ELECTRONIC PACKAGING AND INTERCONNECTION HANDBOOK PDF
Electronic packaging and interconnection handbook, 3rd edition [ Book Review]. Article (PDF Available) in IEEE Electrical. Electronic Packaging and Interconnection Handbook 4/E [Charles A. Harper] on ppti.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Publisher's Note: Products. Physics and even Marketing. • Electronic Packaging: Housing and interconnection of integrated circuits to form electronic systems. • Electronic Packaging must.
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Packaging has provided the necessary external wiring and interconnection DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices in electronics which we have witnessed in the last third of the twentieth century. Aview of modern electronic packaging technology is presented along with its applications packaging allows for electronic interconnection be- tween the Electronic Packaging and Interconnection Handbook, C. A. Harper (ed.), McGraw -. Springer,  C. Harper, Electronic Packaging and Interconnection Handbook 4/E. ppti.info ppti.info
It is more detailed than the block diagram, and shows every wire and cable.
An example is shown in Fig. New equipment can be shown in place of old equipment being replaced, and wiring changes can be added as necessary.
If the facility is new, the block diagram is the starting point for the flow diagram. Details are added to show all of the equipment and their interconnections and to show any details necessary to describe the installation and wiring completely. These details will include all separable interconnects for both racks and individual equipment. The systems engineer will also provide layouts of cable runs and connections to the architect.
These drawings will also include dimensioned floor plans and elevations to show the placement of equipment; lighting; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning HVAC ducting, as well as the quantity and type of acoustical treatments. Equipment and personnel heat loads must be calculated and submitted to the HVAC consultant. This consultant will also need to know the location of major heat-producing equipment, so the ac equipment can be designed to prevent hot spots within the facility.
Additionally, electrical loads must be calculated and submitted to the electrical contractor, as well as layout requirements for outlets and drops. The engineer must also be certain that all necessary documentation from suppliers is in fact present and filed in a logical place. Some sort of logical reasoning or a specific production requirement will be needed to justify the cost. The overall cost is rarely apparent on the initial consideration of a large project.
A capital project budget request containing a detailed breakdown of all elements can provide the information needed by management to determine the return on investment ROI and make an informed decision on whether to proceed. The time plan must include the impacts of new technology on each involved department as well as a signoff by each department head that the manpower required for the project will be available.
Computerized versions of all these tools are available. This will allow tracking and control of the project and well as generation of periodic project status reports. Project Management The Defense Systems Management College1 defines systems engineering as follows: Systems engineering is the management function which controls the total system development effort for the purpose of achieving and optimum balance of all system elements.
It is a process which transforms an operational need into a description of system parameters and integrates those parameters to optimize the overall system effectiveness. Systems engineering is both a technical process and a management process. Both processes must be applied throughout a program if it is to be successful.
The persons who plan and carry out a project constitute the project team. The makeup of a project team will vary depending on the size of the company and the complexity of the project. It is up to management to provide the necessary human resources to complete the project. The executive manager is the person who can authorize that a project be undertaken but is not the person who will shepherd the project through to completion.
This person can allocate funds and delegate authority to others to accomplish the task. Motivation and commitment is toward the goals of the organization. The executive manager establishes policy, provides broad guidelines, approves the master plan, resolves conflicts, and ensures project compliance with commitments. Executive management delegates the project management functions and assigns authority to qualified professionals, allocates a capital budget for the project, supports the project team, and establishes and maintains a healthy relationship with project team members.
Management has the responsibility to provide clear information and goals, up front, based on the needs and initial research. Before initiating a project, the executive manager should be familiar with daily operation of the facility and analyze how the company works, how jobs are done by the staff, and what tools are needed to accomplish the work. The project manager will be assigned at the time of the initiation of the project and is expected to accomplish large complex projects in the shortest possible time, within the anticipated cost, and with the required performance and reliability.
The project manager must be a competent systems engineer, accountant, and personnel manager. As systems engineer, this individual must have an understanding of analysis, simulation, modeling, and reliability and testing techniques.
There must be an awareness of state-of-the-art technologies and their limitations. As accountant, there must be awareness of the financial implications of planned decisions and knowledge of how to control them. As manager, the planning and control of schedules is an important part of controlling the costs of a project and completing it on time.
