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And does it matter if the graffiti is done with a “good purpose”? The discourse regarding the closely related phenomena street art – commonly described as. Graffiti Examining the recuperation of this supposedly insurgent aesthetic, it exposes the Street Art 'artwashing' that Street Art is now implicated within, the. PDF | The focus of this paper is on the threads of discourse that have occurred in the professional psychological literature with regard to graffiti.

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PDF | On Jan 1, , Jakub Dąbrowski and others published "The medium is the message". Graffiti writing as McLuhan's medium. Graffiti is of interest to socialists, anthropologists, psychologists, criminologists, artists, and .. ppti.info Graffiti is increasingly being recognised by both professionals and the general Graffiti's history is firmly ingrained in the streets, providing the art form with.

Aggressive urban surveillance, environmental design and broken windows policing … limit available locations for painting … graffiti, and promote the legal destruction of existing work. The result is counter-intuitive but it would seem, indisputable: The … graffiti that we see so widely today is but a small portion of that which has been lost or is currently hidden away, and in any case only the latest layer in an urban palimpsest of spray paint and whitewash.

The history of graffiti

Graffiti … hide[s its] own history; [its] very visibility enacts [its] ongoing invisibility. In this way, as Mark Fisher so evocatively put it, place becomes stained by time. We need not look far for suggestions. However, work from within victimology also stands to benefit from the conceptual metaphors — images to think with — offered by notions of haunting and the spectral.

Such motifs furnish us with the theo- retical language necessary to explicate how memory and trauma become inscribed literally, sym- bolically, affectively and atmospherically in space and place.

It is this social and cultural amnesia that Franco Berardi Many cities are currently under- going an era of unprecedented change. The urban landscape is being dramatically reconfigured in ways that both reflect and perpetuate grotesque socioeconomic inequalities.

Once the archaeologists have con- ducted their hurried surveys and withdrawn to the surface, tunnel boring machines chew and churn their way through the urban substrata, consigning countless other fragments of broken time to the spoil tip. In the meantime, more quotidian encounters with the past can be sought throughout the city — above and below.

Digital graffiti

The present work may, accordingly, be read as an instance of what Ferrell has termed interstitial eth- nography: Whereas tags are broadly analogous to a signature, throw-ups consist of quickly executed one- or two- colour bubble- or block-letter words.

See, for example, Ashford That subcultural graffiti in London originated dur- ing this period is also widely corroborated by interviewees: For critiques of the problematic imperial, colonial and exclusionary discourses and visual regimes which span this methodological lineage, see Pinder and Mott and Roberts, a.

Although see Merrill for a discussion of subcultural graffiti as heritage. As Campbell Stratigraphy in archaeology refers to the layered accumulation of material culture over time.

Such narratives as well as first-hand accounts can be found in abundance on the kind of digitally driven, informal archives of graffiti history that have proliferated in recent years on photo-sharing websites such as Flickr see Cianci and Schutt, ; Schutt, Readers are encouraged to peruse, for example, the groups Old School London Graffiti https: Of particular significance to the present discussion, the notion of the uncanny has attracted interest in both architectural theory and urban studies see, for example, Vidler, , and the edited collection by Huskinson, a.

Huskinson b: References Adey P Airports, mobility and the calculative architecture of affective control. Geoforum 39 1: Anderson B Affective atmospheres. Emotion, Space and Society 2 2: Walking tours as ethnography of place. Space and Culture 18 3: Armstrong J On the possibility of a spectral ethnography. Ashford D London Underground: A Cultural Geography. Liverpool University Press.

Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. Baker P Secret city: Psychogeography and the end of London.

Reaktion, pp. Bell MM The ghosts of place. Theory and Society 26 6: Benjamin W [] A Berlin chronicle. Translated by E Jephcott and K Shorter. NLB, pp. Benjamin W Gesammelte Schriften.

Bennett L Bunkerology — A case study in the theory and practice of urban exploration. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 29 3: Berardi F After the Future. AK Press. Bissell D Passenger mobilities: Affective atmospheres and the sociality of public transport. Society and Space 28 2: Thesis Eleven Salvation Army.

