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FULL THROTTLE CONDITIONING ROSS ENAMAIT PDF

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Ross enamait full throttle conditioning ebook This is an advanced training routine, recommended for those with prior training experience. Full Throttle Conditioning by Ross Enamait includes a minute video and 91 page e-book, both dedicated to a simple, yet intense conditioning methodology. ppti.info Scriptless training is a conditioning style that breaks free from the traditional rep schemes found.


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Full Throttle Conditioning – A No Nonsense approach that puts the work back in workout – Written by Ross Enamait. Guns and Roses, Metallica, Van Halen and. You can get yourself up to speed without a top secret training certification. a different kind of conditioning than full speed sprint intervals on the track. .. Ross, I am still unable to perform pull-ups. use to prepare myself for the pull-up bar?. Hey guys, I've seen reviews on this, and of course Ross's stuff is excellent /f14/ ross-enamait-full-throttle-conditioning-dvd/ppti.info

You cannot have maximum power and maximum endurance. Just think of a powerful meter sprinter. This athlete will not have the endurance of a marathon runner, just as the enduring marathon runner will not have the speed and power of the sprinter.

Even automobile engines conform to this simple premise. A powerful hot-rod will rapidly burn gasoline. More fuel efficient vehicles will sacrifice power as a trade off. If a fighter were transformed into an automobile, we would want a vehicle that was fast, but also one that was fuel efficient. We essentially need the best of both worlds power and conditioning. Interval training simply alternates periods of high intensity work with less intense periods of rest or recovery.

As a result, you can perform more high intensity work than would be possible if you performed one continuous session. We can use a previous example to illustrate this point. If you run at top speed for as long as possible, you can only sustain the full speed effort briefly. If however you jog briefly between sprints, you can produce more total work. The latter workout would be an example of interval training as you alternate high intensity work sprinting with less intense periods of rest jogging.

Interval training can be applied to almost any exercise. It is not limited to running. Punching or kicking the heavy bag for timed rounds is an example of interval training. You alternate between periods of high intensity punching and kicking and periods of rest ex.

Interval training is certainly a more sport-specific approach to conditioning. Even actual bouts include periods of high intensity, interspaced with periods of less intense action. The fight itself is an example of interval training. My conditioning strategy is based primarily on an interval training approach. We will not limit our interval training to traditional methods however. Our hybrid approach will condition the body from head to toe.

Before discussing the specifics, it is wise to first understand the science behind interval training. Perhaps the most well known interval study comes from Dr.

Researchers compared the effects of moderate intensity endurance training to high intensity intermittent training. Each group exercised five days per week. The moderate intensity group exercised for 60 minutes, at 70 percent VO2 max. The high intensity group performed 7 to 8 brief intervals of 20 seconds, each separated with 10 seconds of recovery.

This group operated at percent VO2 max. After six weeks, researchers noted a similar cardiovascular training effect between the moderate and high intensity groups, as each experienced significant 20 improvements in maximal oxygen uptake.

The primary difference was that only the high intensity group witnessed improvements in anaerobic capacity. In fact, the high intensity group realized a 28 percent increase in anaerobic capacity and a 14 percent increase in VO2 max.

As stated in the actual research abstract: And to those who question the results of one experiment, there are several studies that confirm these exact findings. Sokmen and colleagues also compared continuous constant intensity training to interval training.

After 10 weeks of testing, they concluded that while both groups improved in VO2 max, the interval group improved significantly more in anaerobic treadmill time and sprint time.

In addition, McKenna and colleagues found that second, maximal sprint intervals enhanced both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. MacDougall and colleagues also noted significant improvements with second intervals. Researchers also noted increases in both glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activity, maximum short-term power output, and VO2 max. Furthermore, Burgomaster and colleagues published in found that short sprint intervals led to increased muscle oxidative potential and actually doubled endurance capacity.

Specifically, after two weeks, researchers noted a 38 percent increase in citrate synthase activity, and a 26 percent increase in resting muscle glycogen content, and a percent increase in cycle endurance capacity. This study was significant as it clearly showed that sprint training can improve endurance capacity in a test or event where cellular energy is derived primarily from aerobic metabolism.

In just two weeks, significant improvements occurred. So, even if you were training for an aerobic event, anaerobic training clearly offers significant benefits. In fact, no pure aerobic program has matched the dramatic improvements witnessed after this two week anaerobic study. And those who believe interval training is a new idea for combat athletes are sadly mistaken. Several Soviet researchers documented the benefits of interval 21 training for boxers many years ago. For example, P.

Repnikov suggested the interval method provided the best training effect for improving the aerobic and anaerobic aspects of endurance for a fighter Kurguzov and Rusanov also highlighted the importance of interval training for fighters. Their work highlighted the need for intense intervals to prepare for the explosive motor activity experienced inside the combat arena.

In summary, intense interval training has been proven to improve not only anaerobic performance, but also aerobic performance. There is no refuting that intense, intermittent training offers the best of both worlds. Given the ample amount of scientific support for the high intensity intermittent method, it may come as a surprise that this style of training is still underutilized in the combat sporting world.

Why have athletes and coaches been so resistant to change? Many coaches are apprehensive to prescribe interval work, as they fear it will be too intense for their athletes. Remember, combat athletes are training to win fights. If the interval program constantly wears the athlete out, thus detracts from more pertinent skill work, it does not contribute to performance improvement. Fortunately, with proper program design, intervals can be successfully incorporated into a more complete routine without physical and mental burnout.

Large volumes of aerobic training can disturb endocrine equilibrium within the body for as long as 3 days. On the contrary, athletes can often recover from brief anaerobic efforts within 3 to 8 hours Siff, With sufficient work capacity and a gradual introduction to the intensity of interval training, athletes can quickly recover from these workouts. It is actually common for a well conditioned athlete to feel completely rested a few minutes after an intense interval workout.

For example, you will battle through an extremely intense session, where you must truly dig down to force yourself to complete the routine. Immediately after finishing the workout, you are exhausted, as if you just fought through a brutal battle.

Soon after however, you feel fresh again, and may even question whether you performed enough work. This is a common feeling among athletes accustomed to interval training. I have worked with athletes who, within 10 minutes of finishing a brutal interval 22 workout, start questioning whether they need to perform additional intervals. This is a mistake. As an athlete, you must train to improve, without wearing yourself out.

You should not feel tired all the time. You should feel energized and fresh. You should wake up eager to start the new day. If this is not the case, take a closer look at your training routine, along with eating and sleeping habits. Fat Loss Thus far, it should be clear that intense conditioning drills develop each energy system, but what about fat loss? Many coaches mistakenly believe that lengthy aerobic sessions are needed. Their athletes compete in specific weight classes, and aerobic exercise is often considered ideal for fat loss.

Even non-fighters typically resort to aerobic sessions to achieve the ripped look that many desire. Aerobic exercise was once considered superior for fat loss, as fat is the preferred fuel for low intensity activity.

The body burns fat when free fatty acids are used for fuel. As exercise intensity increases, the proportion of fat used for energy will decrease. Consequently, many trainers believe that intense conditioning drills are not effective for fat loss. After all, fat is not used for fuel.

Unfortunately, those who focus solely on the fuel source used during the activity fail to consider what happens the rest of the day. What about the other 22 or 23 hours a day that you do not spend exercising? What does the body do during this period? In fact, research confirms that fat loss is not dependent on the fuel source used during the activity Hickson et al. It is equally or more important to focus on the events that take place after the workout.

Intense exercise sessions lead to significantly higher post exercise energy expenditure. Resting metabolic rate may remain elevated for many hours. Consequently, the body burns calories long after the workout. Science confirms that strenuous exercise will elevate postexercise metabolic rate for a prolonged period, which ultimately results in postexercise lipid oxidation Melby et al. So, while little fat is burned during a short, intense conditioning workout, a significant amount is burned after the workout during the recovery period.

