BREAD A BAKERS BOOK OF TECHNIQUES AND RECIPES PDF
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Download PDF Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes, PDF Download Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes. Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes (Excerpt) [PDF]. Detailed, step -by-step bread recipes, authored by master baker Jeffrey Hamelman. Bakers Book Of Techniques And Recipes Jeffrey Hamelman [PDF] [EPUB] The warm, complex aroma of a fresh-baked loaf of bread can be.
Bread: A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes
DiMuzio Target Audience: Ken Forkish Target Audience: Peter Reinhart Target Audience: New Techniques, Extraordinary Flavor Author: Chad Robertson Target Audience: Mastering the Art of Extraordinary Bread Author: Rose Levy Beranbaum Target Audience: Hearth Loaves and Masonry Ovens Author: All proceeds generated by the Sourdough Library goes toward website maintenance.
Subscribe Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. How to Get Cracks on Bread Crust. Detailed, step-by-step bread recipes, authored by master baker Jeffrey Hamelman. Practical, scientific information on the ingredients and processes of bread making.
Instruction manual on how to build a wood-fired oven, with historical context. Western Folklore: Advanced Bread and Pastry: A Professional Approach. For wheat-based breads. Proper folding. Flour the work surface.
Bread- A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes - Jeffrey Hamelman.pdf
Excess flour will not be incorporated into the dough because it will all be brushed off. Since the organic acids develop quite slowly—it takes hours before they are sufficiently present to benefit bread flavor—the use of pre-ferments. It is for this reason that doughs such as brioche. Another result of dough fermentation is the production of carbon dioxide. If there is a lack of flour on the work surface. Sugar also softens gluten structure. When fats are added in the form of butter.
Some of the carbon dioxide exists in a gaseous form in the dough and some is present in a dissolved state in the liquid portion of the dough. Step Three: Bulk Primary Fermentation As soon as the mixer is turned off.
Folding the dough. An alternative to the folding method described above is known as bucket folding.
Once the loaves are shaped. After dividing and preshaping. Now take about one-third of the dough from the right side and fold it in toward the center. An optional phase of fermentation takes place when pre-ferments are used.
The dough may be folded once. While it may not be quite Bread: The hours of yeast activity that occur as the pre-ferment ripens are a distinct phase of fermentation. Finish by taking the dough closest to you and folding that portion away from you and into the center. It is not unusual or particularly difficult to fold a container of When this fourth side has been folded. Again press to degas. The final phase takes place once the dough is loaded into the oven.
The Stages of Fermentation There are four distinct. Bucket folding is easy. With spread fingers. This phase. Now take one side. After folding the right-hand third of the dough into the center. Be sure. Bulk or primary fermentation is the first stage. Make every effort to avoid incorporating raw flour into the dough. Remoisten your hands. B A as effective as folding dough on the work bench.
Reach down to the bottom of the tub. It has the further advantage of not requiring heavy dough tubs to be lifted onto the bench. Once the dough has been folded by the first method. Plunge both hands into the container. Repeat these steps with the other two portions of dough. Once finished. If there are further folds. And there is also an underside where the seams from the folding action come together. We make up for this slight undermixing by folding correctly and thereby increasing dough strength.
By folding the dough correctly. Although this is not always a factor. If we have a cool dough in a warm room. If an excess of strength is built into the dough. As more folds are incorporated.
If the excess of carbon dioxide gas that is generated by the yeast is not periodically expelled. But how often should a dough be folded? This depends on the type of dough.
Here are some considerations: As we have seen. A second benefit is the equalization of dough temperature. Ciabatta dough. Thorough degassing may be indicated. This is directly counter to the notion that the only thing that matters in flour and dough is protein and strength. When we fold the dough.
