HELMINTHS ARTHROPODS AND PROTOZOA OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS PDF
Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals (7th Article PDF first page preview This content is only available as a PDF. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals (7th edition). E. J. L. Soulsby, London: Bailliere Tindall, pp., illus. ISBN Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals (Sixth Edition of Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page.
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Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals . sodium chloride Available at ppti.info solution. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals: 7th Edition, by E. J. L. Soulsby, pages, illustrated. Download Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals | Download file Book Details Author: E. J. L. Soulsby; 2. Pages:
Five types of nematodes were identified in the soil samples.
Among these samples, 14 3. Table 1: Contamination rate of soil samples with identified nematodes. Seasonal Variation of Soil Contamination and Sample Site-Related Prevalence Table 2 shows the comparison of soil contamination between the dry season and rainy season. It appears that the soil samples collected in wet season were more contaminated, 25 Irrespective of the season, the highest prevalence was seen with Ascaris, Trichuris, and Capillaria eggs.
Table 2: Type and frequency of nematode eggs recorded in rainy and dry seasons. Table 3 shows the prevalence of nematode eggs in soil with respect to the sample sites. We observed that soil samples collected around latrines were more contaminated by nematode eggs Ascaris eggs were highly present 3.
Table 3: Type and frequency of nematode eggs found in soil samples per sampling sites. The soil samples collected in Ngui site have the highest rate The soil samples for other schools were free from contamination.
Figure 2: Percentages of soil contamination in different schools. Discussion A total number of samples of soils obtained from 10 different schools were examined for geohelminth eggs and protozoan cysts and oocysts. We found that the contamination of soil samples was due to 5 genera of nematodes eggs: Ascaris, Trichuris, Capillaria, Cooperia, and hookworms. This finding is similar to studies reported in Nigeria [ 11 , 12 ] and in other countries of the world.
For example, the study carried out by Shrestha et al.
Besides these, they also observed the presence of Toxocara eggs, Vampirolepis nana, and Taenia embryophores which were not found in this work.
The absence of the embryophore of Vampirolepis nana in the present study could be justified by the fact that this parasite is most prevalent in hot and dry country [ 14 ], whereas Dschang has a cool climate.
For the absence of Taenia eggs, it can be justified by the fact that, in Dschang, there is an improvement in farming conditions with livestock. Other nematodes such as Strongyloides and pinworms have not been identified in any of the works mentioned above.
In fact, it is the larvae of Strongyloides that are found in nature and this work has not dwelt on the study of larvae. In general, the prevalence of nematode eggs in different works is due to their resistance to environmental conditions and poor sanitary and hygienic conditions [ 15 ].
Uga et al. This could be due to 1 the different techniques of analysis used and 2 the soil texture of Dschang.
It is known that the soil texture can also affect the survival of cysts in the soil as demonstrated by Davies et al. Ascaris eggs were more frequent in soil samples 3. The high prevalence of Ascaris eggs in soil samples of the present study is similar to other observations reported elsewhere [ 11 — 13 ]. This can be explained by the fact that eggs of Ascaris have an inner shell layer of lipoprotein nature which makes them more resistant to harsh environmental conditions and air [ 21 ] compared to the eggs of other nematodes.
Another reason is that Ascaris eggs can survive in adverse environmental conditions. It might also be due to the overdispersion of Ascaris eggs in the environment as a single female Ascaris lays relatively large number of eggs Lower rate of soil contamination observed with Trichuris eggs might be due to their minimal dispersion as a single female Trichuris liberates relatively less numbers of eggs and also due to easy destruction of embryonated eggs by desiccation.
One interesting finding in this study was the detection of Capillaria and Cooperia eggs of other animal origins which were not detected in other studies elsewhere. It might be due to the animal husbandry in the city. The absence or scarcity of hookworm eggs could be justified by their life cycle.
In fact, after their release into the environment in 24 h—36 h, embryonation of the eggs takes place. The eggs hatch in the ground and the first moulting larvae L1 generation is then released to give the infective larvae. Soil contamination rate found in this study 7.
This rate is lower than those obtained The differences in these rates could be due to climatic factors, socioeconomic and topographical characteristics, and soil texture which vary within countries. Indeed, these factors have an impact on the distribution of helminths in the environment [ 23 ].
The low contamination rate observed in this work could be due to the multiple annual deworming campaigns organized since few years in schools in Cameroon. This may reflect also the improvement in the living standards, literacy rate, health awareness, use of toilet, and others.
We observed that Ngui primary school had the highest contamination rate According to Yerima and Van Ranst [ 24 ], topography influences the environmental conditions of a place. Ngui primary school is located in lowland characterized by relatively high humidity that favors the development of nematode eggs.
By contrast, water flow is observed at the level of plateaus and hills that participate in soil leaching with the parasite eggs. Around latrines, This finding corroborates findings obtained by Chukwuma et al. Regarding the seasons, soil samples were relatively more contaminated during the wet season These results corroborate those obtained elsewhere [ 16 , 18 , 25 , 26 ]. Thus, the observations can be explained by the fact that the rains create environmental and climatic conditions favorable for the survival of nematode eggs.
However, these eggs are also resistant to extreme conditions. It is for this reason that few eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris were observed in the dry season. In addition, daily awareness of the need to keep the environment healthy by adequate sanitation practices should be highlighted in order to avoid soil contamination by human intestinal parasites.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. Acknowledgments The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to all the members of the Laboratory of Biology and Applied Ecology LABEA for their help during field and laboratory work.
They also thank directors of different schools of Dschang enrolled in this study for their kind collaboration. References G.
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