Whenever one considers optimal protocols for fat loss, it is essential to consider overall calories expended, rather than focusing solely on the energy source used during the actual exercise session. One notable study compared the duration and magnitude of EPOC between resistance exercise and aerobic exercise.

Both workouts were equal in duration and intensity. The results of this study confirmed that oxygen consumption was considerably higher following the resistance workout.

Elevated oxygen consumption also continued for a longer time after the resistance workout Burleson, Another notable study Tremblay et al. Two separate training groups were evaluated. One group followed an endurance training program for 20 weeks.

The other group trained with high intensity intermittent training HIIT for 15 weeks. The results from this experiment showed the HIIT group lost significantly more body fat, despite the fact that the endurance group experienced a greater caloric expenditure per workout.

Considering that the endurance group burned more calories per session, yet lost less body fat, it is clear that the contributing factors for fat loss occur after the training session. One theory for the enhanced fat loss is thought to be the greater activity of the enzyme 3-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase.

If intense exercise can increase the activity of this enzyme, enhanced fat loss is one possible outcome. And while this may also sound complex, the general concept is actually easy to comprehend. When you exercise, your work induces a decline in malonyl-CoA, and is accompanied by inactivation of ACC you essentially inactivate the inhibitor.

As exercise intensity rises, there is an increased inactivation of ACC Rasmussen, Others believe the increased circulation of catecholamines which stimulate the breakdown of fat following intense exercise is central to post workout fat loss. The adrenal gland releases catecholamines in response to stress including exercise.

Additional research has noted a positive relationship between fat expenditure following intense exercise and growth hormone release. Growth hormone is known to influence lipolysis, the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. Energy is used to build and maintain muscle. As mentioned earlier, if your conditioning plan leads to muscle loss, metabolic rate will suffer.

Clearly, we want to build, or at least maintain muscle. Our conditioning plan must not interfere with this basic goal. Now, it is one thing to discuss theories regarding fat loss, but nothing speaks greater than a visual example.

The picture on the left is from approximately 10 years ago. I was about 20 years old. The picture on the right is of me at age As a youngster, I jogged for years and always struggled to make weight. I am baffled at the mistakes that I made in my younger days. Yet, despite adding size, my body fat percentage is lower.

I am stronger and better conditioned than I ever was in my teens and early twenties. Regular use of interval training has certainly improved my performance. And despite cutting back on distance running, I am still able to run 5 miles in less than 30 minutes. To put it bluntly, those who believe aerobic exercise is needed for fat loss are sadly misinformed. Please note that I am not completely dismissing the use of distance running. It should not be the primary means of conditioning however.

And if you run distance, run it fast. One useful distance variation is Fartlek running. Fartlek consists of random periods of exertion, followed by periods of lighter running. Basically, you speed up and slow down as you like. You can run hard, then jog, run hard, then jog, and continue as you wish. Vary the distance and time based on how you feel. You can even mix in other running styles such as backwards running or side to side skipping, or perhaps drop down for a set of pushups.

Mix it up throughout the prescribed distance ex. Within this section, I will discuss several vital characteristics to an effective conditioning plan.

To begin, I have listed five key points that I consider central to my conditioning philosophy. Variety Variety is imperative to any training system.

Failure to incorporate variety is a surefire recipe for physical and mental burnout. A plan that lacks variety ignores the biological law of accommodation. As you work through a conditioning drill, your central nervous system will adapt to the demands of the routine. It is the central nervous system that regulates internal organs and systems. Fatigue from an endurance routine often occurs at the CNS. As fatigue mounts, the nervous centers struggle to maintain work capacity.

A fatigued CNS leads to decreased coordination and reduced power output Bompa, Repetitive use of the same routine will eventually lead to exhaustion. By incorporating variety, the CNS will remain fresh. Therefore, variety not only prevents boredom, but also facilitates recovery and greater improvements in general fitness Siff, Unfortunately, many programs violate this principle. Even highly motivated athletes may fall into this trap.

For example, suppose you swing a sledgehammer for the first time, and you are impressed with the intensity of this drill. Following such a quality session, you are eager to swing the sledgehammer again.

Your enthusiasm should be commended, but you must not abandon everything in place of this routine. You are not training for the Sledgehammer Olympics. The response from a single exercise will decrease over time. Too much of a good thing can become a bad thing. So, you must constantly incorporate variety.

You can continue to use the sledgehammer indefinitely, but not exclusively. You will instead cycle through several exercises and drills. As a result, each drill will 26 continually provide a challenge, and the body will not become run down through repetitive use of the same routine. Keep the body guessing with new movements and routines. My conditioning philosophy is not based on a handful of exercises.

It is instead based on specific principles. These principles can be applied to any exercise or tool. The goal is to produce specific adaptations, while avoiding accommodation to a specific exercise or drill. No single exercise or routine will provide ongoing results if variety is excluded. Bring The Intensity As stated earlier, the body adapts to the demands imposed on it.

When your environment changes, you must adapt to it. Your ability to adapt allows you to survive in the new environment. As an athlete, particularly a combat athlete, your environment can be extremely intense.

Competition will often resemble all out warfare between you and your opponent. Clearly, you must mimic this intensity in the gym, so your body can adapt and survive in such an intense environment. Without proper training, how can you expect to adapt to this intensity?

To elicit a specific adaptation, one must train accordingly. You cannot casually stroll through light workouts and expect to adapt to an intense environment. If you have never faced such an environment, your body will not be prepared for the intensity.

It is therefore crucial that you pattern your routine after the specific metabolic profile of your event. The only way to improve endurance is by becoming sufficiently fatigued during the conditioning workout. The body will then adapt to this fatigue and learn to function in such an environment. Stay In Shape Performance enhancement is the goal of any competitive athlete. Improving your ability to perform a specific conditioning drill may improve performance, but is not the ultimate goal.

For example, you are not training for a burpee competition. You can however use this exercise to enhance your conditioning routine ex. As work capacity improves, you can train more often, and with greater intensity. Each workout becomes more 27 productive. You can then dedicate more energy towards improving specific qualities such as speed, power, and the perfection of technical skills unique to your event.

Therefore, once you are in shape, you must stay in shape. Consider a professional fighter as a classic example. Many combat athletes have dedicated training camps where they leave home for six weeks to prepare for a specific fight. Six weeks is not enough time for someone to achieve elite fitness, particularly if they enter camp out of shape. In fact, research suggests that one will need approximately four months to maximize their anaerobic-glycolytic productivity Siff, Due to the considerable time and intense work needed to enhance anaerobic fitness, it only makes sense to retain this specific attribute.

You cannot allow fitness to considerably decline between competitions. It simply takes too long to achieve peak fitness.

If you continually allow fitness to decline, you will never make forward progress. You will waste training camp restoring past fitness, rather than focusing on the specific skills that you will need to defeat your opponent. Consummate professionals should start training camp already in shape.

They can then use the camp to focus on sport-specific aspects such as sparring and technical skill work. Conditioning will also be included of course , but the athlete will not be starting from scratch. He should already be in shape. If he must start from scratch, he will not have the work capacity necessary to perform sport-specific work such as sparring.

An out of shape athlete who spars will quickly lose confidence. He will be unable to perform even basic techniques. Form will be sloppy and he will be more open to offensive attacks from sparring partners. A fighter who is constantly outgunned during a sparring session will begin to question his ability.

Therefore, the athlete should never spar until he is in shape. His conditioning should also never decline to the point where he is so out of shape that he cannot spar a few rounds.

Stay in shape! Fighters from the past stayed in the gym throughout the year. They remained active, often fighting every month. These athletes needed to stay in shape. There was no time for extended breaks from training. The idea of a season did not exist.

Competitions took place throughout the year. We can look back to the greatest boxer of all time for an example. Sugar Ray Robinson often fought multiple round bouts in a single month. Robinson lost a decision in this rematch from an earlier win in But rather than taking a break, Robinson came back on February 19th and defeated California Jackie Wilson in a round decision.