A third benefit of correct folding is an increase in dough strength. When to Fold The third consideration when we discuss folding is when to fold. Speed is important. By taking 5 or 10 minutes today to scale and mix a sourdough. Chapters 4 through 6 contain a thorough examination of the major pre-ferments and their individual characteristics. The only breads that could keep that long were breads with high acidity. As a result. A characteristic of all pre-ferments is the development of acidity as a result of fermentation activity.
There are numerous mechanical methods of dividing dough. Above all. Straight dough that is mixed and 2 or 3 hours later is in the oven will always lack character when compared with bread that contains a well-developed pre-ferment.
The ripe pre-ferment immediately incorporates acidity and organic acids into the final dough. Organic acids and esters aromatic compounds produced by the yeast are a natural product of pre-ferments. As the pH of a bread decreases that is. Dividing Bulk fermentation ends when the dough is divided.
In this section we will take a quick glance at the main benefits derived from their use: A metal dough cutter. Breads made with pre-ferments tend to possess a subtle wheaty aroma or a robust rye flavor. Frequently dusting the plate of the scale and the hands with flour keeps things dry. Although not every type of bread dough requires or necessarily benefits from the presence of a pre-ferment.
At the same time. Preshaping organizes the dough pieces. Step Eight: Shaping Round or boule-shaped loaves. A light rounding suffices for most breads. Step Six: Preshaping Once divided. All too often. As mentioned above. Once a dough piece has been divided at the correct weight. Here is my reasoning: In a typical situation. Small corrections—either adding on or taking off a small piece of dough—are almost always necessary. It is then an easy matter to calculate the dough yield it is easier to calculate 10 rows with 6 loaves in each row than it is to count 60 individual pieces of dough.
I have never found the slight spreading of the seams to be a problem. The preshaped loaves are covered with a sheet of plastic to prevent a surface crust from forming. Step Seven: Bench Rest This passive step is for the dough. Lay the dough pieces down sequentially. If the dough sticks to either the hand or the scale. By keeping the seams up and the good side down.
Since the tightness to which a loaf is preshaped determines when the final shaping can occur.
Preshaped loaves should be placed on a floured work surface or floured bread boards. For example. Those who place the seams down do so in order to keep the dough more concise. I avoid any incorporation of raw flour into the loaf. However gently or firmly the preshaping. Flour is spread onto the work surface prior to receiving the preshaped loaves. Does a machine do that? When working with local grains.
We make unconscious adjustments in our shaping to bring the maximum strength to the dough without tearing it. I shall say as a first approximation that it means simply workmanship using any kind of technique or apparatus.
Step Nine: Final Fermentation Final fermentation final proofing is the phase between shaping and loading the loaves into the oven. The Nature and Art of Workmanship. While bread flavor is largely determined by the correct mixing technique. Once shaped. On a humid day the dough may feel a little slack. Once again. The essential idea is that the quality of the result is continually at risk during the process of making.
One of the great joys of my work life is standing at the shaping bench with two or three of my co-workers. If the bread is either overrisen or underrisen. What I am opposed to is the de-skilling of bakers. Can a machine do that? Temperatureand humidity-controlled environments. As bakers. Just as we will fall onto our noses if we lean over percent. Breads like baguettes have a traditional scoring that rarely varies. Since the lateral structure of the loaf is already somewhat compromised. Left unscored.
Step Ten: Scoring Some breads. It is difficult to quantify with unvarying certainty the perfect degree of rise. With careful and consistent observation of each bread.
Experimentation will soon show how great an impact different scoring methods have on different breads.
If a bread is weak. By scoring the bread. Step Eleven: Other breads. How do we know when the bread is sufficiently baked? Until quite recently. As the bulk mass of dough rises. Roll a bit of the dough around in the front of your mouth once the mix is done—you will slowly learn to pick up the flavor of the pre-ferment in the raw dough.
There is so much to taste from start to finish. Just by giving the bread a good squeeze and a thump on its bottom. Taste the dough as soon as the ingredients have come together—is the salt in there. So much of baking is about the sense of touch. The bread is always talking to us. As we learn the academics of bread.
