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The Fundamentals of Graphic Design F The Fundamentals of Graphic Design Gavin Ambrose + Paul Harris An AVA Book Published by AVA Publishing SA Rue. Graphic Design Basics This page intentionally left blank Fifth EditionGraphic Design BasicsEmeritaAmy E. Arnt. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we the late Philip B. Meggs's A History of Graphic Design and Richard Hollis's. Graphic Design.


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with freelance designer Gareth David. “Join me as I discuss a series of Graphic Design topics.” 45 episode series video series. Interactive. PDF Worksheet. Here are 20 awesome PDF files and e-books that you can use to widen your design knowledge, or at least, brush up on the basics. Graphic Design and Print Production Fundamentals by Ken Jeffery is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ppti.info

Use preset templates in the app or search on Adobe Stock for a template that suits your project. Graphic design without limits. Adobe Photoshop is the first choice for art and design, as well as photo enhancement and transformation. The professional image editing standard is perfect for photo retouching, naturalistic artwork, composition, and even app and web design. Try now Define your canvas Choose a standard canvas or define a custom size. Since Photoshop is a pixel-based tool, it is important to pick an appropriate size for your design.

Add content Import photos and graphics or create your own using the comprehensive toolkit. Organise and scale your assets in layers for easier workflow.

Retouch and recompose Retouch photos and designs. Isolate elements such as people from their backgrounds.

Unsurpassed graphic design software with powerful features. Customised brushes Import, create and use customised brushes. Expand your design choices with unlimited possibilities in brush shapes and effects. Adobe Stock integration Find and license graphic elements with in-app Adobe Stock search. He breaks it down into six manageable stages — dreaming, planning, starting work, designing, building and finally getting the details right — with a branding summary at the end of each stage, setting out all the important issues to think through in your brand building process.

Not one but three free ebooks in one handy bundle, The Practical Interaction Design Bundle consists of three free volumes from UXPin , comprising over pages of design best practices and with over 60 examples of the best UX design.

Volumes 1 and 2 of Interaction Design Best Practices will take you through techniques, theories and best practices relating to the tangibles of interaction design - words, visuals and space - while volume 2 tackles the intangibles: Topping off the bundle is Consistency in UI Design, covering how and when to maintain consistency in your design, and when to break it to draw attention to elements - without suffering the drawbacks.

If you're after a beginner-friendly guide to getting started with Photoshop, this free ebook by Steve Bark will explain the fundamentals for you, from panels and tools to layers and basic printing. If it's just a little too basic for you, never fear; there's also an intermediate guide available that covers more advanced subjects such as vector tools, smart objects and clipping masks. If you're designing for the web and want your layouts and interfaces to be accessible and visually intuitive, this free ebook from UXPin is an invaluable resource.

It explains how size, colours, space, layout, and style affect visual understanding, provides tips for designing clear visual hierarchies, and includes 18 examples of great sites including MailChimp and RelateIQ.

Whether you're already freelance or thinking of making the jump, this ebook from Route One Print is full of useful freelance advice. It includes tips on how to market your business, find your USP, licence your work, manage client relationships, complete tax returns and much more. The design team compiled advice from experts and illustrated their points using examples from 40 companies such as Google, Squarespace, and others. If you're looking to add a touch of 3D art to your designs, this free ebook on Houdini will help get you started.

Learn all about the tools and techniques you will use as a Houdini artists then run through three lessons that teach you how to build simple projects from scratch. Jarrod Drysdale is a designer writer who focuses his articles on getting the best out of your work. This is a sort of continuation of his previous book Bootstrapping Design now discontinued , in which he collects all of his previous essays into one, free ebook.

Topics such as 'Think like a designer' and 'Get out of a creative rut' are just some of the titles on offer in this selection. What started as a page simple guide to best practice with pixels and Photoshop has grown into handbook number 3 - a whopping page designer bible.

Created by Kooroo Kooroo, The Creative Aid is a free book jam packed full of inspiration and available to download today. Co-founders Nicole Smith and Richard Tapp explain the concept: This excellent page ebook details the 10 key classifications for typography, providing the basic understanding you'll need to gain a grasp of the fundamentals of type selection.

Ironically and sadly, many artists of the movement were killed in World War I Figure Motion pictures were popular by They widened our visual reality, creating images that moved Gino Severini. Armored Train in Action. Gift of Richard S.