He then returned a week later on February 26th and fought LaMotta again. This time Robinson was victorious with a round decision. In less than one month, Robinson fought 30 rounds. It is unacceptable to ignore fitness between competitions. Rather than taking a complete break after a fight, I instead suggest less intense back-off sessions where volume is reduced.

After a difficult competition, you can enter a transitional period. You are still in the gym however. You are not sitting idle without physical training. Athletes who ignore this advice and take lengthy breaks are prone to injury. Different motor abilities have unique retention rates.

While some remain stable, others are lost quickly Zatsiorsky, An extended break from training will lead to an imbalance of motor abilities.

Significant time will be needed to restore the fitness that you had previously developed. Rather than moving forward, you will waste time restoring what you had already developed.

Continuous improvement is the ultimate goal. Head To Toe Training This conditioning program will target the entire body. It is not a body-part specific program.

As an athlete, it is important to develop a rock solid foundation. You will then build from this foundation, as you focus on specific goals. If your foundation is weak, you will be prone to injury, and unable to maximize performance. Therefore, we will stress a head-to-toe training style. The entire body will be challenged, developed, and improved. Unfortunately, many athletes overlook this simple advice. They are eager to begin, and instead jump into sport-specific exercises.

Their failure to develop a solid foundation will inevitably lead to problems.

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There are no shortcuts on the road to the top. You must put in the work. Without general coordination and fitness, the athlete will struggle to learn and apply new skills for his event. Insufficient preparation of muscles and ligaments will also limit technical development. In short, there is only so much that you can do if you build from a poor foundation. Consider a house built atop a sand foundation.

It is only a matter of time before the house comes crashing down. The same is true for the athlete who neglects 29 general physical preparedness often referred to as GPP. GPP training develops a solid, well-rounded foundation. These general conditioning exercises are imperative, as they will enhance those physical qualities that would otherwise be insufficiently developed through sport-training alone.

Working with a diverse group of conditioning drills will improve motor coordination while establishing a solid foundation for specialized motor skill training sport-specific work will therefore become more effective.

To learn a new skill, the body must be fresh. When fatigued, you are not able to effectively learn new skills, particularly more technically advanced skills. If you lack general fitness, you will always struggle with skill work. Your fatigued body will be unable to master technically challenging skills.

Consider the new kickboxer who is instructed to hit the heavy bag on his first day of training. This novice athlete is out of shape, and unable to hold his hands up after just a few combinations. Continuing to hit the bag will reinforce poor technique. He will become programmed to drop his hands after punching. Do not make this mistake. Target the entire body, striving to erase, or at least reduce potential weaknesses.

Unfortunately, as she submerged him by one heel, she inadvertently prevented this heel from touching the magic water. Consequently, the heel remained vulnerable. Years later, Achilles was killed by an arrow to the heel his only weakness. View your training program as magic water.

You must submerge the entire body with a regular dose of conditioning. Do not neglect any part of the body, as negligence leads to vulnerability. The goal of this program is to raise the bar on what we consider a well-conditioned athlete. We will develop the entire body, as a fully developed body makes for a much more capable athlete. As an athlete, hard work in the gym is not enough.

It is one thing to develop skill, strength, and endurance, but it is another thing to apply these qualities during an actual competition. The only way to excel as an athlete is by testing yourself against other competitors. Earlier, I mentioned that fatigue is weariness or exhaustion from 30 exertion, or the temporary loss of power to respond. Intense exercise is obviously one way to produce fatigue.

This conditioning program will help you in this regard. In addition to exercise however, there are other causes of fatigue, which can lead to the temporary loss of power to respond. Getting yourself in shape is a step in the right direction, but it is not enough.

In addition to physical activity, the mind also contributes to fatigue. Only through experience will you learn to cope with the anxiety and stress that will inevitably mount before an event. This is particularly true for a combat athlete. You are on your own, and must fend for yourself. Pre-fight nerves are common, and can sap an inexperienced athlete of his energy. In addition to your own fears, you must also deal with the crowd.

You may face rowdy fans who shout verbal insults. The intense emotions that follow can produce fatigue. You will also face the realization that you could potentially be knocked unconscious in front of friends and family. The dangers faced by combat athletes are much different from those engaged in mainstream sports. You do not play a combat sport the way you play a traditional sport such as baseball, basketball, or football.

There is no play involved in a fight. Fighting in front of a crowd is much different from sparring within the comfort of your own gym, with fellow training partners. My good friend John Scully, former world title contender, and currently a highly regarded professional boxing trainer, made the following statement in reference to pre-fight nerves. His words were related to boxing, but can be applied to any combat sport: The only way to deal with these pre-fight nerves is through experience.

For this reason, I recommend frequent competitions particularly if you are still early in your career. By competing regularly, your skill will improve, as well as your ability to deal with nervous energy. Furthermore, I also suggest mock competitions. If you are a coach, you can invite fighters from other gyms to participate in a mock competition ex. For these events, the athletes should be required to make weight, just as if they were actually fighting.

Protective gear ex. Regular participation in such events will benefit the athletes, both physically and mentally. As a fighter, you must learn to perform under the conditions that will be faced on fight night.

Part of your conditioning work is getting inside the ring or cage , handling offensive attacks from your opponent, and then fighting back. Even kicks and punches that are blocked can take a toll if you are not accustomed to sparring and competing. The ring or cage must become your home away from home. It should not elicit feelings of nervousness and fear. You must feel comfortable in your competitive environment.

No amount of physical conditioning can compensate for psychological weaknesses. You must prepare yourself physically and mentally to become a well-conditioned athlete. Conversely, the harder you work on the physical side, the easier it becomes to develop the mental side.

Your mind will learn to push through intense physical challenges. As your conditioning improves, you will gain confidence in your hard work. I always come in overconfident because I train so hard that I leave no room for doubt in my mind. I never go in there to lose. The word is not even in my dictionary. I train confident, and I train to think overconfidently. On the pages that follow, I will detail several methods that are integral to my overall conditioning philosophy.

Interval Training and Enhanced Interval Training As mentioned earlier, interval training alternates periods of high intensity with less intense periods of rest or recovery. Much of my conditioning style is based on this concept. After all, the duration of an exercise or routine will be inversely related to its intensity. Considering my emphasis on intensity, interval training is therefore imperative.

To reiterate a previous example, one cannot sprint forward at top speed for long without eventually running out of gas. For this reason, we will often incorporate periods of high intensity, followed by periods of active rest. Active rest could include actions such as walking, jogging, or performing the actual interval exercise at reduced intensity.

For example, if you perform intervals on a stationary bike, your active rest could be light cycling between intense intervals. The use of active rest allows one to maintain respiratory processes between sets. You will therefore be better prepared to start the next interval. Research supports the use of active rest, as it has been proven far superior to complete rest between intervals.

The use of active rest will improve both peak power and average power during the interval workout Declan et al. As for actual workouts, there are several options for interval training. A few examples are listed below certainly not a complete list: For example, the Tabata protocol discussed later requires 20 second max-effort intervals, separated by only 10 seconds of rest.

Longer intervals can 33 also be used however. An example of a longer interval would be hitting the heavy bag for two to five minute rounds each round lasts two to five minutes. Amateur boxers compete with two minute rounds. Professional boxers compete with three minute rounds. Many mixed martial artists compete with five minute rounds.

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Therefore, the athlete can pattern his interval workout around the actual work-to-rest ratio of his event. Each round serves as one interval. A sample heavy bag workout could include 4 to 6 rounds, where each round lasts 2 to 5 minutes, separated by 30 to 60 seconds of rest.

Another common interval workout among combat athletes includes jumping rope for 2 to 5 minute rounds. For example: A varied length interval workout still involves the alternation of high intensity work with less intense periods of active rest.

