friction. We distinguish hydraulic cylinders by their design principles: Notes on detailed technical information about hydraulic cylinders: When throttling.
To this end. The customer installed a throttle valve on the piston rod side and. Apart from the technical documentation he wishes to get an explanation of the pressure intensification of the single-rod cylinder.
Preparation of a schematic diagram sketch and selection of components. Set-up of the hydraulic control on the training system.
Working out and documenting the system parameters required by the customer and explanations with regard to pressure intensification on the basis of a calculation example. Feeding cylinder Measuring glass. The single-rod cylinder extends automatically when the hydraulic pump is switched on.
Also the grid arrangement is Rexroth-specific and adapted for use on the training system. Warning Caution Make sure that pipes or hoses are connected to all connections. No pressure gauge may indicate a pressure. Before commissioning the hydraulic control. It can cause injury when the system is opened. For connections. Execution of the order Set up the control as described below: Use the system pressure gauges to check that the system is depressurized. Hand-tighten the pressure gauge measuring lines at the relevant minimess connection of the hydraulic hose.
Check the pressure set on the variable displacement pump of the drive power unit if required. The correct and proper fit of the component connections with hoses can be checked by slightly turning the hoses.
Set the system pressure on pressure relief valve Item 1. Wire the electrical control according to wiring diagram Fig. Switch the hydraulic pump on and inspect the set up control for leakage.
Hydraulic systems can store pressure energy when at rest. Caution After having completed practical work on the training system switch the hydraulic pump off! Turn pressure relief valve Item 1. Pressure gauge M3 indicates the value of pressure intensification. The piston of the hydraulic cylinder cannot extend.
Switch the hydraulic pump off and wait until the system is depressurized. Switch the hydraulic pump on. Note the measured values and enter them in Table Close throttle valve Item 1.
Hydraulic cylinder of tie rod design: Type CD T3. Additional task in conjunction with the customer requirement: Calculation of the pressure intensification on the basis of given hydraulic cylinder values. Piston rod diameter: Due to the area ratio of the piston side to the piston rod side. On the basis of the control set up on the training system the trainees are to recognize that the cylinder piston retracts and extends at different velocities.
To prevent high flow velocities in the connected hoses and pipes. In this project order. Due to the different areas.
The extension and retraction velocity can be changed by means of a throttle valve on the piston rod side. Through this project task. He also requests details about the filling volume of the hydraulic cylinder used.
Apart from the technical documentation.
Chemical - Technical Products
The customer observes that with an open throttle valve the piston velocities during extending and retracting of the cylinder are different. Prepration and documentation of the information and explanations with regard to the single-rod cylinder as demanded by the customer. Feed cylinder Measuring glass. Before starting work on the training system. The extension velocity of hydraulic cylinder piston Item 1. Hydraulic cylinder of tie rod design Bore: Calculation of the filling volume of the single-rod cylinder used for the execution of the order enter calculated values in Table Completely open throttle valves.
Measure the pressures at measuring points M1. Establish the time required for extending and retracting by means of a stopwatch and enter the values also in Table Turn all pressure valves of the electrohydraulic control back to minimum pressure. Piston volume: CD T3. M3 during extending. The following Project Hydraulic motor is intended to gain knowledge of the operating principle and the use of hydraulic motors. The speed of the hydraulic motor can be changed by means of a meter-in throttle.
Hydraulic motors convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. If you connect a hydraulic pump directly to a hydraulic motor in a closed circuit you get a hydrostatic gearbox. In functional terms. Notes on detailed technical information about hydraulic motors: Hydraulic motors are distinguished by their design principle: In principle. By the control to be set up on the training system. Hydraulic pumps convert the mechanical energy.
In order that the customer can understand the hydraulic solution proposed. The velocity of the rope winch is to be adjustable. Also an electrical solution is not desirable due to changing loads.
Industrial Plant & Construction/Utility Tools & Hydraulics
For space reasons. Working out and documenting the system parameters required by the customer. Fixed displacement motor with external leakage line and two directions of rotation. The component arrangement shows the optional variant with electronic flow measurement. If work on electrohydraulic components is carried out improperly, risks of injury and a safety risk can arise during operation of the system, including danger to life.
For connections, to which pressure gauges with minimess line DZ 1. Make sure that all ports - in this case also minimess lines - pipes and hoses are connected or that the ports are blocked with plug screws or protective caps.
Leakage oil can drop through open ports on the floor and cause a risk of slipping. Check the set pressure on the variable displacement pump of the drive power unit if required, correct to 50 bar.
Continue to set throttle valve Item 1. Caution 5.
The hydraulic motor rotates counter-clockwise. Take care that clothes. Hydraulic motor Item 1. Measured values Adjustment of speed of rotation Throttle valve Item 1. While the hydraulic motor is rotating. Also measure pressures M1. Measure all specified values for the clockwise direction of rotation.
M4 and enter them in Table Calculation of the output power at maximum speed using the formulas below. Notes on detailed technical information about direct operated directional valves: This feature cannot be installed in controls. Directional valves are differentiated as follows: Directional spool valves. This leakage. Directional valves are elements that assume the task of opening.
This clearance causes a continuous leakage oil flow. In the project order the trainee is to work out and document the following: The spool of a directional valve is installed with a certain clearance. When a directional valve is used for controlling a hydraulic cylinder. Internal leakage can be recognized by the horizontal arrangement of the single-rod cylinder. The valve spool also determines the form of the symbol. Possible applications and the operating characteristics of the directional valve are determined by.
In order that the customer can understand your proposed solution. When in the rest position the hydraulic cylinder must not move. The customer wants to be informed about the pros and cons of the various spool shapes. Working out and documenting the system parameters as required by the customer. Tool carriage control 1 Measuring glass. Tool carriage control 2 Measuring glass. B DW 13E 1. The pump flow is fed against the piston rod side of hydraulic cylinder Item 1.
The piston of the hydraulic cylinder extends.Scale position 2 Scale position 4 2. In normal cases, hydraulic ratios are combined with a mechanical force or torque ratio for optimum machine designs such as boom movements and trackdrives for an excavator.
This is valid. For the disassembly. Warning Caution Make sure that pipes or hoses are connected to all connections. M3 during extending. The customer observes that with an open throttle valve the piston velocities during extending and retracting of the cylinder are different.
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