Plakatstil, a flat-color pictorial design style that maintained a balance between 2-D design structure and imagery, emerged in Germany early in the 20th century. Lucian Bernhard created a compelling series of advertising posters using imagery made from flat colors with an emphasis on shape, combined with the product name Figure Around this same time, another movement surfaced that would strongly influence graphic design.

Dada was founded in by a group of poets, chief of whom was the Romanian-born Tristan Tzara. Its name, like the movement itself, had no meaning, according to the Dadaists. The following poem is by Tzara: You owe me: No more drunkards! No more aeroplanes! No more vigor! No more urinary passages!

No more enigmas! The Dadaists were extremely important in 20th-century art and philosophy because they questioned meaning itself with an assault on all accepted values and conventional behavior. Marcel Duchamp exhibited such things as bicycle wheels, urinals, and bottle racks, challenging the criteria by which we define something as art. I wanted to put painting again at the service of the mind. One of the many Dada publications, Der Dada, introduced photomontage.

It was characterized by an intentional disorder. Letters of all types and sizes, various languages, and dictionary illustrations mingled Figures and Figurative photographic images were treated with the same freedom from conventions. Osram AZO. Purchase Fund. Collection, The Art Institute of Chicago. Mary Reynolds Collection. In the Russian Kazimir Malevich began painting abstract geometric compositions. Malevich formulated a theoretical basis for his paintings, which he called suprematism.

He viewed them as the last chapter in easel painting that would point to a universal system of art headed by architecture. This architectonic approach led the way to constructivism, a movement that saw painting as a structurally driven construction, like architecture.

Constructivism began as a Soviet youth movement. The Russian Revolution of Kurt Schwitters. Merz Drawing Drawing F. Merzzeichnung Zeichnung F. Collage of cut-and-pasted paper wrappers, announcements, tickets, Katherine S.

Dreier Bequest. A Belgian art nouveau artist, he moved to Germany in to teach and became interested in architecture and a more structural approach to art.

An architect, designer, educator, and painter, his ideas contributed to the later development of the Bauhaus movement. His only poster was for Tropon, a concentrated food product. In his writing he called for a new art that would integrate the best of the decorative and the applied arts of the past.

The first abstract painting is attributed to Wassily Kandinsky.

He and others were working in an abstract fashion by 28 Graphic Design Basics Henry van de Velde. Poster, Bridgeman Art Library. Light Picture. December Oil on canvas, Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Photo by Robert E. Civicminded artists designed posters and packaging intended to attract buyers to state products. Advertising became a means for artists, poets, and others to advance the goals of Soviet society.

The state enterprises flourished with the support of painters turned graphic designers Figure Rodchenko worked in a variety of media, including filmmaking and set and costume design for film and theater. He designed posters for several films by using photo collage. El Lissitzky was a Russian constructivist and designer who devoted a great deal of effort to propaganda work.

He also Aleksandr Rodchenko. Kino Glaz Film Eye. Gift of Jay Leyda. Lissitzky experimented with the photogram and foresaw the importance photography would come to have in graphic design.

The Visual Language of Experts in Graphic Design

This innovative thinking and design work spread its vision to other countries. In Germany, Lissitzky and the Bauhaus influenced advertising and packaging design. Closely related to constructivism, de Stijl developed in Holland, where artists El Lissitzky.

Two-page layout from Great Beginnings. It flourished during the s in Europe and strongly influenced the later Bauhaus work. De Stijl was antiemotion and based on a utopian concept of style.

At first glance, it may look similar to the Bauhaus movement described later, but de Stijl was more concerned with formal aesthetic problems than with function.

The most widely known painters of the period are Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg. Their style is the epitome of de Stijl, with straight black lines set at right angles to one another and a careful asymmetrical balancing of primary colors.

Figure shows an armchair by Gerrit Rietveld, a leader of the movement. His design is reduced to its basic components of line, planes, and color. These de Stijl artists strongly influenced graphic design. Wood, painted, height, Their exchange of ideas formed a core for the Bauhaus after This German design school shaped 20th-century graphic design, product design, furniture, and architecture. Expressionism, Dada, constructivism, and de Stijl influenced the Bauhaus in its early years.

By the late s, the Bauhaus was emphasizing functional graphic design. The Bauhaus trained artists in all areas. It attempted to bridge the gap between pure and applied art, to place equal importance on all areas of arts and crafts. It stressed clean, functional forms. Its weavers, metalsmiths, and carpenters did not attempt to produce works of art, but rather, good and useful designs in which form was tied to function.