The varied length protocol however utilizes different interval durations throughout a single workout. For example, you may start with three minute intervals, before dropping to 30 second intervals all within the same workout. A sample heavy bag workout varied length may look like this: These rounds will include a skill emphasis, as you incorporate combination punching, footwork, head movement, and feints.

Allow one-minute of rest between rounds. After three rounds are completed, proceed with four one-minute rounds. Due to the shorter duration of each round, you will maintain a much faster pace. This style of bag work is often referred to as power boxing. Each punch is thrown with bad intentions. Mixed martial artists could apply this protocol to other strikes as well ex.

Finish with five punch-out drills. A punch-out drill involves a continuous string of all out punches thrown without rest. Each drill will consist of one non-stop combination, thrown with maximum speed and power. I recommend straight punches during this drill to reduce bag movement. This brief bag workout integrates skill work, power boxing, and punch-out drills.

You will start with a skill emphasis while the body is fresh. You will proceed to power boxing, and finish with a brief conditioning sequence via punch-out drills. This varied length interval workout could also be reversed for a unique focus. You will then push through fatigue and fight the bag for full three minute rounds as if you were fighting an actual opponent.

As you can see, the workout is completely changed by simply repositioning each interval sequence. The jump rope can also be used for varied length interval workouts. Each interval is performed at full speed. You will either sprint in place with high knees, or work with double unders. Each of these variations is demonstrated on the DVD. Enhanced Interval Training Despite the effectiveness of interval training, it can be somewhat limited for a combat athlete who competes in such a multifaceted event.

Consider the use of interval running for an example. Interval running is an excellent conditioner, but much of the work is performed by the lower body. The upper body is largely excluded from the conditioning workout. Fortunately, we can improve on the traditional concept of interval training. I use the phrase Enhanced Interval Training EIT to label conditioning drills that combine resistance exercise with the primary interval exercise.

For example, consider the following traditional interval running workout: This distance will develop both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Yet, despite the effectiveness of the meter interval, we can improve the workout with a simple modification. Simply add a resistance exercise upon completing the interval. For example, upon completing a meter interval, you will be experiencing fatigue from the run ex. Next, you will drop to the ground and perform 20 pushups.

A set of pushups is much more challenging when performed immediately after a meter run. The interval session is enhanced, and becomes the following: Pushups are just one of many options.

Other examples certainly not a definitive list include slamming a medicine ball, lifting a sandbag, performing a dumbbell lift, or working through a brief series of bodyweight exercises. Another option for enhanced interval training includes short duration sprints. As discussed on the DVD, you could perform a sprint and retrieve drill with a medicine ball.

This drill requires nothing more than a short strip of flat land and a cheap medicine ball. Throw the medicine ball, and then sprint to retrieve it. Continue this sequence for two, three, or even five minutes. For example, if you are a mixed martial artist who competes with five minute rounds, you can replicate the work-to-rest ratio with this drill. Incorporate various throws throughout the drill.

Rest one minute between circuits and continue for three to five total circuits. Hills are also ideal for EIT. Sprint uphill, and perform a resistance exercise at the top of the hill. Hill length will vary based on location. In most cases, 50 to meters is ideal. As you can see, Enhanced Interval Training is convenient, intense, and does not require an investment in expensive training gadgets. Integrated Circuit Training Integrated Circuit Training is another intense, full body conditioning protocol.

Before discussing the specifics, I should point out that these classifications are general. When looking through the sample workouts within this manual, you will see that many routines could be classified as either ICT or EIT. I simply use these terms to offer some general direction and understanding. This protocol was discussed in the Never Gymless training manual. ICT workouts blend strength and power with endurance.

Multiple attributes are grouped for obvious reasons. Each physical quality means little by itself. Power without conditioning is useless. Conditioning without power is equally useless.

A successful athlete must be well-rounded. He must remain strong, fast, and powerful throughout the competition. To understand the sport specificity of this protocol, look no further than an actual fight. You will call on multiple physical attributes. Each energy system will be engaged, as you display speed, power, endurance, technical skill, agility, and more. What better way to prepare for such a diverse environment than working through drills that simulate the physical demands of such an environment.

Integrated circuit training will force you to dig deep and push through the unavoidable fatigue that has mounted.

Regular use of these drills will develop an enduring body and unstoppable mind. The ability to display skill in a fatigued state is a unique skill.

To develop this skill, you must train for it. As for ICT workout options, there are countless variations. Workouts can be bodyweight based or can include numerous modalities such as free weights, odd objects, medicine balls, punching bags, and resistance bands.

Clearly, most conditioning drills that involve multiple exercises fall under the general category of integrated circuit training. One example from the Never Gymless manual is listed below: You can then rest if necessary after completing a trip through the entire circuit ex.

Strive to perform all eight circuits with minimal rest. As you can see, you can mix and match an endless assortment of exercises into brief, yet intense conditioning circuits.

A little creativity can go a long way. I encourage you to create your own conditioning circuits and challenges. The distinction is that minute drills are performed for timed intervals. When a drill is based on time, it is often referred to as a minute drill. For example, suppose a mixed martial artist is preparing for a competition where he will fight five minute rounds.

He can use minute drills to simulate the precise work-to-rest ratio of his event. Choose five conditioning exercises and perform each for one minute non-stop. This five-minute block serves as one round. The athlete then rests for one-minute, and continues with another round. The total workout will consist of three to five rounds.

A sample five minute drill is listed below: Work the heavy bag kicks, punches, knees, etc. With this sequence, you start and finish with one minute on the heavy bag. Between these two heavy bag intervals, you work through three conditioning exercises. After five minutes, this workout will give you a good idea of what intense conditioning is all about.

Another option is to perform each exercise for 30 seconds instead of 60 , and cycle through the circuit twice without stopping. Although still a five minute drill, each individual circuit is shorter thus allowing for a higher speed effort. Clearly, you can manipulate the duration of each interval to serve your precise needs. Suggestion — MMA training gloves are particularly effective when working through drills that integrate bag work with other exercises.

You can strike the bag with protection, and still use your hands to grab various tools such as a sledgehammer, sandbag, or medicine ball. Your hands are also free to perform bodyweight movements such as pushups and burpees. I recommend a good pair of MMA training gloves to all combat athletes, even pure boxers. Quality gloves offer the same shock dispersing capabilities as a 16oz. The ability to integrate bag work into various conditioning circuits makes these gloves an invaluable investment. Conditioning is certainly a strong point of mine, and I credit the regular use of intense minute drills as one of the primary reasons.

Unfortunately, minute drills are still uncommon among combat athletes. In terms of energy demands and specificity, the minute drill is tough to beat. When you can work through full rounds with speed and intensity, these drills will make your actual ring work feel much less taxing. And in addition to the physical benefits, you can integrate an endless mix of exercises to prevent boredom. With minute drills, you will never run out of ideas and challenges.

Both beginners and advanced athletes can use minute drills. The beginner can start with one minute ex. The advanced athlete can work up to five minute drills, each filled with intense exercise variations.

Density Training Density training has become popular in recent years. This protocol is easily understood after examining the definition of density. Merriam-Webster defines dense as having a high mass per unit volume.

Density is defined as the quality or state of being dense, or more specifically, the distribution of a quantity per unit of space. Density training therefore involves producing a high mass of exercise per unit of time. Clearly, the density protocol can be applied to many conditioning drills.

For example, during a minute drill, your goal is to increase the density of each minute, meaning that you will cram more work into each unit of time. A conditioning workout could be based entirely on the density protocol. For example, pick three exercises, and perform each for a five-minute density block. During each five minute block, your goal is to perform as much work as possible.

Density Sample: Heavy bag x 5 minutes 2. Sledgehammer x 5 minutes 3. Throw as many punches as possible during the five minute block. Rest briefly ex. During this time, you will swing a sledgehammer as many times as possible in five minutes.