Also, the manager must have the skills necessary to communicate clearly and convincingly with subordinates and superiors to make them aware of problems and their solutions. The manager must also be able to solve interdepartmental squabbles, placing full responsibility on all concerned to accomplish their assigned missions. The project manager must have the ability and control to use whatever resources are necessary to accomplish the goals in the most efficient manner. As the leader, the project manager will perform many tasks.
The fastest, most effective communications takes place among people when needs are understood and agreed to by all. The term systems engineer means different things to different people.
The systems engineer is distinguished from the engineering specialist, who is concerned with only one specific engineering discipline, in that the systems engineer must be a generalist who is able to adapt to the many different requirements of a system. However, the systems engineer is expected to be an expert in at least one of the engineering specialties, relieving budget resources in that area.
The systems engineer will prepare necessary documentation for consultants, contractors, and technicians, who will design, build, and install the systems.
A competent systems engineer will help in making cost-effective decisions and will be familiar enough with the included engineering disciplines to determine that equipment, construction, and installation work is being done correctly. The systems engineer performs studies that compare trade-offs so that all decisions are based on the best information available. This individual works during the construction and installation phases to answer questions or find the most appropriate person to answer questions and to resolve problems that may arise.
Time Control of the Project The time tool chosen and the approved budget will allow the project to remain under reasonable control. After these two items are developed, and money is allocated to the project, any changes may increase or decrease the overall cost of the project.
In addition, it is mandatory that all involved personnel understand the need for and use engineering change orders ECOs for any and all changes to the project. There must be a method for ECOs to be generated, approved, and recorded.
Additionally, there must be a method for all personnel to be able to immediately determine whether they are working from the latest version of any document. If an ECO is to be totally funded within one department and will not impact the schedule or engineering plans of any other department, approval may be given by the department head, with copies of the approved ECO distributed to any and all departments that need to know of the change. An ECO that affects multiple departments must be approved at the systems engineering level with no approval given until all affected departments have been consulted.
And again, copies of the approved ECO must be distributed to any and all departments that are affected by the change, as well as to accounting. Although dealing with concrete systems, abstraction is an important feature of systems models. Components are described in terms of their function rather than in terms of their form. Graphical models such as block diagram, flow diagrams, and timing diagrams are commonly used. Mathematical models may also be used.
Systems theory shows that, when modeled in formal language, apparently diverse kinds of systems show significant and useful similarities of structure and function. Similar interconnection structures occur in different types of systems. Equations that describe the behavior of electrical, thermal, fluid, and mechanical systems are essentially identical in form.
This refers to treating a large complex system by breaking it down into simpler, more manageable component elements. These elements are then reassembled to result in the large system. These are systems that change with time and require a dynamic response. The system behavior depends on the signals at a given instant as well as the rates of change of the signals and their past values.
Emergent properties. These properties result from the interaction of systems components rather than being properties unique to the components themselves. Hard and soft systems. In hard systems, the components and their interactions can be described mathematically.
Soft systems cannot be easily or completely described mathematically. Soft systems are mostly human activities, which implies unpredictable and nonuniform behavior. This refers to similarity in elements of different kinds.
Similarity of structure and function in elements implies isomorphism of behavior of a system. Different systems that nonetheless exhibit similar dynamic behavior, such as response to a stimulus, are isomorphic. Modeling requires the determination of the quantitative features that describe the operation of the system. The model is always a compromise, as with most real systems it is not possible to completely describe it, nor is it desirable in most cases.
This is the process of making an element of the system as effective or functional as possible. Normally done by examining the alternatives and selecting the best, in terms of function and cost-effectiveness. This is the process by which concepts are developed to accomplish the functional requirements of the system.
Area Array Interconnection Handbook
Performance requirements and constraints, as defined by the functional analysis, are applied to each individual element of the system, and a design approach is proposed for meeting the requirements. Dobyns, et al. This is different from reliability, which can be defined as a product meeting its specifications during its expected lifetime.
For virtually every qualityimplementation technique, there are both followers and detractors. For instance, the Taguchi method is widely accepted.
However, not all practicing engineers believe Taguchi is appropriate at the product level. They must be included in decisions relating to their products and must believe that their input matters. It also important to keep the entire process under control and have enough information to detect when control of the process is declining.