The industrial designer was born from this movement. Bauhaus publications featured asymmetry, a rectangular grid structure, and sans-serif type. The contributions by artists of the Bauhaus have been vastly important and continue to exert a strong influence in contemporary design. See the accompanying Web site for links to investigate. Here are a few Bauhaus artists who were influential in the development of graphic design.

Josef Albers is known for his research into color and structural relationships Figure His wife, Anni Albers, was a gifted fiber artist Figure He saw the camera as a design tool that could be integrated with typography to create a new and better communication.

Herbert Bayer created several typeface designs, including Universal Figure In keeping with the Bauhaus philosophy, he believed in removing personal values from the printed page, leaving it purely logical and functional in design Figure Bayer typically avoided using capital Image not available due to copyright restrictions 32 Graphic Design Basics Herbert Bayer.

Studie zum Universalalphabet. Design for wall hanging. Gift of the designer. Image not available due to copyright restrictions 33 Image not available due to copyright restrictions metrical layout. An underlying horizontal and vertical structure unified the page. The Swiss also continued to develop the ideas of the Bauhaus in typography and layout design from the s onward. Their emphasis on visual unity and formal grid elements contributed greatly toward shaping the design field.

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Personal expression was rejected in favor of order and clarity. The predominant graphic design style in the world by the s, it featured a strong reliance on typographic elements, usually sans serif typefaces in a flush left and ragged right format. A looser design by Lyonel Feininger forms the title page for a portfolio featuring the work of many famous Bauhaus artists Figure After the Nazis forced the closing of the Bauhaus in , many of its artists immigrated to the United States.

There they greatly influenced American architecture and graphic design. New typography is a term that came to identify new, Bauhaus-inspired approaches to graphic design. Its chief German proponent, Jan Tschichold, created typography that emphasized clarity.

White space was used to create visual intervals in an asym- 34 Graphic Design Basics Art deco appeared as a definite style in Paris around It was especially influenced by art nouveau and also by African sculpture and cubism. Although it developed at the same time as the Bauhaus, art deco emphasized the figurative image with decorative appeal. It was applied to architecture, clothing, graphic design, advertising, packaging, crafts, and furniture. Perhaps the best-known and most respected art deco artist, who continues to have a strong influence today, is A.

His posters and advertisements show the influence of cubism, but the forms retain a recognizable physical identity balanced with an intricate Gestalt unity Figure It is a very recognizable style. For a time, art deco was out of favor in the eyes of architects and designers because it did not follow the Bauhaus tenets of functional, non-ornamental design. Surrealism also surfaced in the s. Now the style is often incorporated into the eclectic mix of contemporary design.

Image not available due to copyright restrictions tated today, and in fact he created quite a lot of advertising illustration Figure Other surrealists, like Max Ernst and Man Ray, show the influence of Dada in their unorthodox and compelling arrangement of elements. In the s many surrealist artists were putting found objects in strange combinations that evoked poetic and unconscious associations.

Figure is an advertising photo created by a team of women designer-photographers in that shows Owing a philosophical debt to Dada for its questioning attitude, it was joined by several Dada artists.

This literary and artistic movement was based upon revealing the unconscious mind in dream images, the irrational, and the fantastic by juxtaposing incongruous subject matter.

Like the author James Joyce, who used streamof-consciousness techniques rather than rational, linear development of characters, surrealists sought to reveal the subconscious. Surrealism has exerted a strong influence on illustration. Nord Express. Gift of French National Railways. Upon close examination, we realize that what appears to be an attractive woman is actually a mannequin, although her hand is real.

This forces the potential buyer to look again, a major aim of an advertisement. Gelatin silver print.

Modernists believed that each new generation must build on past styles in new ways or break with the past in order to make the next major historical contribution.

Modernism is associated with innovation and progress. Its demise is often dated to , although some argue that it continues as a strong influence today, concurrent with postmodernism, especially in the design field.

It closed after one year, and Moholy-Nagy operated his own Institute of Design from to This school offered the first complete mod- ern design curriculum in America. Many samples of modernist American graphics are shown throughout this text.

Lester Beall, an American-born Chicago artist, embraced modern design and European influences from cubism, constructivism, and Dada. Working in New York in thes, he combined drawing, symbols, photography, and mixed typefaces into a coherent, eclectic design. Many young American designers of the time drew inspiration from European modern art and design, including Paul Rand.