Lastly, head outdoors and sprint 50 meters as many times as possible in five minutes. Challenge yourself to increase the density of each five minute block. Another option for density training involves performing a specific number of repetitions. For example, consider swinging a sledgehammer times. Your goal is to perform this number of repetitions as fast as possible.

Suppose you attempt this challenge and complete swings in six minutes. After two weeks of practice, you are able to perform swings in five minutes. Clearly, the five minute block is denser than your previous six minute block. By reducing the time needed to perform a specific number of repetitions, you will have increased the density of your workout. You will have a higher mass number of reps per unit of time.

Clearly, this protocol can be applied to any conditioning drill ex. Always strive to perform more work in less time. Finishers A finisher is just what the name suggests. It is a movement or sequence of movements performed at the conclusion of your primary workout.

The goal of the finisher is to provide one last physical and mental challenge. Fatigue will already be present from the primary workout.

The finisher then forces you to suck it up one last time, as you push through the inevitable fatigue. Regular use of a finisher will develop willpower and mental toughness as good as any other drill.

These attributes are particularly important for a combat athlete.

No one is immune to fatigue. The sign of a true warrior is their ability to fight through fatigue. Unfortunately, the supplement store does not sell work capacity. You must develop this quality at the gym.

There are no shortcuts. There is no magic pill that prevents soreness and speeds the recovery process as effectively as simply possessing high work capacity.

Using myself as an example, I train as hard as anyone you will ever find. Yet, despite the frequency and intensity of my training, I rarely experience soreness.

My work capacity allows frequent and intense training sessions, while fostering efficient recovery between workouts. Improving work capacity seems straightforward. It even appears too good to be true. Based on the simplicity of this idea, it would make sense that all athletes possessed this essential quality. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Athletes continue to fail because of fatigue.

Perhaps the most common reason for this phenomenon is the gut-wrenching nature of the routines needed to improve work capacity.

The athlete must be highly motivated to endure such intense work. Without mental toughness and motivation, no athlete will commit to the work that is needed to push through such drills. I designed the routines for this program with intensity as a central theme. Expect to be challenged, both physically and mentally. You cannot simply punch in on the clock and expect to casually perform the work.

The body cannot be automated. You must be motivated. Extreme levels of fatigue hurt. Willpower and pain tolerance are essential.

These two qualities are closely related to motivation. You will be more willing to accept pain if you are motivated to achieve greatness as an athlete.

Pain is just another sacrifice that you are willing to make in the pursuit of success. Nothing in this world comes easy. If you lack motivation, you will be less likely to endure the pain. Great athletes put pain on hold as they order the nervous centers to continue operating.

This courage often appears in the final rounds of championship bouts. Both men are completely exhausted, yet the champion continues to fight with conviction.

Physically, he may not have an advantage. His ability to continue relies on mental toughness. This mental toughness starts with motivation.

You then develop it in the gym, as you train the body to push through fatigue. If fatigue mounts during the competition, you are already familiar with it presence.

Energy System Overview Unfortunately, motivation and the capacity to endure pain are not enough. You may be motivated, but motivated for what? What exactly are you training to develop? To maximize the effectiveness of your conditioning routine, one must first understand how the body creates and uses energy. The conditioning program must then cater to the specific metabolic needs of the athlete.

Unfortunately, this is rarely the case in the combat sporting world. Many conditioning programs and methodologies are based on tradition, without scientific justification. Past champions who relied on antiquated methods were often great despite their training, not because of it. We will not make this mistake.

Bioenergetics is often referred to as the science of energy transfer within the body. It consists of those processes that produce energy for biological activities and muscular movement. Even a nutrient-rich meal cannot provide energy directly. Energy must be produced from these nutrients. Producing energy from these nutrients is known as metabolism.

Specifically, metabolism involves the chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital processes and activities.

There are unique metabolic pathways that provide energy for all activities. In fact, there are three energy systems within the body. These energy systems create ATP adenosine triphosphate. ATP is the basic energy molecule of the body, synthesized mainly in mitochondria and chloroplasts. ATP fuels muscular contractions, cognitive processes, and internal regulatory functions. Each cell within your body relies on ATP for energy.

Without ATP, you would die. ATP is an adenine nucleotide bound to three phosphates. ATP is produced and used throughout the day. Whether you are resting in bed or training at the gym, your body needs a constant supply of energy. Where this energy comes from depends on the nature, duration, and intensity of the activity. Each of the three energy systems undergoes a unique series of chemical reactions to produce energy.

Two of these systems are anaerobic, or non-oxidative.

Energy 9 is produced from sources other than oxygen. The third system is aerobic, meaning that oxygen is used for the oxidation of glycogen to produce energy. Although less enduring than the aerobic system, the two non-oxidative energy systems have a much greater power capacity. It is these energy systems that fuel maximally intense activities. The aerobic system cannot produce ATP rapidly enough to fuel such intense actions. The aerobic system can however continue to supply energy indefinitely ex.

The two anaerobic systems can only produce fuel for limited periods of time. So, which energy systems are most important for combat athletes? Combat athletes depend on all three systems. In fact, all three sources provide energy at any given time, although one energy system may predominantly fuel specific activities ex. ATP-PC is the primary energy source for a short sprint, but the two remaining systems are still involved to some degree. A well trained fighter must develop each energy system.

This notion may appear obvious, but is often grossly ignored, as many fighters train in a manner that is not specific to their needs. For example, a mixed martial artist does not need the aerobic capacity of a marathon runner. He should not spend all of his time working with extensive distance running. His conditioning routine must conform to the metabolic needs of his event.

The marathon runner relies mainly on a steady stream of energy from the aerobic system. The mixed martial artist has much different needs. His event is diverse and often extremely intense. Each bout includes periods of high-intensity work ex. Intensity varies significantly throughout each round. Consequently, energy needs will vary throughout the fight. The total capacity of this system is brief, approximately 10 to 30 seconds.

Rapid amounts 10 of energy are provided per second. Unfortunately, this rapid and powerful source is the least enduring of the three energy systems. Clearly, duration and intensity are inversely related. High intensity work can only occur in short bursts, followed by rest intervals to promote recuperation.

PC reformation requires ATP and occurs during a period of recovery. For example, consider how fast you can sprint meters. You will achieve your fastest attainable speed during this brief distance. You cannot uphold this speed continuously however. As the distance increases, your speed will eventually decrease.

This is one reason why a meter sprinter moves much faster than a marathon runner. This system, although powerful, is limited in its ability to supply fuel. You can experience this phenomenon firsthand by sprinting at top speed for as long as possible.

Within seconds, your speed will decline. A top speed sprint will eventually diminish to a slow paced jog. The body cannot provide fuel fast enough to continue a full speed sprint without eventually letting up. For a combat specific example, perform the following experiment. Stand in front of a heavy bag and throw a simple combination such as a left jab followed by a straight right hand.

You can deliver this combination with maximum power.

Full Throttle Conditioning?

However, if you threw this combination repeatedly without rest, power and speed would quickly decline. Your ability to continue punching non-stop with maximum power is limited.

To summarize, when performing a high intensity exercise, your body starts by using stored ATP, then PC to regenerate ATP, and finally must rely on another energy system.

As the ATP-PC system depletes, the glycolytic energy system will be called on to continue the intense effort. The glycolytic energy system derives energy from glycogen. Glycogen stored in the muscle or liver undergoes glycolysis. Glycolysis involves a sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate and ATP.

Two molecules of usable ATP form for each molecule of glucose that is split during glycolysis. Lactic acid also accumulates when oxygen demands surpass oxygen supply. The increase in lactic acid brings about an increase in hydrogen ions.

These hydrogen ions create a more acidic environment. As pH drops, muscle contraction will be compromised. At this time, you will often experience a burn as nerve endings are exposed to the more acidic environment. Such an environment slows down 11 enzyme activity and will eventually halt muscle action. The capacity of this system is approximately 90 to seconds.