But bread baking is about much more than just academic information—it is a pursuit that truly involves all the senses.
Bread : A Baker's Book of Techniques and Recipes by Jeffrey Hamelman (2012, Hardcover)
Train yourself to listen for those sounds. But then for the pleasure and fulfillment of eating bread. We feel the dough as it mixes. Baking and the Five Senses There is a lot to be said for learning the technical aspects of bread baking.
When the bake is done and the bread cool. There is a magic time once the bread is in the oven. Our eyes guide us at every stage. Every dough should be squeezed and tugged and examined with the fingers. As the dough spins in the mixer. Ascertaining doneness has always been a function of touch. The sense of smell is crucial!
Smell the poolish or sourdough.
Always taste the sourdough when it is ripe—after all. Proper steaming has a profound effect on bread for a number of reasons: It promotes a rich color to the crust and a surface shine on the loaf.
If bread is slightly overrisen. So much of human culture. This is because steam at the initial stages of baking provides moisture that gelatinizes the starches on the surface of the loaf. With the exception of breads that receive an egg wash prior to baking and therefore do not require steam. When we load an oven without steam. Just prior to loading the oven.
The starches swell and become glossy. As the bread enters the hot environment of the oven. If bread is slightly underrisen. It is.
A properly steamed oven promotes a crust with a good sheen to it. Crust color is enhanced when steam is injected into the oven. Steaming the oven moistens the surface of the dough. This is because during the early stages of baking. In an oven without steam. In any event. In an unsteamed oven. Once loaded. The benefits of steam occur only during the first third or so of the baking cycle.
It is true that there are rice cultures and corn cultures and manioc cultures. If the baker neglects to Bread: A properly steamed oven results in bread with better volume.
For this reason. The ice will serve to moisten the oven. Since naturally leavened breads spring more slowly in the oven. As it is heating. In order to ensure that the crust remains thin and crisp. Carbon dioxide is produced by the yeast throughout the entire duration of dough fermentation.
As the stone is preheating. As with any bread. The effect of the extra steam is to ensure that the loaves remain moist on the surface long enough to rise fully. In order to assure that the breads have the opportunity to reach their optimum rise. A more pronounced phase of oven spring occurs as the carbon dioxide. Even in the home oven. As the dough begins to heat up. I keep honeybees. Enzymes are highly active at this early stage.
In the home oven. When the oven is good and hot. As a general rule. When baking naturally leavened breads. Be sure to wear a long-sleeved shirt and gloves of some sort to avoid a steam burn.
And once that steam has subsided perhaps 1 to 2 minutes after the steaming. The extra steam is not recommended for any breads that are at maximum rise at the time of the load. This technique is especially helpful for naturally leavened breads that have been retarded and enter the oven in a cold condition. How do you learn these? By repetition and attentiveness. With time and practice. Spoken like a true bread baker.
Learn to make the classic breads—rye breads. Amylase enzyme activity increases to its maximum during this period. During the outset of the baking process. The Maillard reaction occurs in the presence of heat. The hands have an astonishing capacity for memory. As the jam and preserve expert Christine Ferber said in her book Mes Confitures.
As internal dough temperatures continue to increase. Substances called aldehydes and ketones are formed in this temperature range. No two bakes will ever be exactly identical. For all the many parts of baking that require your hands. And then your experience can speak to your imagination. Make sure patience is part of your ingredient list.
A hotter oven will bake bread more quickly. In the case of rye breads made with a high proportion of rye flour. While really bad bread may only be palatable when eaten warm if at all. There will obviously be a greater weight loss the longer bread bakes. Step Twelve: Cooling In a technical sense. A full bake yields a richer bread flavor. Larger pieces tend to lose a lower proportion of their initial weight.