Defects must also be analyzed to allow assignment of a cause for each defect. Without determination of the cause of each defect, there is no way to improve the process to minimize the probability of that defect occurring again. The types of inspections to perform during the process will have to be determined by the people who best know each of the steps in the process. One of the best indicators of in-process quality in an electronic assembly is the quality of each soldered joint.
Regardless of the quality of the design, or any other single portion of the process, if high-quality reliable solder joints are not formed, the final product is not reliable.
It is at this point that PPM levels take on their finest meaning. If solder joints are manufactured at the 3 sigma level At the 6 sigma level of 3.
Using solder joints rather than parts as the indicator of overall quality also indicates the severity of the problem. If a placement machine places a two-lead resistor incorrectly, two solder joints are bad. If the same placement machine places a lead PQFP incorrectly, solder joints may be bad. But in each case, only one part is faulty.
Is the incorrect placement of the PQFP times as bad as resistor placement? Yes, because it not only results in times as many bad solder joints but most likely also results in far more performance problems in the completed circuit. Remember that the key is to not just find the faults, it is to assign a cause and improve the process. Emphasizing the process, rather than separate design, manufacturing, and test issues, will typically lead to use of techniques such as QFD, DOE, and process control PC.
This process might already be used in production, or it might be one that is proposed for a new product. A complex process such as an SMT assembly line cannot be studied effectively by using the simple technique of varying one parameter while holding all others steady.
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Such a process ignores the interaction between parameters, a condition that normally prevails in the real world. If all interactions as well as primary parameters are to be tested, the number of experiments rapidly becomes large enough to be out of the question even for only a few variables.
DOE has been developed to help reduce the number of experiments required to uncover a problem parameter. DOE relies on statistics, particularly factorial analysis, to determine the relative importance of relationships between parameters.
Initially, the implementation of DOE was the purview of statisticians, which meant that it was outside the realm of most engineers and line workers. Factorial analysis is the study of the chosen parameters and all their possible interactions.
It is neither time efficient nor easy to calculate if more than four parameters are involved. To allow more use of factorial analysis, fractional factorial analysis was developed, using only identified primary parameters and selected interactions.
Fractional factorials can be used effectively only with the correct selection of primary parameters and their interactions. Use of brainstorming and similar techniques from total quality management TQM can help, but it cannot guarantee that correct selections were made.
Taguchi introduced a technique called orthogonal arrays11 in an attempt to simplify the selection of parameters for fractional factorial analyses. The technique is not simple to use and requires in-depth study. There are no guidelines for the selection of the possible interactions, a shortcoming also present in the original fractional factorial technique.
If the quality problems are due to one of the main parameters, this is less of an issue, but it still begs the question of selecting interactions. The underlying principle is that most real-world problems can have their causes reduced to four or fewer primary causes plus their interactions. With four or fewer causes, the full factorial analysis is very appropriate. Once the causes have been identified, the process can be improved to produce the best possible product.
As shown in Fig.
First, variables are eliminated that are not a cause. The multivari charts are used in determining what type or family a variation belongs to and eliminating causes that are not in this family. Other first-level procedures include components search and paired comparisons, which are mutually exclusive as techniques, but either of which can be used in conjunction with multivari charts.
Packaging has provided the necessary external wiring and interconnection capability for transistors and integrated circuits while they have gone through their own spectacular revolution from discrete device to gigascale integration. At IBM we are proud to have created the initial, simple concept of flip chip with solder bump connections at a time when a better way was needed to boost the reliability and improve the manufacturability of semiconductors.
The package families have evolved from thick-film SLT to thin-film metallized ceramic to co-fired multi-layer ceramic. All of this was achieved with the constant objective of minimizing circuit delays through short, efficient interconnects.
Normally done by examining the alternatives and selecting the best, in terms of function and cost-effectiveness. He has authored over a dozen well-known books in the field and is among the founders and past presidents of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society. Of interest to mechanical and electrical engineers, chemists, physicists, and materials scientists in all areas of the electronic packaging industry, the book takes a unique interdisciplinary approach to the field, allowing specialists in one area to understand the needs and responsibilities of others.
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