Peet R ed.

Radical Geography. Chicago, IL: Maaroufa Press, pp.

Cacho LM Social Death: Racialized Rightlessness and the Criminalization of the Unprotected. New York: New York University Press. Campbell E Landscapes of performance: Stalking as choreography. Environment and Planning D 30 3: Casella EC Enmeshed inscriptions: Australian Archaeol- ogy 78 1: Australian Archaeol- ogy.

Epub ahead of print. Castleman C Getting Up: Subway Graffiti in New York. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Oxford University Press. Champion M Medieval Graffiti: Ebury Press. Cianci L and Schutt S Keepers of ghosts: Old signs, new media and the age of archival flux. Archives and Manuscripts 42 1: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 9: Davis C Hauntology, spectres and phantoms.

French Studies 59 3: University of California Press. Vol 2: Living and Cooking. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by B Massumi. Derrida J Spectres of Marx: Translated by P Kamuf. Dewsbury JD Performative, non-representational and affect-based research: Seven injunctions. SAGE, pp.

Urban undergrounds. Journal of Contemporary Archaeology 2 2: Graphotism 3: Drax WD Scattered pictures. Available at: Edensor T Industrial Ruins: Spaces, Aesthetics, and Materiality. Berg Publishers. Ferrell J Crimes of Style: Urban Graffiti and the Politics of Criminality.

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Boston, MA: Northeastern Uni- versity Press. Ferrell J Criminological verstehen: Inside the immediacy of crime. Justice Quarterly 14 1: Ferrell J Speed kills. GlassHouse, pp. Ferrell J Kill method: A provocation. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology 1 1: Ferrell J Autoethnography.

Ferrell J Ghost ethnography: On crimes against reality and their excavation. Ferrell J Postscript: Under the slab. Doing Imaginative Criminological Research. Routledge, pp. Ferrell J Graffiti, street art and the dialectics of the city. Reading, Writing and Representing the City. London Routledge, pp. Northeastern University Press. City 14 1—2: An Invitation. Fiddler M Projecting the prison: The depiction of the uncanny in The Shawshank Redemption.

Crime Media Culture 3 2: Fisher M What is hauntology? Film Quarterly 66 1: Fisher M Ghosts of My Life: Writings on Depression, Hauntology and Lost Futures. Zero Books. Foucault M Society Must be Defended. Translated by D Macey.

Frederick UK Revolution is the new black: Archaeologies 5 2: Hogarth Press. Garrett BL Explore Everything: Place-Hacking the City. Garrett BL Urban exploration as heritage placemaking. Orange H ed. Reanimating Industrial Spaces: Routlegde, pp. Garrett BL and Hawkins H And now for something completely different … thinking through explorer subject-bodies: A response to Mott and Roberts.

Geertz C Thick description: Toward an interpretive theory of culture. Geertz C ed. The Interpreta- tion of Cultures. Basic Books, pp. Geertz C Deep hanging out. Antiquity 85 Hallsworth S The Gang and Beyond: Interpreting Violent Street Worlds. Palgrave Macmillan. Writing graffiti in urban space. Theoretical Criminology 10 3: Hayward K City Limits: Crime, Consumer Culture and the Urban Experience. Hayward K Five spaces of cultural criminology.

British Journal of Criminology 52 3: Herrmann J The ghost town of the super-rich: Evening Standard, 21 March. The Landscape and Memory of Deindustrialization. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Berkeley, CA: Hughes R Dutiful tourism: Encountering the Cambodian genocide.

Asia Pacific Viewpoint 49 3: Huskinson L ed. A Collection of Interdisciplinary Studies. Huskinson L b Introduction: The urban uncanny. The Urban Uncanny: The Guardian, 22 November. Space, time and exclusion in an abandoned Northern Ireland prison. Crime Media Culture 11 1: Kindynis T a Bomb alert: Graffiti writing and urban space in London. British Journal of Criminology.