Rand realized that his role as a designer involved reinventing the problem presented by the client Figures , , , a, , and Through the s and early s, Cipe Pineles learned editorial art direction from one of the masters of the era, Dr. She became at Glamour magazine the first autonomous woman art director of a massmarket American publication.

She was the first art director to hire fine artists to illustrate mass-market publications. She was one of the few women designers to gain recognition during this period. Designers from this period synthesized the influences of European avant-garde and design movements to create new designs for magazines, posters, advertisements, and corporate communications. Figure shows Cipe Pineles at work. Copyright AIGA. Advertising designers dealt with the proliferation of national television and radio networks, the emergence of large chain stores, and the importance of public perception and corporate identity.

The International Design Conference in Aspen was founded in to assess and discuss the role of design in the commercial environment. This conference continues to meet in Aspen every summer. The s saw the emergence of design curricula in universities and art schools and the articulation of an important concept. See the accompanying Web site for more information related to individuals in this section.

Push Pin Studios was founded in in opposition to the spirit of Swiss Design. This studio revived art nouveau, art deco, and narrative illustration, turning to visual history for inspiration. This attitude, with its historical references, heralded postmodernism.

Logo for Eros magazine. A magazine with a graphically beautiful approach to love and sex; only four issues were published. McLuhan saw print media as an isolationist influence, giving rise to categorization, linear sequencing, and dogmatism. Television, according to McLuhan, has the potential to reunite society into a new global village. It certainly exerts a major influence on advertising and communication and, thus, on society. Magazine design was a creative area in the s.

Herb Lubalin, a major figure in the field, was art director for the countercultural magazines Avant Garde and Eros Figures , , , and Alternative publications with political and cultural commentary flourished during the s.

Graphic Design Basics

Postmodernism In the s the term postmodernism was first applied to architecture, and a questioning of rational Swiss Design led to New Wave, or postmodern, graphic design. This period has questioned the modernist concept of constant innovation and progress. Contradictory and coexistent trends from a variety of historical periods provide rich concepts for study. The remainder of the 20th century saw history as a shopping mall of styles. Art deco and art nouveau were among the styles that were revived and revised, as decorative and figurative work regained respect.

Women had an important impact on design during this time and afterward. Designer and educator Katherine McCoy joined in questioning the modernist ideal of a permanent, universally valid aesthetic. She encouraged the production of visually rich and complex designs, believing that there is more to design than the clear, impartial transmission of information.

McCoy believes designers interpret and communicate cultural values through the forms they create. See Figure Cranbrook recruiting poster. Images of student projects are layered with typography and a diagram related to design theory.

Courtesy, Katherine McCoy. Art director—designer. Design Quarterly Does It Make Sense? Publication insert, Walker Art Center, MIT Press Publisher. Electronic media have been used to explore and invent eclectic, personal art and design work.

During the s the question of style over substance became an important issue. Theorists such as Stuart Ewen questioned the role and impact of advertising design on society. Her mock ads and billboards used typographical devices and images to expose the persuasion-consumption cycle of commercial advertising Figure Figure Barbara Kruger.

Technology has become an increasingly important issue during the postmodern period. Murial Cooper and others at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT developed the Visible Language Workshop—a multidisciplinary, multimedia Digital Focus The computer made possible the visual and conceptual layering that is the hallmark of postmodernism in graphic design. By the late s, as you can see in Figure by Katherine McCoy, type could be overlapped to create a rich visual texture and be intertwined with the photographic image.

It is much easier to accomplish such an effect totally on the computer today. By the last decade of the 20th century, postmodern typography could be used to explore multiple meanings rather than strictly to clarify a fixed message.

The Internet is a very postmodern medium, with its interactive, non-linear flow.

The impact of ever-developing computer technology influences our style and our content. Ideas change technology, and technology influences ideas.

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Gift of the artist. This is a comprehensive and thoughtful text that provides a foundation for many contemporary design history classes.

Later chapters discuss this development in greater detail. In the opening years of the 21st century, the use of electronic technology in the United States and internationally has revolutionized design. Style and content are affected by the technology used in their creation. The Development of Computer Graphics Computer graphics, the use of computers to draw images, dates back to , when a simple visual display of a bouncing ball was used to calculate and show military targets.