The anaerobic threshold is the point at which lactate starts to accumulate in the blood. You essentially reach a point where lactate clearance can no longer keep pace with lactate production. Fortunately, proper training can lead to significant improvements. One goal of this conditioning program is to increase anaerobic threshold, with particular attention to the glycolytic system. The glycolytic energy system is essential to any combat athlete.

Excluding bouts ending via first round knockout, fighters need more enduring energy sources. In fact, almost all modern combat sports include multiple round fights, with each round lasting several minutes.

Title matches are five rounds, non-title matches are three rounds. The glycolytic system cannot produce as much energy per second however. Therefore, it is not as powerful an energy system. Together, the two non-oxidative systems are imperative, as both are utilized during intense rounds of action. A simple understanding of the body will solidify this fact. Consider that during an intense muscular effort, the blood vessels contract, which impedes blood flow.

Blood flow will cease completely when muscular effort reaches approximately 50 percent of maximum. Once blood flow is blocked, it becomes impossible to fuel the muscles with oxygen aerobically. On the contrary, the muscles must rely on anaerobic processes for energy Siff, For example, suppose a mixed martial artist were to grab his pound opponent and slam him to the ground.

The force needed for such an action would certainly require more than 50 percent of muscular effort. Due to the intense nature of this action, the athlete would rely on the anaerobic energy systems to fuel the take down. Following this discussion, one may initially assume the aerobic energy system lacks importance.

In fact, it is actually common for many coaches in the strength and conditioning world to diss aerobic exercise. This is a huge mistake however, as aerobic fitness is imperative. The aerobic energy system utilizes proteins, fats and carbohydrates to produce ATP for energy. As intensity increases, the aerobic system becomes more and more reliant on glycogen carbohydrate as the primary energy source.

If intensity continues to increase, the two non-oxidative anaerobic energy systems must furnish the energy needed for the activity. Armed with only this knowledge, one may not understand why aerobic fitness is so important to a fighter. After all, as intensity increases, the two non-oxidative energy systems become the primary energy producers. There is much more to the story however. Aerobic fitness is an essential foundation for anaerobic endurance. Without sufficient cardiovascular ability, the athlete will struggle with anaerobic activities.

As aerobic fitness improves, the body can more efficiently oxygenate lactate. You can therefore delay the need for glycolysis as a form of energy production. You can work longer and harder before the need arises for the anaerobic energy systems to kick into action.

This concept is easily understood, considering that oxygen consumption rises as exercise intensity increases. You will reach a point however when the aerobic system can no longer provide 13 enough fuel for the continuously increasing intensity of action. This point is your maximal oxygen consumption.

It is the maximal amount of ATP produced by the aerobic system. There is no refuting the importance of maximal aerobic power for all combat athletes. Aerobic fitness is also essential for recovery between anaerobic activities. If the aerobic system is lacking, the byproducts of the anaerobic activities will be slowly removed. Consider an intense round of action.

In the first round, each athlete comes out swinging for a knockout. This intense action is fueled by the non-oxidative energy systems. The fighters must then recover quickly between rounds. The brief period between rounds is rarely enough time for full recovery. The aerobic system must be developed to optimize this time. Have you ever wondered why most power punchers score knockouts early in the fight?

The answer is actually quite simple. Early in the bout, the athlete is fresh, thus able to fuel his actions through powerful, non-oxidative energy sources.

These systems are fully rested, thus supply energy for maximally intense muscle actions. These actions are very costly to the anaerobic systems however.

As these energy systems become exhausted, the aerobic system must step up and assume responsibility for energy production. Unfortunately, the aerobic system, although enduring, cannot produce enough ATP per second to allow for the maximally intense muscle actions ex. If you still question the importance of the aerobic system for recovery, find out for yourself with a brief experiment. Thus far, we know that anaerobic activities are fueled by energy sources other than oxygen.

Despite this fact, what does your body do after performing an anaerobic activity such as a meter sprint? After sprinting at top speed, you will begin breathing heavily.

This happens even if you stop moving and sit down. Why are you breathing so hard if the activity that you just performed did not need oxygen? If you are a combat athlete, what happens after an intense round of sparring? When you return to your corner, why are you breathing so hard? Your aerobic energy system is trying to restore the anaerobic systems.

Additional oxygen is needed to metabolize the lactate that has accumulated during the intense activity. The anaerobic systems cannot continue to supply energy without replenishment. The body therefore takes in extra oxygen to repay the anaerobic systems. Oxygen is also needed to restore internal functions such as respiratory, circulatory and hormonal processes.

The extra oxygen taken in after intense exercise to restore all systems was once referred to as the oxygen debt, but now is more accurately labeled as EPOC excess postexercise oxygen consumption. EPOC is a better term as it relates to exercise intensity. As intensity increases, EPOC increases as well. Therefore, aerobic fitness is clearly essential for an anaerobic athlete such as a fighter. Your endurance is not simply how long you can work before fatigue, or how long you can push through fatigue.

An equally important aspect is your ability to recover between intense periods. Speed of recovery relies on aerobic fitness. This becomes even more important during a multiple round fight. Between rounds, your aerobic system will do its best to restore the body ex. Rarely will there be enough time for full restoration however, so as the next round begins, the aerobic system is not only trying to restore the body, but it also must provide fuel for continued action.

Unfortunately, this assumption is false. This fallacy may come as a surprise to many, as long distance roadwork has been a cornerstone in fight preparation since the beginning of combat sports. While distance running is not necessarily bad, it is certainly overused. There are better ways to train.

A simple understanding of the body will offer more than enough proof to solidify this fact. We do not need lengthy roadwork sessions to develop the aerobic energy system.

An occasional distance session can be useful for mental toughness and restoration, but it will not condition your body for a combat sport. Consider the nature of distance running.

Intensity is moderate at best, and remains steady. Now, consider the intensity of combat. Intensity constantly varies, and can reach extreme levels.

The body will rely on the non-oxidative systems during these intense moments. Fighters must train to become powerful, explosive, and enduring. Unfortunately, excessive distance running does not fit the bill. Science confirms that low intensity, aerobic exercise may lead to reduced muscle mass and power.

The simple observation of a marathon runner confirms 15 this notion. You will never see a powerfully built runner leading the pack of a marathon race. Even casual joggers rarely have powerful physiques. Just think of the joggers that you see at the park. How many of these individuals would you classify as powerful athletes? You will be hard-pressed to find a powerful distance runner.

Even endurance athletes who make time for strength training will typically lack power, as aerobic training has been shown to interfere with strength and power gains Bell et al.

It should therefore come as no surprise that excessive endurance training can produce a net catabolic effect on muscle tissue. Cortisol levels rise and reduced muscle mass is often an eventual consequence. Those who rely solely and excessively on aerobic training for fat loss are making a critical mistake. If the body loses muscle, metabolic rate will drop hindering future fat loss initiatives.

In fact, researchers studying the effects of marathon running, and the training for such events, observed muscle biopsies both before and after a marathon. The results revealed muscle fiber necrosis tissue death and inflammation. Extensive endurance training has also been shown to lower testosterone levels Hackney, , and lead to reductions in bone mass and increased bone turnover Hetland et al. Considering the importance of speed and power as a fighter, why would we include conditioning methods that sacrifice these vital qualities?

Regardless of the offensive attack ex. The conditioning plan must not compromise your ability to fulfill these critical objectives. Fortunately, we can produce significant increases in aerobic fitness without the negative side effects associated with lengthy distance sessions. We will improve endurance, without sacrificing speed and power. The intensity of our conditioning drills will mimic the intensity of an actual competition.

All fighters recognize the importance of power, strength, and speed. Considering the 16 explosive nature of combat, athletes will strive to maximize the effectiveness of fast twitch muscle fibers and their ability to recruit these muscle fibers.

Skeletal muscle fibers fall into two general categories, type I slow twitch and type II fast twitch. Muscle fibers are grouped into motor units. A motor unit contains hundreds of muscle fibers and one nerve, which delivers a signal to the muscle fibers.