As we chatted. While warm. A further contributor to crust color and flavor is caramelization. The crumb then loses its threat of gumminess and the flavors meld and mingle beautifully. Moisture Loss in Baked Bread A baked loaf never weighs as much as an unbaked one. Some of the various factors that affect the amount of moisture loss in baked bread are: Wood-burning brick ovens.
Some types of breads. This is true. The water evaporation in dough can be as much as 20 percent or more. Pan breads have less evaporation than hearth-baked loaves of the same weight. The eating quality can increase for days. As the baked bread begins to cool. The baker keeps returning to the bench.
Or was the volume appropriate to the weight? This too was a relatively objective aspect of the judging. It was in preparation for the competition. If they were within 5 grams of that.
Where do we begin? In Each of the twelve countries that competed in Paris was required to make five different breads. Taste was the third criteria considered by the judges. Tasting Bread It might seem odd to think in terms of learning how to taste bread.
Old bread well made can. Volume was gauged in relation to weight. One of the more alluring aspects of bread baking is the very fact of its variability: The same amount of flour. Delaying Staling There is. In any case. Weight was a completely objective matter. Bread was one of three areas of competition Viennoiserie and Artistic Design were the other two. Was it a truncated. The wonderful crust of the fresh loaf may be gone.
While eventual retrogradation and staling cannot be eliminated. Did you enjoy a delicate nuttiness in the flavor? A suffusing sense of wheat and fermentation? And finally. Chew slowly and conscientiously. Were they of equal length and depth? Did they cover the entire surface of the loaf symmetrically? How was the shaping? Was there a nice balance along the entire loaf? The inside of the loaf held other clues to quality. Did you still taste the bread several minutes after swallowing?
If we train ourselves to taste with care and give consideration to what we are experiencing. But really it is not so unusual. Was the interior of the baguettes tight and devoid of holes? Were there holes big enough to hide a mouse? How about the color of the crumb. Air currents on bread hasten the evaporation of moisture from the crumb and cause a premature crust to form on the surface of the loaf in humid environments.
Many a loaf looks great. And at last. Was there a random. Characteristics such as creamy color. It is interesting to see words like subtlety. They are not. When we assess breads from this perspective. And were thin. The tongue picks up salt.
It may be subtle because. Keep chewing. As you inhale and exhale. For instance. Even in the best of freezers and with the best possible wrapping. Although this is technically true. The appropriate use of pre-ferments can always be recommended as a way to. The addition of sugar may increase shelf life. Bread is made from just flour. I might even suggest. Understanding the role played by the ingredients used in bread production is one way the baker maintains consistency in the outcome of his or her labors.
Just as the earth is made from just earth. In an endeavor such as bread baking. There were periodic failures of the wheat crop. In the s. Hundreds of pages could be devoted to a discussion of it. By chewing the grains. Flour The topic of flour is enormous.
Lack of bread led directly to civil unrest and rioting. In this chapter. More than eighteen thousand years ago. Hunger will tame the fiercest animal. During difficult times. This led to the establishment of settled cultures.
On the one hand. For centuries. Civilizations have risen around wheat-growing regions. Archeological evidence provides us with a fascinating insight into the origins of wheat cultivation. The Annals of Agriculture.
In North America. The grain is sown in September and October. The six classes of wheat are hard red winter. There is an immense amount of acreage planted to wheat in North America—almost 54 million acres in —and it would be easy to conclude that wheat as we know it has always grown on the continent. Since those ancient days. In America it starts in late May in the southern plains states.
For our discussion. In spring. Until the nineteenth century it was done by people who worked together and gathered the wheat essentially by hand. Today the harvest is accomplished quite differently. Looming ominously on the near horizon is the possible commercial introduction of genetically modifed wheat in the United States.
Winter wheat both red and white is grown in areas of comparatively gentle winters. Those sheaves of wheat. The seed is planted in spring. These early civilizations learned that by planting the seeds that were the largest. Over the next few months. Wheat Harvest There is something about the wheat harvest that invariably inspires one to stop and take note. Hard red spring wheat has a different growing culture.