Funding for the development of computers and computer graphics in the United States originally came from the Defense Department. A light pen touched to the video screen could draw a line stretched from the previous point. Although its early development was tied to defense and aerospace, computer graphics now has a wide variety of applications, from engineering, medicine, and geology to graphic design, animation, the film industry, and the Internet.

Figure shows an excellent Internet site hosted by the National Design Museum, presenting topics on design. Designated Drive. Web site to visit this location. Figure shows stills using a 3-D animation program, created by Seth VandeLeest for his student portfolio. Computer graphics today has many different stylistic approaches and methods of delivery. This medium promises to transform the nature of communication as well as physical and political boundaries. Figure shows two stills from a multimedia installation that artisteducator Coleen Deck created in Adobe After Effects.

Unlike books, film, or video that present linear information, the new electronic media are truly interactive and present nonlinear, animated browsing opportunities. The Internet offers not only interactivity but also freedom from the physical constraints of traditional media. This diptych installation uses Adobe After Effects to integrate image and motion. Computer graphics has come a long way since the original moving-ball display in the s.

The digital desktop has come a long way since the Macintosh was introduced in the mids. The Internet has become a vehicle for marketing products and disseminating information of all kinds. Web-site production is a growing market for graphic designers, and the complexity of these sites is increasing rapidly. Our ability to communicate with interactive visuals and to create desktop video and 3D animation is also developing a new market for graphic designers.

Virtual reality is another developing technology. It extends the senses, allowing a person to move through and interact with a computer-simulated environment by wearing special glasses and clothing or other sensors. These monitor physical movements and gestures in the alternate, virtual world. Psychologist R. It involves knowledge of objects from previous experience and not only sight but touch, taste, smell, hearing, and perhaps also temperature or pain.

As we continue into the 21st century, it is interesting to remember the important developments at the turn of the last century. The future will be exciting and challenging for designers intent on maintaining an emphasis on issues of values and content while learning and using a proliferation of new media. Project In consultation with your instructor, research a contemporary designer mentioned in this chapter or elsewhere in the text.

Prepare a paper and classroom presentation based on your research. Shoot slides of the work, or gather and present visual materials on computer. Bring library books to pass around. Schedule this presentation to the class sometime during this term. Check the links for each chapter that are on the accompanying Web site. Goals and Objectives By researching this topic, you will learn about the subject and gain appreciation for the artist or period you choose. You will also gain skills in research.

The goal is to enrich the knowledge of everyone in the class with each presentation. Critique Did you support your talk with images? Did you explain why you are drawn to this artist or period? Ask for comments and questions from the audience.

The more discussion you get, the better your presentation is likely to be. A graphic designer works with shapes in both word and image. This chapter stresses parts and shapes in typography, since most beginning designers understand the design structure of images better than that of type. If we are aware of how the eye and brain organize marks on a surface to give them meaning, we will be much more successful in creating designs that do what we intend.

They work with the fundamental principles of visual perception. When we look at a printed page, whether it is covered with type, illustrations, or a photograph, there is more than meets the eye.

The brain is sifting and cataloging the images. We carry a load of experiences, innate responses, and physiological considerations that interact with those images. Designs that effectively use that process have the creative strength of sight itself on their side.

As soon as the first mark is made on a blank sheet of paper, it is interpreted by the eye. We cannot see only a flat mark on a flat piece of paper. Our past experience, our expectations, and the structure of the brain itself filter the information. The visual illusions created through this process are a real part of perception. Realism in art and design is not an absolute but a convention that our culture and personal background create from visual data. Search for Simplicity Gestalt psychologists have investigated the way humans process information from a two-dimensional surface.

There is an interplay of tensions between shapes on a flat surface because the appearance of any one element or shape depends on its surroundings. Shapes are interpreted by an active eye that seeks the simplest satisfactory explanation for what it sees. Any mark drawn on paper stimulates an active, interpretive response from eye and brain. We finish uncompleted shapes, group similar shapes, and see foreground and background on a flat surface.

The experiments of Gestalt psychologists led them to describe a basic law of visual perception: Any stimulus pattern tends to be seen as a structure as simple as conditions permit. This law is similar to the principle of parsimony known to scientists, which states that when several hypotheses fit the facts, the simplest one should be accepted.

In science, elegance and success result from explaining a phenomenon with the minimum number of steps. A similar elegance can be achieved on the printed page. A great deal may be happening on a page although few marks exist.

In fact, adding more marks without understanding their effect can often make less happen. That is poor design. In this and following chapters, we discuss the manner in which Gestalt psychologists believe our brain interprets and groups the images on a flat surface.

