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willing to learn Nguni language, lessons have been prepared; and the the letter 'a' in the words: man, may, mar the Zulu pronunciations, which are itemized. PDF | On Sep 4, , Dan Wylie and others published Learning Zulu: A secret history of language in South Africa (Mark Sanders). known the Gospel of the grace of God to the Zulu speakin g people. F. . the second, one of four syllables on the third, and so on. Ex. fu-nda., learn. ; lu- n g i- lo.

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Madam to tum next? One might think that a solution lies in learn- ing Zulu. But this is to ignore the difficulty Eng- lish speakers have with foreign languages. And. These techniques will then be applied to the learning of Zulu vocabulary. isiZulu language course can be improved to ensure maximum learning success. This page offers free lessons in learning Zulu such as Adjectives Adverbs Articles Feminine Negation Nouns Numbers Phrases Plural Prepositions Pronouns.

While the British colonialists considered his regime to be a future threat, allegations that European traders wished him dead were problematic given that Shaka had granted concessions to Europeans prior to his death, including the right to settle at Port Natal now Durban.

Shaka had made enough enemies among his own people to hasten his demise. It came relatively quickly after the death of his mother Nandi in October , and the devastation caused by Shaka's subsequent erratic behavior. According to Donald Morris, Shaka ordered that no crops should be planted during the following year of mourning, no milk the basis of the Zulu diet at the time was to be used, and any woman who became pregnant was to be killed along with her husband.

At least 7, people who were deemed to be insufficiently grief-stricken were executed, although the killing was not restricted to humans: cows were slaughtered so that their calves would know what losing a mother felt like.

This left the royal kraal critically lacking in security. It was all the conspirators needed—they being Shaka's half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana, and an iNduna called Mbopa. A diversion was created by Mbopa, and Dingane and Mhlangana struck the fatal blows. Shaka's corpse was dumped by his assassins in an empty grain pit, which was then filled with stones and mud. The exact location is unknown. A monument was built at one alleged site.

Shaka's half-brother Dingane assumed power and embarked on an extensive purge of pro-Shaka elements and chieftains, running over several years, in order to secure his position.

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The initial problem Dingane faced was maintaining the loyalty of the Zulu fighting regiments, or amabutho. He addressed this by allowing them to marry and set up homesteads which was forbidden during Shaka's rule and they also received cattle from Dingane.

Loyalty was also maintained through fear, as anyone who was suspected of rivaling Dingane was killed.

He set up his main residence at Mmungungundlovo and established his authority over the Zulu kingdom. At the Battle of Isandlwana in , the Zulus would become one of the few African peoples to inflict a defeat on the British Army. Weapons changes[ edit ] Shaka is often said to have been dissatisfied with the long throwing assegai , and is credited with introducing a new variant of the weapon: the iklwa , a short stabbing spear with a long, broad, and indeed sword-like, spearhead.

Though Shaka probably did not invent the iklwa, according to Zulu scholar John Laband, the leader did insist that his warriors train with the weapon, which gave them a "terrifying advantage over opponents who clung to the traditional practice of throwing their spears and avoiding hand-to-hand conflict. Furthermore, it is believed that he taught his warriors how to use the shield's left side to hook the enemy's shield to the right, exposing the enemy's ribs for a fatal spear stab.

In Shaka's time, these cowhide shields were supplied by the king, and they remained the king's property. Some had black shields, others used white shields with black spots, and some had white shields with brown spots, while others used pure brown or white shields. Implementation was typically blunt. Those who objected to going without sandals were simply killed.

Historian John Laband dismisses these stories as myth, writing: "What are we to make, then, of [European trader Henry Francis] Fynn's statement that once the Zulu army reached hard and stony ground in , Shaka ordered sandals of ox-hide to be made for himself? They spent two whole days recuperating in one instance, and on another they rested for a day and two nights before pursuing their enemy. It is sometimes held that such support was used more for very light forces designed to extract tribute in cattle and slaves from neighbouring groups.

Nevertheless, the concept of "light" forces is questionable. The fast-moving Zulu raiding party, or "ibutho lempi," on a mission invariably travelled light, driving cattle as provisions on the hoof, and were not weighed down with heavy weapons and supply packs.

The herdboy logistic structure was deployed in support of these relatively short-term operations, and was easily adaptable to large or small expeditions.

Age grades were responsible for a variety of activities, from guarding the camp, to cattle herding, to certain rituals and ceremonies.

Shaka organised various grades into regiments , and quartered them in special military kraals, with regiments having their own distinctive names and insignia. The regimental system clearly built on existing tribal cultural elements that could be adapted and shaped to fit an expansionist agenda.

