JARED DIAMOND ARMAS GERMES E ACO PDF
Armas, germes e aço by Jared Diamond is Life Sciences Edição comemorativa dos vinte anos de publicação. Armas, germes e aço procura demonstrar, por. View Essay - DIAMOND, Jared - Armas, Germes e Aço - ppti.info from ECONOMICS EAE at Uni. São Paulo. Faça o download ou leia online Armas, germes e aço. Jared Diamond PDF grátis para e-book / ePub / Mobi /. Mp3 / Txt, Edição comemorativa dos vinte anos de.
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Also important to the transition from hunter-gatherer to city-dwelling agrarian societies was the presence of 'large' domesticable animals, raised for meat, work, and long-distance communication.
Diamond identifies a mere 14 domesticated large mammal species worldwide.
The five most useful cow, horse, sheep, goat, and pig are all descendants of species endemic to Eurasia. Of the remaining nine, only two the llama and alpaca both of South America are indigenous to a land outside the temperate region of Eurasia. Due to the Anna Karenina principle , surprisingly few animals are suitable for domestication.
Diamond identifies six criteria including the animal being sufficiently docile, gregarious, willing to breed in captivity and having a social dominance hierarchy. Therefore, none of the many African mammals such as the zebra , antelope , cape buffalo , and African elephant were ever domesticated although some can be tamed, they are not easily bred in captivity. The Holocene extinction event eliminated many of the megafauna that, had they survived, might have become candidate species, and Diamond argues that the pattern of extinction is more severe on continents where animals that had no prior experience of humans were exposed to humans who already possessed advanced hunting techniques e.
Smaller domesticable animals such as dogs, cats, chickens, and guinea pigs may be valuable in various ways to an agricultural society, but will not be adequate in themselves to sustain large-scale agrarian society. An important example is the use of larger animals such as cattle and horses in plowing land, allowing for much greater crop productivity and the ability to farm a much wider variety of land and soil types than would be possible solely by human muscle power. Large domestic animals also have an important role in the transportation of goods and people over long distances, giving the societies that possess them considerable military and economic advantages.
Geography[ edit ] Diamond also argues that geography shaped human migration , not simply by making travel difficult particularly by latitude , but by how climates affect where domesticable animals can easily travel and where crops can ideally grow easily due to the sun. The dominant Out of Africa theory holds that modern humans developed east of the Great Rift Valley of the African continent at one time or another. The Sahara kept people from migrating north to the Fertile Crescent , until later when the Nile River valley became accommodating.
Diamond continues to describe the story of human development up to the modern era, through the rapid development of technology, and its dire consequences on hunter-gathering cultures around the world.
Diamond touches on why the dominant powers of the last years have been West European rather than East Asian especially Chinese. The Asian areas in which big civilizations arose had geographical features conducive to the formation of large, stable, isolated empires which faced no external pressure to change which led to stagnation.
Europe's many natural barriers allowed the development of competing nation-states. Such competition forced the European nations to encourage innovation and avoid technological stagnation. Many were killed by infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles. Similar circumstances were observed in the History of Australia and in the History of South Africa.
Aboriginal Australians and the Khoikhoi population were decimated by smallpox, measles, influenza and other diseases. Diamond posits that the most of these diseases were only developed and sustained in large dense populations in villages and cities; he also states most epidemic diseases evolve from similar diseases of domestic animals.
The combined effect of the increased population densities supported by agriculture, and of close human proximity to domesticated animals leading to animal diseases infecting humans, resulted in European societies acquiring a much richer collection of dangerous pathogens to which European people had acquired immunity through natural selection see the Black Death and other epidemics during a longer time than was the case for Native American hunter-gatherers and farmers.
He mentions the tropical diseases mainly malaria that limited European penetration into Africa as an exception. Endemic infectious diseases were also barriers to European colonisation of Southeast Asia and New Guinea.
Success and failure[ edit ] Guns, Germs, and Steel focuses on why some populations succeeded. His later book, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed , focuses on environmental and other factors that have caused some populations to fail.
Intellectual background[ edit ] In the s, the Annales School in France undertook the study of long-term historical structures by using a synthesis of geography, history, and sociology. Scholars examined the impact of geography, climate, and land use. Although geography had been nearly eliminated as an academic discipline in the United States after the s, several geography-based historical theories were published in the s.
Reception[ edit ] The reception of Guns, Germs, and Steel by academics has been mixed. Many have praised the book for its synthesis of different subjects, but note that the large scope of the work will inevitably lead to some inaccuracies and oversimplifications. International Relations scholars Iver B. They write that "while empirical details should, of course, be correct, the primary yardstick for this kind of work cannot be attention to detail.
McNeill , complimented the book for "its improbable success in making students of international relations believe that prehistory is worth their attention", but thought Diamond oversold geography as an explanation for history and underemphasized cultural autonomy.
DIAMOND, Jared - Armas, Germes e Aço - Epílogo.pdf -
The anthropologist Jason Antrosio described Guns, Germs, and Steel as a form of "academic porn," writing, "Diamond's account makes all the factors of European domination a product of a distant and accidental history" and "has almost no role for human agency—the ability people have to make decisions and influence outcomes.
Europeans become inadvertent, accidental conquerors. Natives succumb passively to their fate. He has tremendously distorted the role of domestication and agriculture in that history. Unfortunately his story-telling abilities are so compelling that he has seduced a generation of college-educated readers. Department of the Interior , complained in a Journal of Libertarian Studies article that Guns, Germs, and Steel entirely neglects individual action, concentrating solely on the centralized state; fails to understand how societies form assessing that societies do not exist or form without a strong government ; and ignores various economical institutions, such as monetary exchange that would allow societies to "rationally reckon scarcities and the value of actions required to replace what is depleted through human use".
Instead, the author concludes that because there was no sophisticated division of labor, private property rights, and monetary exchange, societies like that on Easter Island could never progress from the nomadic stage to a complex society. It has been argued that hunting and gathering represents an adaptive strategy , which may still be exploited, if necessary, when environmental change causes extreme food stress for agriculturalists.
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