When a signal is passed for the motor unit to contract, all the fibers within that motor unit contract. In addition, all the muscle fibers contained within the motor unit are of the same type fast twitch or slow twitch. Not all motor units are activated at once however. Low intensity exercise does not activate the fast twitch fibers. If the exercise does not stimulate a fast twitch motor unit, the muscle fibers contained within the unit will not adapt to the training.

Essentially, if the motor unit is not recruited, no response occurs. Conditioning work of the wrong nature will not produce the desired adaptation. Why waste your time training in such a manner? For example, marathon runners adapt to extensive aerobic work. These athletes lack power and speed. Marathon runners are notorious for extremely poor vertical jumping ability. If you ever want to reduce your vertical jump, add a distance running program to your schedule.

Excessive aerobic running is a surefire way to kill your vertical. There is, without question, an inverse relationship between voluminous endurance activities and the ability to display power. It would therefore make sense to train with the intensity required to stimulate a fast twitch response. This idea makes even more sense once you understand the importance of myosin in determining the contractile properties of muscle fibers.

Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that interact with actin microfilaments to produce contractile forces within muscle cells. Each myosin molecule has a rod-like tail with two globular heads. The heads are the ends of heavy chains. These heads, often referred to as cross bridges, link myofilaments during contraction. It is these cross bridges that produce the tension developed by muscle cells during contraction.

The force of this contraction depends largely on the myosin heavy chain MHC that is involved. Although numerous myosin families have been identified, there are three specific myosin types that are often the focus of sports-related research.

They assumed athletes were restricted to a genetic deck of cards ie. This assumption is false however, as science has confirmed our ability to influence the MHC composition of muscle cells. For example, normally fast muscle cells can be transformed when subjected to repetitive low intensity exercise, hence the reason continual distance running will reduce vertical jumping ability.

This is true even for those individuals born with predominantly fast twitch muscle fibers. These fibers begin to display slow twitch characteristics with chronic, low frequency stimulation. Research from Thayer and colleagues confirmed this notion, after observing athletes involved in distance running for over a decade. Type II muscle fibers had essentially transformed to accommodate an increased proportion of slow twitch fiber.

Therefore, it is clear that excess aerobic exercise negatively influences both rate of force development and peak power development. Fortunately, science has also shown that muscles subjected to fast stimulus patterns can undergo a slow-to-fast transformation Gorza et al.

In summary, athletes have the ability to improve or impair physical qualities such as speed and power. Train fast and become fast. Train slow and become slow.

For example, you may perform explosive strength drills ex. Your conditioning plan should not interfere with the improvements produced from these activities. If your conditioning routine is based solely on aerobic methods however, your body will adapt, and therefore minimize its ability to produce power. On the contrary, a proper conditioning routine will improve all three energy systems, without negative effects to power production.

How will jogging influence a combat athlete? This is a great question, which is easily answered. Lower body strength is imperative for power production. A martial artist who uses kicks in his offensive attacks should not compromise power with improper conditioning. The same is true for a wrestler or grappler who relies on the lower body to maneuver and overpower his opponent.

Power starts from the ground and then transfers throughout the body. Even a boxer relies on lower body strength. This may come as a surprise, as many athletes falsely assume that punching power depends solely on upper body strength. Punching with power is a full body action. This concept was recently proven in a National Geographic documentary.

Throughout the Fight Science documentary, sports biomechanics experts analyzed the force production of many fighters. State of the art technology measured the speed, force, and impact of many techniques.

Past research also supports the National Geographic findings. Many years ago, Soviet researchers used tensiometric dynamometers to discover the lower body produced Trunk rotation was also crucial, accounting for Armed with this knowledge, it becomes clear that the conditioning program must not sacrifice lower body power.

This concept applies to all combat fighters more importantly all athletes who rely on speed and power. Conversely, just as the conditioning plan should not compromise power production, the strength program should not interfere with your conditioning objectives.

It is imperative that one prioritize the training schedule to comply with specific goals. You must balance strength work with conditioning. You cannot have maximum power and maximum endurance. Just think of a powerful meter sprinter. This athlete will not have the endurance of a marathon runner, just as the enduring marathon runner will not have the speed and power of the sprinter.

Even automobile engines conform to this simple premise. A powerful hot-rod will rapidly burn gasoline. More fuel efficient vehicles will sacrifice power as a trade off. If a fighter were transformed into an automobile, we would want a vehicle that was fast, but also one that was fuel efficient.

We essentially need the best of both worlds power and conditioning. Interval training simply alternates periods of high intensity work with less intense periods of rest or recovery. As a result, you can perform more high intensity work than would be possible if you performed one continuous session. We can use a previous example to illustrate this point.

If you run at top speed for as long as possible, you can only sustain the full speed effort briefly. If however you jog briefly between sprints, you can produce more total work. The latter workout would be an example of interval training as you alternate high intensity work sprinting with less intense periods of rest jogging. Interval training can be applied to almost any exercise. It is not limited to running. Punching or kicking the heavy bag for timed rounds is an example of interval training.

You alternate between periods of high intensity punching and kicking and periods of rest ex. Interval training is certainly a more sport-specific approach to conditioning. Even actual bouts include periods of high intensity, interspaced with periods of less intense action. The fight itself is an example of interval training.

My conditioning strategy is based primarily on an interval training approach. We will not limit our interval training to traditional methods however.

Our hybrid approach will condition the body from head to toe. Before discussing the specifics, it is wise to first understand the science behind interval training. Perhaps the most well known interval study comes from Dr. Researchers compared the effects of moderate intensity endurance training to high intensity intermittent training. Each group exercised five days per week.

The moderate intensity group exercised for 60 minutes, at 70 percent VO2 max. The high intensity group performed 7 to 8 brief intervals of 20 seconds, each separated with 10 seconds of recovery. This group operated at percent VO2 max. After six weeks, researchers noted a similar cardiovascular training effect between the moderate and high intensity groups, as each experienced significant 20 improvements in maximal oxygen uptake.

The primary difference was that only the high intensity group witnessed improvements in anaerobic capacity. In fact, the high intensity group realized a 28 percent increase in anaerobic capacity and a 14 percent increase in VO2 max. And to those who question the results of one experiment, there are several studies that confirm these exact findings.

Sokmen and colleagues also compared continuous constant intensity training to interval training. After 10 weeks of testing, they concluded that while both groups improved in VO2 max, the interval group improved significantly more in anaerobic treadmill time and sprint time. In addition, McKenna and colleagues found that second, maximal sprint intervals enhanced both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.

MacDougall and colleagues also noted significant improvements with second intervals. Researchers also noted increases in both glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activity, maximum short-term power output, and VO2 max.

Furthermore, Burgomaster and colleagues published in found that short sprint intervals led to increased muscle oxidative potential and actually doubled endurance capacity. Specifically, after two weeks, researchers noted a 38 percent increase in citrate synthase activity, and a 26 percent increase in resting muscle glycogen content, and a percent increase in cycle endurance capacity.

This study was significant as it clearly showed that sprint training can improve endurance capacity in a test or event where cellular energy is derived primarily from aerobic metabolism. In just two weeks, significant improvements occurred. So, even if you were training for an aerobic event, anaerobic training clearly offers significant benefits. In fact, no pure aerobic program has matched the dramatic improvements witnessed after this two week anaerobic study.

And those who believe interval training is a new idea for combat athletes are sadly mistaken. Several Soviet researchers documented the benefits of interval 21 training for boxers many years ago. For example, P. Repnikov suggested the interval method provided the best training effect for improving the aerobic and anaerobic aspects of endurance for a fighter Kurguzov and Rusanov also highlighted the importance of interval training for fighters.

Their work highlighted the need for intense intervals to prepare for the explosive motor activity experienced inside the combat arena. In summary, intense interval training has been proven to improve not only anaerobic performance, but also aerobic performance.