The warriors who comprised the "chest" were senior veterans. The warriors who comprised the "horns" were young and fast juniors. The "loins" would be committed wherever the enemy impi threatened to break out of the encirclement.

Any grouping of men on a mission could collectively be called an impi, whether a raiding party of or a horde of 10, Numbers were not uniform, but dependent on a variety of factors including assignments by the king or the manpower mustered by various clan chiefs or localities.

A regiment might be or 4, men. These were grouped into corps that took their name from the military kraals where they were mustered, or sometimes the dominant regiment of that locality.

Though it ultimately failed against more modern rifle and artillery fire in , this practice proved partially successful at Isandlwana. The expanding Zulu power inevitably clashed with European hegemony in the decades after Shaka's death. In fact, European travellers to Shaka's kingdom demonstrated advanced technology such as firearms and writing, but the Zulu monarch was less than convinced. There was no need to record messages, he held, since his messengers stood under penalty of death should they bear inaccurate tidings.

As for firearms, Shaka acknowledged their utility as missile weapons after seeing muzzle-loaders demonstrated, but he argued that in the time a gunman took to reload, he would be swamped by charging spear-wielding warriors. Initial Zulu success rested on fast-moving surprise attacks and ambushes, but the Voortrekkers recovered and dealt the Zulu a severe defeat from their fortified wagon laager at the Battle of Blood River.

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The second major clash was against the British during Once again, most Zulu successes rested on their mobility, ability to screen their forces and to close when their opponents were unfavourably deployed. Their major victory at the Battle of Isandlwana is well known, but they also forced back a British column at the Battle of Hlobane mountain, by deploying fast-moving regiments over a wide area of rugged ravines and gullies, and attacking the British who were forced into a rapid disorderly fighting retreat, back to the town of Kambula.

A number of writers focus on Shaka's military innovations such as the iklwa — the Zulu thrusting spear, and the "buffalo horns" formation. This combination has been compared to the standardisation implemented by the reorganised Roman legions under Marius. Combined with Shaka's "buffalo horns" attack formation for surrounding and annihilating enemy forces, the Zulu combination of iklwa and shield—similar to the Roman legionaries' use of gladius and scutum—was devastating.

By the time of Shaka's assassination in , it had made the Zulu kingdom the greatest power in southern Africa and a force to be reckoned with, even against Britain's modern army in From a military standpoint, historian John Keegan notes exaggerations and myths that surround Shaka, but nevertheless maintains: Fanciful commentators called him Shaka, the Black Napoleon, and allowing for different societies and customs, the comparison is apt.

Shaka is without doubt the greatest commander to come out of Africa. They also argue that Shaka's line was relatively short-lived and receives undue attention, compared to other, longer established lines and rulers in the region. It seems much more likely that Shaka, seeking to build the power of a previously insignificant chiefdom, drew on an existing heritage of statecraft known to his immediate neighbors.

Soga implied as much when he used genealogical evidence to argue that the Zulu were an upstart group inferior in dignity and distinction to established chiefdoms in their region, for example, the Hlubi, Ndwandwe, and Dlamini lines. Bryant arrived at similar conclusions. The Zulu line — "a royal house of doubtful pedigree" — was very short in comparison to the Langene, Ndwandwe, Swazi, and Hlubi lines. Using his standard formula of eighteen years per reign, Bryant calculated that the Swazi, Ndwandwe, and Hlubi lines could be traced back to the beginning of the fifteenth century, while the eponymous chief Zulu had died at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

The hypothesis that several states of a new kind arose about the same time does not take account of the contrast between the short line of Shaka and the long pedigrees of his most important opponents — especially the coalition grouped around his deadly enemy Zwide d.

The founders of the states which Omer-Cooper called "Zulu-type states," including the Ndebele, the Gasa, the Ngoni, and the Swazi had all been closely associated with Zwide. Instead of hypothesizing that they all chose to imitate Shaka, it is easier to imagine that he modeled his state on theirs. And as they stemmed from ancient families it is entirely possible that states of that type existed in a more remote past.

Soga and Bryant related each of them to a larger grouping they called Mho. Regimental deployments and lines of the attack show his classic template at work.

The earliest are two eyewitness accounts written by European adventurer-traders who met Shaka during the last four years of his reign. Nathaniel Isaacs published his Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa in , creating a picture of Shaka as a degenerate and pathological monster, which survives in modified forms to this day.

Isaacs was aided in this by Henry Francis Fynn , whose diary actually a rewritten collage of various papers was edited by James Stuart only in Their accounts may be balanced by the rich resource of oral histories collected around by the same James Stuart, now published in six volumes as The James Stuart Archive. Stuart's early 20th century work was continued by D. Malcolm in These and other sources such as A.