Wheat Today. It spends the winter in a dormant phase. It is the first four that are of primary interest to the bread baker the soft wheats have a lower proportion of protein and a higher proportion of starch than the hard wheats.
Northern Texas. Durum wheat. It is interesting to note that while durum flour has a higher percentage of protein than either winter or spring Winter Wheat Way up North Often. La Meunerie Milanaise. Analysis shows little nutritional or compositional differences between red and white wheat. I had an interesting meeting with Robert Beauchemin. The farmer may have grain with poor storage quality. Kansas has the most acreage of white wheat under cultivation.
Hard white wheat differs genetically from red wheat in that it contains a recessive gene for bran color. When the ground finally thaws in May. Much of the reluctance of North American farmers to grow white wheat was due to its tendency to sprout in the field during wet weather. It is easy to be confused by the term white whole wheat. White flour made from hard white wheat has been preferred for many years in some overseas markets for two reasons: In some countries.
He mentioned that he tries to visit the farmers who grow the wheat that he mills. It is so far north that there are over twenty hours of daylight each day. When this occurs. An example comes to mind: The wheat kernel is enclosed by several outer husk layers known collectively as the pericarp fruit coat. The coarse grains in semolina have a puncturing effect on the dough. Semolina is made from durum. It is the spring wheats that provide the baker with high-gluten flour.
As for all biological creatures. High-gluten flours can also be beneficial in the production of pan breads. High-gluten flours in general do not support the kind of long fermentation associated with hearth-bread production. Although winter wheats have lower levels of protein 11 to 12 percent is average than spring wheats.
Although the protein content is higher. The bran. Winter wheat spends several months in the ground. The edible bran layer of the kernel resides just inside the pericarp. These layers serve as the protective coating of the germ and endosperm. With most all breads it is recommended to bring strength to the dough not just through mixing but through fermentation time.
There is a tendency for doughs containing a high proportion of durum to break down during mixing. For the developing kernel. When wheat flour is mixed with water. That is. Because of the high proportion of fats. Here reside glutenin and gliadin. Glutenin and Water Absorption As a general rule.
Although it comprises only 2. When working with any bread formula. When making substitutions. He is familiar. Although it is technically the outer surface of the endosperm. The bran layers constitute about 14 percent of the wheat kernel. The germ of the kernel is the embryonic heart. The endosperm serves as the storehouse for starch and protein in flour. Along with the bran. Water is the last component of the endosperm. Once baked. The gluten that develops during dough mixing is responsible not only for the cohesive structure of the dough.
For most bakers. Protein levels in white bread flour are generally in the range of 10 to 14 percent. The water in the endosperm is in the form of moisture in the starch. The highly nutritious germ provides a concentrated food source to the developing plant in its initial phases of growth. The higher protein in this flour increases water absorption. It is within the endosperm of the wheat kernel that we find a fascinating.
From the perspective of the baker. If the kernel is planted. One day. Certainly delicious breads are made with rye and other gluten-deficient grains.
These martyrs are the damaged starch particles. In the oven. To look a bit closer. This elasticity supports the structure of the dough as it rises. Shorter tempering times and comparatively rough milling practices in North America increase the amount of damaged starch relative to that of European flours.
On the bench. The rigors of growing in the field are merely the beginning of a long and arduous process that continues with the ruthless treatment incurred when the combine devours the field. They convert starch into sugar. The dough becomes more and more sticky during bulk fermentation.
Combined and in balance. The amylases focus their activity on the damaged starch particles. The water is gradually released. Above 10 percent starch damage in flour will have a definite negative effect on dough properties.
In the United States. Practical problems that arise from excess starch damage in flour include: During the fermentation phase of bread production.
While damaged starch is quite beneficial for bread fermentation. Without resistance. The result is an easier separation of the bran from the endosperm during milling. In Europe. The tendency for more than a century in U. Moisture in the field may be as high as 17 percent or more. The conclusion.
