AIR CONDITIONING PDF
Development Of Refrigerants And Compressors, PDF, kb. Applications Air Conditioning, Applications Of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning, PDF, kb. Conditioned space. A/C plant. Qbld. Win. Win. Selection criteria for air conditioning systems: Selection of a suitable air conditioning system depends on: 1. AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM (HEATING AND COOLING PROCESS) Author: Muhammad Sohaib Alam Contents Page number Abstract 1 Objective 1 Theory 1 .
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Handbook of air conditioning and refrigeration / Shan K. Wang—2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 1. Air conditioning. 2. Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Systems. U.S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. Technical Service Center. Mechanical. INTRODUCTION. This is an introduction to air conditioning systems (frequently referred to as HVAC systems – heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems).
Large systems are known as VRF Variable refrigerant flow systems. Mini split ductless systems were invented by Daikin in , and VRF systems were also invented by Daikin in The inside wall space required is significantly reduced. Also, the compressor and heat exchanger can be located farther away from the inside space, rather than merely on the other side of the same unit as in a PTAC or window air conditioner. Flexible exterior hoses lead from the outside unit to the interior one s ; these are often enclosed with metal to look like common drainpipes from the roof.
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In addition, ductless systems offer higher efficiency, reaching above 30 SEER. However, lower operating costs and rebates or other financial incentives—offered in some areas—can help offset the initial expense.
In the outdoor unit of this air conditioner there is a more powerful compressor, ports for connecting several traces and automation with locking valves for regulating the volume of refrigerant supplied to the indoor units located in the room. A large Multi Split System is called a Variable refrigerant flow system and can be used instead of a central air conditioner system, as it allows for higher energy efficiency but it is more expensive to purchase and install. Difference between split system and multi-split system: Other common types of air conditioning system are multi-split systems, the difference between separate split system and multi-split system in several indoor units.
All of them are connected to the main external unit, but the principle of their operation is similar to a simple split-system. Its unique feature is the presence of one main external unit that connected to several indoor units.
Such systems might be the right solution for maintaining the microclimate in several offices, shops, large living spaces. Just few of outdoor units do not worsen the aesthetic appearance of the building.
The main external unit can be connected to several different indoor types: floor, ceiling, cassette, etc. Multi-split system installation considerations[ edit ] Before selecting the installation location of air conditioner, several main factors need to be considered.
First of all, the direction of air flow from the indoor units should not fall on the place of rest or work area. Secondly, there should not be any obstacles on the way of the airflow that might prevent it from covering the space of the premises as much as possible. The outdoor unit must also be located in an open space, otherwise the heat from the house will not be effectively discharged outside and the productivity of the entire system will drop sharply.
It is highly advisable to install the air conditioner units in easily accessible places, for further maintenance during operation.
The main problem when installing a multi-split system is the laying of long refrigerant lines for connecting the external unit to the internal ones. While installing a separate split system, workers try to locate both units opposite to each other, where the length of the line is minimal. Installing a multi-split system creates more difficulties, since some of indoor units can be located far from the outside.
Air Filtration In HVAC Systems
The first models of multi-split systems had one common control system that did not allow you to set the air conditioning individually for each room. However, now the market has a wide selection of multi-split systems, in which the functional characteristics of indoor units operate separately from each other.
The selection of indoor units has one restriction: their total power should not exceed the capacity of the outdoor unit. However, it is wrong to expect better performance when all indoor units are turned on at the same time, since the total capacity of the whole system is limited by the capacity of the outdoor unit.
Simply put, the outdoor unit will distribute all its power to all operating indoor units in such a way that some of the rooms may not have a very comfortable temperature level.
However, the calculation of the total power is not simple, since it takes into account not only the nominal power of the units, but also the cooling capacity, heating, dehumidification, humidification, venting, etc. Central plant cooling[ edit ] See also: Chiller A central chilled water plant using air-cooled chillers Central cooling plants are used to condition large commercial, industrial, or campus loads.
At larger scales, the ductwork required to move conditioned air to and from the plant would be impractically large, so an intermediate fluid such as chilled water is used instead.
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Portable units[ edit ] A portable air conditioner can be easily transported inside a home or office. Portable air conditioners are either evaporative or refrigerative.
The compressor-based refrigerant systems are air-cooled, meaning they use air to exchange heat, in the same way as a car radiator or typical household air conditioner does.
Such a system dehumidifies the air as it cools it. It collects water condensed from the cooled air and produces hot air which must be vented outside the cooled area; doing so transfers heat from the air in the cooled area to the outside air.
Portable split system[ edit ] A portable system has an indoor unit on wheels connected to an outdoor unit via flexible pipes, similar to a permanently fixed installed unit. Development Of Refrigerants And Compressors. Review of fundamental principles? Part I.
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Part II. Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow. Heat and Mass transfer. Methods of producing Low Temperatures. Air cycle refrigeration systems. Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems. Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems: Performance Aspects And Cycle Modifications. This process occur in reheated and preheater of the air conditioning system, in fact the heat should fed the air.
This process can be done using the principle of electrical energy. In reality the air is heated via heating water. Cooling process: The main component that serves to cool down the air is evaporator. Generally it known as cold water which allowed for indirect cooling.
Psychometric chart: Psychometric charts are graphic representations of the psychometric properties of air. It is used for studying the changes of state of the air in air conditioning systems.
It can be easily get the unknown using this chart. Through the Psychometric chart it can be easily figure out the variable or the constants as lines or curve such as: Stats for the density Mass flow rate is equal to: The following is the air-conditioning unit used throughout the experiment.
It has the Compressor, condenser, evaporator, pre-heater, blower and pressure gauge.
AC unit 5. However, once the blower speed was increased, the system took 15 minutes to reach a stable state. The experiment carried out produced accurate and precise results. From the experiment, the heating and cooling effects were determined and their respective powers were found out.
The experiment had very few random and systematic errors. From the experiment carried out, it can be noted that the enthalpy between the cooling and heating process had a difference between them.
The results obtained from the enthalpy in the cooling process is slightly greater than that of the heating process. Therefore, it can be concluded from the results that when more load is applied or more mass flow rate takes place, there is higher amount of energy generated.On the exterior the heat drawn from the interior is dissipated into the environment as a second fan blows outside air over the condenser. Design Of Air Conditioning Ducts. When the temperature falls below a threshold, both the fan and compressor are shut off to mitigate further temperature drops;[ clarification needed ] this prevents moisture on the evaporator from being blown back into the room.
Psychrometry Of Air Conditioning Systems. From the experiment, the heating and cooling effects were determined and their respective powers were found out. An evaporative cooler is a device that draws outside air through a wet pad, such as a large sponge soaked with water. In addition, if water is condensed in the room, the amount of heat previously needed to evaporate that water also is re-released in the room the latent heat of vaporization.
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