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Bryant gives us a more Zulu-centred picture. Most popular accounts are based on E. Ritter's novel Shaka Zulu , a potboiling romance that was re-edited into something more closely resembling a history. A standard general reference work in the field is Donald Morris's "The Washing of The Spears", which notes that the sources, as a whole, for this historical era are not the best.

Morris nevertheless references a large number of sources, including Stuart, and A. The Zulu also believe in the use of magic. Ill fortune such as bad luck and illness is considered to be sent by an angry spirit. When this happens, the help of a traditional healer is sought, and he or she will communicate with the ancestors or use natural herbs and prayers, to get rid of the problem.

Late nineteenth-century postcard of Zulu Warriors note the Europeans in the background The Zulu are fond of singing as well as dancing.

These activities promote unity at all transitional ceremonies such as births, weddings, and funerals. All the dances are accompanied by drums and the men dress as warriors see image. Zulu folklore is transmitted through storytelling, praise-poems, and proverbs.

These explain Zulu history and teach moral lessons. Praise-poems poems recited about the kings and the high achievers in life is becoming part of popular culture. The Zulu, especially those from rural areas, are known for their weaving, craft-making, pottery, and beadwork.

The Zulu term for "family" umndeni includes all the people staying in a homestead who are related to each other, either by blood, marriage, or adoption. Drinking and eating from the same plate was and still is a sign of friendship. It is customary for children to eat from the same dish, usually a big basin. This derives from a "share what you have" belief which is part of Ubuntu humane philosophy.

Origins: Long ago, before the Zulu were forged as a nation, they lived as isolated family groups and partly nomadic northern Nguni groups. These groups moved about within their loosely defined territories in search of game and good grazing for their cattle. As they accumulated livestock, and supporters family leaders divided and dispersed in different directions, while still retaining family networks.

The Zulu homestead imizi consisted of an extended family and others attached to the household through social obligations. This social unit was largely self-sufficient, with responsibilities divided according to gender. Men were generally responsible for defending the homestead, caring for cattle, manufacturing and maintaining weapons and farm implements, and building dwellings. Women had domestic responsibilities and raised crops, usually grains, on land near the household.

By the late eighteenth century, a process of political consolidation among the groups was beginning to take place.

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A number of powerful chiefdoms began to emerge and a transformation from a pastoral society to a more organised statehood occurred. This enabled leaders to wield more authority over their own supporters and to compel allegiance from conquered chiefdoms.

Changes took place in the nature of political, social, and economic links between chiefs of these emerging power blocs and their subjects. Zulu chiefs demanded steadily increasing tribute or taxes from their subjects, acquired great wealth, commanded large armies, and, in many cases, subjugated neighbouring chiefdoms.

Military conquest allowed men to achieve status distinctions that had become increasingly important. This culminated early in the nineteenth century with the warrior-king Shaka conquering all the groups in Zululand and uniting them into a single powerful Zulu nation, that made its influence felt over southern and central Africa.

Shaka ruled from to , when he was assassinated by his brothers. Shaka recruited young men from all over the kingdom and trained them in his own novel warrior tactics. His military campaign resulted in widespread violence and displacement, and after defeating competing armies and assimilating their people, Shaka established his Zulu nation.

Within twelve years, he had forged one of the mightiest empires the African continent has ever known. The Zulu empire weakened after Shaka's death in One of the most significant events in Zulu history was the arrival of Europeans in Natal. By the late s, British troops had invaded Zulu territory and divided Zulu land into different chiefdoms. The Zulu never regained their independence see Anglo-Zulu Wars. Natal received "Colonial government" in , and the Zulu people were dissatisfied about being governed by the Colony.

A plague of locusts devastated crops in Zululand and Natal in and , and their cattle were dying of rinderpest, lung sickness and east coast fever.

These natural disasters impoverished them and forced more men to seek employment as railway construction workers in northern Natal and on the mines in the Witwatersrand. The last Zulu uprising, led by Chief Bambatha in , was a response to harsh and unjust laws and unimaginable actions by the Natal Government.

The uprising was ruthlessly suppressed see Bambatha Rebellion. The s saw fundamental changes in the Zulu nation.

Many were drawn towards the mines and fast-growing cities as wage earners and were separated from the land and urbanised. Zulu men and women have made up a substantial portion of South Africa's urban workforce throughout the 20th century, especially in the gold and copper mines of the Witwatersrand.Paliouras, G. Kearns, M. Main article: Mfecane History and legacy[ edit ] The increased military efficiency led to more and more clans being incorporated into Shaka's Zulu empire, while other tribes moved away to be out of range of Shaka's impis.

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