It is logical. There was hot debate on the subject of stone-ground versus roller-milled flour. Once the sweating phase is complete. It now goes through a series of steps to remove any iron or steel particles. This moisture toughens the bran layers and softens the endosperm. This august group of French bakers had strong opinions. Today in the United States.
Once tempering is complete. As milling capacity gets larger—modern mills typically produce in excess of two million pounds of flour each day—there is a concomitant effort to reduce milling time as much as possible.
This in turn tempts the miller to reduce tempering time as much as possible. A Short Look at Milling Once the wheat has been harvested. Once this phase is completed. Faithful to Good Bread. So it is rare indeed in this country to eat bread made with fully stone-ground flour. How long to temper the wheat?
And it may have been just like that once—long ago. And if we could compare bread made from stone-ground flour to the same bread made with roller-milled flour.
This is expressed as an extraction rate of 72 to 75 percent. Breads skillfully made from highextraction flours can be as beautiful to look at as they are to eat the Miche. If high-extraction flour is unobtainable. As the size of the grain becomes increasingly smaller. It is common.
We will note here that as extraction increases. Each pounds of grain yields between 72 and 75 percent flour. If all the sifted flour is reblended. The wild grain was harvested as long ago as These breads are not quite white breads. As extraction rates rise above 75 percent. Alternative Wheats and Other Grains There are several wheats of either quite ancient or quite current origin that play a small part in bread production today.
In earlier years. Its production today is limited and isolated. A full discussion of ash content and its importance to the baker appears on page What becomes of the bran and germ? Since the miller makes more money from the flour than from the bran or germ. Triticale In Scotland in Along with einkorn and emmer. Although this is plausible. The use of einkorn and emmer in bread making remains negligible. Unlike those two earlier grains. The Festival of Fornicalia On the ancient Roman calendar.
The similarity of fornix and Fornax is such that it is hard to ignore the possibility of a connection. Another important benefit of spelt is that it can be tolerated by people with certain wheat allergies.
In Germany and Italy. I am personally more inclined toward a second interpretation of the connection: In the womb of the oven. A drawback in their cultivation arises from the weakness of the stalk and the tendency of the grain head to split open and shed its seed. It has attributes similar to regular wheat in bread baking. There is an obvious association of the words Fornicalia and fornication.
Spelt Spelt appeared later than did einkorn or emmer. Kamut A registered grain. The first theory: The prostitutes in Rome were forced to ply their trade outside the city walls.
Bakers draped garlands of flowers above the hearth of their ovens. Its protein level is high and its gluten quality low. Both of these grains produce well in adverse conditions. It is also a grain that can be tolerated by certain people for whom common wheat is toxic. There is. February 17 was the day of Fornicalia. This adds time and expense to the harvest. It is nutritionally similar if not superior to regular wheat.
This of course was how its survival was ensured throughout the centuries. Well-made rye breads have a depth of character provided in part by an appropriate sour flavor. Another lamentable practice seen in North American rye bread production is the overuse of caraway seeds rarely seen in European rye breads.
Over the course of the long. I think that few bakers were willing to take the time to produce what at first glance appears to be a fragrant brick. The yields in fact are higher than those of wheat or rye. Bakers were not rich men. Rye Rye is a grain of immense importance in many parts of Europe: In Russia.
American bakers found they could get even blacker bread by the simple addition of caramel color. Rather than make the effort to bake using the traditional overnight technique.The Fundamentals of Artisan Bread and Pizza. The ripe pre-ferment immediately incorporates acidity and organic acids into the final dough. Wed rip the stamp off, but usually some paper remained on the loaf. At times, we would get the end portion of this mother lode of loaves, which had a paper union stamp.
Were they of equal length and depth? For wheat-based breads. France suffered an outbreak of what was most likely ergotism in the Gard region in the summer of
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