Gestalt theory is generally recognized as a useful tool for designing visual images so they will be comprehended as we want. No single a b 46 Graphic Design Basics c theory, however, explains all there is to visual perception. Much has yet to be discovered. Interpretations The lines in Figure demonstrate our busy interaction with simple marks drawn on a page.

The resulting interpretations are influenced by the culture in which we live. We accept the black mark in a as nearer than the white field it occupies, although they both exist on the same physical plane on the surface of the page. Adding a second mark of a larger size b requires another interpretation involving depth.

The larger mark seems closer in space than the smaller one. A line placed vertically that divides the space c will not disturb the two-dimensional quality. Use an angled line d , and a sense of space begins to develop. Add another angled line e , and suddenly the eye may see the perspective of a road or railroad tracks running at an angle into the distance.

The addition of changes in size and value enrich our possible interpretations.

Visual perception, and thus communication, is always colored by interpretation. Context, personal experience, and culturally inculcated systems of signs and symbols play a strong role in perception.

Later chapters discuss this phenomenon from varying perspectives.

Semiotics is the study of influences on our perception. It goes beyond linguistics to incorporate the visual language of sign and symbol Figure The field of semiotics often breaks down visuals into the categories of icon, symbol, and index. An icon looks like the thing it represents. A road sign with an image of a d e deer is an icon.

Words are also considered symbols of the thing they reference. An index is a visual we have learned to associate with a particular meaning.

For example, a thermometer is an index of temperature. A footprint can indicate a deer. The study of semiotics crosses between the field of linguistics and the field of visual language. Apply the concepts of icon, symbol, and index to your thumbnail designs to enrich the range and depth of your solutions.

This is a good mental exercise to stretch your conceptual muscles. An ability to see and structure both figure and ground is crucial to the designer. Whenever we look at a mark on a page, we see it as an object distinct from its background. This distinction is the fundamental first step in perception. A thing figure is only visible to the extent that it is seen as separate from its background ground.

This theory applies to every area of perception. Is the white figure in profile, or do the white and black combine into a single figure? This design is both very abstract and very figurative. The repeated oval shapes in mouth and notes make a symbolic visual tie between mouth and music. Freelance illustrator, Madison, WI. Designer Bruce Edwards has won numerous national awards for this design, including awards from Print, Communication Arts, and Adobe Design.

We are able to recognize and read the words because we organize the letters into a white figure lying against a black ground. We can change our focus from the insects to the white space and back again. At its best, design becomes inseparable from communication.

Form becomes content. Categories Every figure seems to lie at some location in front of the ground. Designing well depends on handling both areas. Many beginning artists concentrate only on the mark they make and are not aware of the white space surrounding it. Remember, this space, or ground, is as integral a part of the page as the figure placed on it. What was initially ground becomes figure see Figure Because we cannot simultaneously perceive both images as figure, we keep switching between them.

As this student did, consider building your portfolio by donating your design skills to a local not-for-profit organization. The student designs in Figure are good examples of a whole figure that is made up of many individual, repeated shapes. The Gestalt notion that the whole is more than the mere sum of its parts is clearly illustrated by these examples.

Licht und Schatten Light and Shadow. It is complex and deserves study. Here are some conditions under which one area appears as figure and another as ground. Use these principles when completing the first exercise at the end of this chapter.

The enclosed or surrounded area tends to be seen as figure; the surrounding, unbounded area as ground Figure a. The eye will be drawn to a textured area before it is drawn to a nontextured area Figure b.

As we focus on it, it becomes figure while the surroundings become ground Figure c. Rotating Figure d will help demonstrate this effect. Stop now and do Exercise 1. Using type effectively depends on seeing both the black shapes of the letters and the white shapes between, within, and around them. You must pay close attention to the shape of the ground areas, called counters Figure This has direct application in logo and layout design Chapters 5 and 7.

Because we tend to read for verbal information and not for visual information, we are rarely aware of the appearance of type itself. Only display, or headline-size, letterforms are used.

His structural diagrams demonstrate the careful shaping and measurements necessary when hand-constructing letterforms Figure The illustrations in Figures and show early advertising design in the United States flourishing in the form of trade cards. These resources are made by some of the most innovative and influential designers from around the world.

Note how the letterforms of the title overprint. It may be physically restricted in size by the press it will be run on or because of the mailing method. How important is salary?

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