There is no refuting that intense, intermittent training offers the best of both worlds. Given the ample amount of scientific support for the high intensity intermittent method, it may come as a surprise that this style of training is still underutilized in the combat sporting world. Why have athletes and coaches been so resistant to change? Many coaches are apprehensive to prescribe interval work, as they fear it will be too intense for their athletes. Remember, combat athletes are training to win fights.

If the interval program constantly wears the athlete out, thus detracts from more pertinent skill work, it does not contribute to performance improvement. Fortunately, with proper program design, intervals can be successfully incorporated into a more complete routine without physical and mental burnout. Large volumes of aerobic training can disturb endocrine equilibrium within the body for as long as 3 days.

On the contrary, athletes can often recover from brief anaerobic efforts within 3 to 8 hours Siff, With sufficient work capacity and a gradual introduction to the intensity of interval training, athletes can quickly recover from these workouts. It is actually common for a well conditioned athlete to feel completely rested a few minutes after an intense interval workout.

For example, you will battle through an extremely intense session, where you must truly dig down to force yourself to complete the routine. Immediately after finishing the workout, you are exhausted, as if you just fought through a brutal battle.

Soon after however, you feel fresh again, and may even question whether you performed enough work. This is a common feeling among athletes accustomed to interval training. I have worked with athletes who, within 10 minutes of finishing a brutal interval 22 workout, start questioning whether they need to perform additional intervals. This is a mistake. As an athlete, you must train to improve, without wearing yourself out. You should not feel tired all the time. You should feel energized and fresh.

You should wake up eager to start the new day. If this is not the case, take a closer look at your training routine, along with eating and sleeping habits. Fat Loss Thus far, it should be clear that intense conditioning drills develop each energy system, but what about fat loss?

Many coaches mistakenly believe that lengthy aerobic sessions are needed. Their athletes compete in specific weight classes, and aerobic exercise is often considered ideal for fat loss. Even non-fighters typically resort to aerobic sessions to achieve the ripped look that many desire. Aerobic exercise was once considered superior for fat loss, as fat is the preferred fuel for low intensity activity.

The body burns fat when free fatty acids are used for fuel. As exercise intensity increases, the proportion of fat used for energy will decrease. Consequently, many trainers believe that intense conditioning drills are not effective for fat loss.

After all, fat is not used for fuel. Unfortunately, those who focus solely on the fuel source used during the activity fail to consider what happens the rest of the day. What about the other 22 or 23 hours a day that you do not spend exercising? What does the body do during this period? In fact, research confirms that fat loss is not dependent on the fuel source used during the activity Hickson et al.

It is equally or more important to focus on the events that take place after the workout. Intense exercise sessions lead to significantly higher post exercise energy expenditure. Resting metabolic rate may remain elevated for many hours. Consequently, the body burns calories long after the workout. Science confirms that strenuous exercise will elevate postexercise metabolic rate for a prolonged period, which ultimately results in postexercise lipid oxidation Melby et al.

So, while little fat is burned during a short, intense conditioning workout, a significant amount is burned after the workout during the recovery period. Whenever one considers optimal protocols for fat loss, it is essential to consider overall calories expended, rather than focusing solely on the energy source used during the actual exercise session. One notable study compared the duration and magnitude of EPOC between resistance exercise and aerobic exercise.

Both workouts were equal in duration and intensity. The results of this study confirmed that oxygen consumption was considerably higher following the resistance workout. Elevated oxygen consumption also continued for a longer time after the resistance workout Burleson, Another notable study Tremblay et al. Two separate training groups were evaluated. One group followed an endurance training program for 20 weeks.

The other group trained with high intensity intermittent training HIIT for 15 weeks. The results from this experiment showed the HIIT group lost significantly more body fat, despite the fact that the endurance group experienced a greater caloric expenditure per workout. Considering that the endurance group burned more calories per session, yet lost less body fat, it is clear that the contributing factors for fat loss occur after the training session.

One theory for the enhanced fat loss is thought to be the greater activity of the enzyme 3-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase. If intense exercise can increase the activity of this enzyme, enhanced fat loss is one possible outcome. And while this may also sound complex, the general concept is actually easy to comprehend. When you exercise, your work induces a decline in malonyl-CoA, and is accompanied by inactivation of ACC you essentially inactivate the inhibitor.

As exercise intensity rises, there is an increased inactivation of ACC Rasmussen, Others believe the increased circulation of catecholamines which stimulate the breakdown of fat following intense exercise is central to post workout fat loss. The adrenal gland releases catecholamines in response to stress including exercise.

Additional research has noted a positive relationship between fat expenditure following intense exercise and growth hormone release. Growth hormone is known to influence lipolysis, the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. Energy is used to build and maintain muscle. As mentioned earlier, if your conditioning plan leads to muscle loss, metabolic rate will suffer. Clearly, we want to build, or at least maintain muscle.

Our conditioning plan must not interfere with this basic goal. Now, it is one thing to discuss theories regarding fat loss, but nothing speaks greater than a visual example.

The picture on the left is from approximately 10 years ago. I was about 20 years old. The picture on the right is of me at age As a youngster, I jogged for years and always struggled to make weight.

I am baffled at the mistakes that I made in my younger days. Yet, despite adding size, my body fat percentage is lower. I am stronger and better conditioned than I ever was in my teens and early twenties.

Regular use of interval training has certainly improved my performance. And despite cutting back on distance running, I am still able to run 5 miles in less than 30 minutes. To put it bluntly, those who believe aerobic exercise is needed for fat loss are sadly misinformed. Please note that I am not completely dismissing the use of distance running. It should not be the primary means of conditioning however.

And if you run distance, run it fast. One useful distance variation is Fartlek running. Fartlek consists of random periods of exertion, followed by periods of lighter running. Basically, you speed up and slow down as you like.

You can run hard, then jog, run hard, then jog, and continue as you wish. Vary the distance and time based on how you feel. You can even mix in other running styles such as backwards running or side to side skipping, or perhaps drop down for a set of pushups.

Mix it up throughout the prescribed distance ex. Within this section, I will discuss several vital characteristics to an effective conditioning plan. To begin, I have listed five key points that I consider central to my conditioning philosophy. Variety Variety is imperative to any training system. Failure to incorporate variety is a surefire recipe for physical and mental burnout. A plan that lacks variety ignores the biological law of accommodation.

As you work through a conditioning drill, your central nervous system will adapt to the demands of the routine. It is the central nervous system that regulates internal organs and systems. Fatigue from an endurance routine often occurs at the CNS. As fatigue mounts, the nervous centers struggle to maintain work capacity.

A fatigued CNS leads to decreased coordination and reduced power output Bompa, Repetitive use of the same routine will eventually lead to exhaustion. By incorporating variety, the CNS will remain fresh. Therefore, variety not only prevents boredom, but also facilitates recovery and greater improvements in general fitness Siff, Unfortunately, many programs violate this principle.

Even highly motivated athletes may fall into this trap. For example, suppose you swing a sledgehammer for the first time, and you are impressed with the intensity of this drill.

Following such a quality session, you are eager to swing the sledgehammer again. Your enthusiasm should be commended, but you must not abandon everything in place of this routine.

You are not training for the Sledgehammer Olympics. The response from a single exercise will decrease over time. Too much of a good thing can become a bad thing. So, you must constantly incorporate variety. You can continue to use the sledgehammer indefinitely, but not exclusively. You will instead cycle through several exercises and drills.This size rope is excellent for grip strength.

Full Throttle Conditioning by Ross Enamait

I do not wish to overflow you with information or add to your confusion. Regardless of your training objective, you must not overlook the importance of lower body strength.

Another option is to hang a rope or towel over the branch. Boxing is the best thing that ever happened to me. Anaerobic Strength: Sled Dragging — Next, you will learn how to construct and use an inexpensive sled for conditioning and restoration.

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