From subterranea to spectacle. British Journal of Criminology 57 4: Lefebvre H The Production of Space. Translated by D Nicholson-Smith. Violence, media and the spectre of suspicion. British Journal of Crimi- nology 55 3: Lombroso C Palimsesti del Carcere: Textual Practice 16 3: Lyng S Edgework: A social psychological analysis of voluntary risk taking.

American Journal of Sociol- ogy Lyng S Crime, edgework and corporeal transaction. Theoretical Criminology 8 3: Macdonald N The Graffiti Subculture: Bas- ingstoke: Mayne A and Lawrence S Ethnographies of place: A new urban research agenda.

The aim of these graffiti were only to rebel against current order, and their soul was artistic Url 1. Figure 1. When the graffiti culture carried on improving, people began to write their graffiti to attract more attention by also attaching importance to visuality in order to come forward instead of just sending messages.

The effort to write by using the most attractive and colorful form and the production of aerosol spray paints created brand new styles. The transformation of graffiti on Berlin Wall in time can be given as an example to this situation.

Besides modern graffiti understanding, increasing sensibility towards nature and technological developments gave birth to new graffiti types. Eco-graffiti green-graffiti , which was created by using materials like lichen, succulent plants, paper, leaf, etc.

The portrait work, created by white panels and succulent plants of Edina Tokodi, who chooses figures to increase gratitude especially towards nature and thus bringing nature closer to city settlers through her works Figure 2 , can be given as an example for eco-graffiti. Figure 2. This work was located right next to an electric power source, whose main sources are gas and water, aims to encourage people to re-think about how we consume natural sources as a society Url 6.

Figure 3. Living walls can be designed with lifeless materials like paper besides lichen and leaves. Anna Garforth applied this work by using yellow pages of the newspapers on an old and rusty wall Url 6. Figure 4. The work MOSSenger Figure 5 , of Anna Garforth and Eleaner Stevens, which aims to maintain physically in nature and create accessible artistic works by using sustainable concept and methods, is an example of moss graffiti.

Figure 5. Moss-graffiti Url 10, Url This graffiti is creating patterns by cleaning dirty surfaces through pressure water Url 6. The work of Alexandre Orion who used skulls on the walls of a tunnel in Sao Paulo in Figure 6 is the first reverse graffiti in the largest scale.

The artist mentioned that his aim was to send a message to people, to show them the existing pollution and to remind them what they wished to forget Url 7. Figure 6. Another graffiti type is laser graffiti which is completely a product of technology and made on city buildings, walls, etc. It can also be defined as one of the eco-graffiti types and can create different night webs in cities. Figure 7. A laser graffiti in Step Up 4 Revolution movie2.

Contribution of Contemporary Graffiti in Urban Landscapes Contemporary graffiti art exists on urban public landscape elements walls, pavements, etc. Scott Speer, Production: Political stance of modern graffiti arises from its existence in the spaces which industrial revolution and thus capitalist producing form produced and shaped Kurt, This stance contributes to urban spaces as political landscape and thus societies in terms of historical and cultural values.

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Political graffiti messages are fragments of truth, a hurried summary of facts that include themes associated with labor conditions, freedom, political power, homelessness, unemployment, religious thought, and civil rights.

In this work he sprayed a number of politically-motivated works on the Wall built between Palestine and Israel. Figure 8. Graffiti, which has gained a foothold in several reasons and shapes in urban landscapes throughout history, is not only a form of expression but by freshening social memory by preventing people from forgetting specific events, also contributes urban identity.

Figure 9.This is why many countries spend millions1 on cleaning walls and why authorities introduce restrictive rules aimed at graffiti. Berg Publishers.

On the relationships of radical democracy, public space and art see: Between Freedom and Anarchy, Warsaw: It is pointed out that graffiti is often just the start on the road, which ends in addiction to hard drugs2. It can also be defined as one of the eco-graffiti types and can create different night webs in cities. Mott C and Roberts S a Not everyone has the balls: But the problem has a significantly wider scope.

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