ppti.info Laws A Universe From Nothing Book Pdf


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A Universe From Nothing Book Pdf

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PDF | On May 23, , Matti Pitkanen and others published The book ” Universe from Nothing: Why There Is Something Rather than. October An analysis of the book “A Universe from Nothing” by Lawrence M. Krauss quantum fluctuations in what is essentially nothing.”. View Lawrence M. Krauss - A Universe from ppti.info from HOSPITALIT clear and crisply written book, Lawrence Krauss outlines the compelling evidence.

But the laws have no bearing whatsoever on questions of where the elementary stuff came from, or of why the world should have consisted of the particular elementary stuff it does, as opposed to something else, or to nothing at all. The particular, eternally persisting, elementary physical stuff of the world, according to the standard presentations of relativistic quantum field theories, consists unsurprisingly of relativistic quantum fields. Newsletter Sign Up Please verify you're not a robot by clicking the box.

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Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Coyote runs straight off a cliff and hangs suspended in midair in the road runner cartoons, the lump will just sit there, waiting to collapse when the universe becomes old enough for it to know what it is supposed to do!

As a result of this, the largest blob of matter that we can expect to be collapsing in on itself at the time of the last scattering surface will be roughly light years across p. Now, the size of collapsing blobs of matter leaves an imprint on the cosmic radiation that is shuttling through space in the form of temperature fluctuations [p.

Lawrence M. Krauss - A Universe from Nothing.pdf - PRAISE...

By using computer simulations and straightforward geometry , then, we can recreate how the cosmic radiation should look depending on whether the last scattering surface is conventional and flat or warped either in an open or closed orientation p. When the images from BOOMERANG were compared with computer simulations of a flat, open and closed universe, the results were staggering: the actual images were a dead ringer for the simulation that represented a flat universe p.

Something is amiss, though. Now, the cosmic radiation probes were revealing a flat universe. What could account for the discrepancy here? If you thought the existence of dark matter was strange, hang on to your hat, because the picture of our universe is about to get a whole lot stranger. As mentioned above, our calculation of the mass of matter in the universe is hindered by the fact that we are only able to measure the amount of matter in galaxy clusters.

Now that the cosmic radiation probes were pointing towards a flat universe, it certainly appeared as though we were in fact overlooking a significant amount of mass that existed between galaxy clusters. There is another possibility, however. Given that this is the case, it is possible that the missing bit of stuff in our universe is not matter at all, but energy.

This energy would have to be anti-gravitational in nature, and be something that we had not yet been able to detect. As outlandish as this sounds, we will recall that Einstein himself had once postulated such a force in order to square his theory with the idea that the universe is static.

When it was discovered that the universe was expanding—apparently from the force of a very hot big bang—Einstein came to regret postulating the cosmological constant p.

More than half a century later, though, it was starting to appear as though Einstein might have been right after all. Ironically, though, while the universe is an entity that exists at the largest of scales indeed the largest scale , in order to make further headway in our understanding here we must revert to a branch of physics that deals with phenomenon operating at the very smallest of scales: quantum mechanics.

Quantum mechanics is a theory that developed between and as a way to explain the behaviour of elementary particles, such as electrons, which move in ways that are far different than everyday objects such as baseballs and bubble gum p. Indeed, it is fairly safe to say that quantum mechanics makes minced meat of common sense. At the heart of quantum mechanics is a particular principle that is responsible for most of the mayhem: the Uncertainty Principle.

The Uncertainty Principle tells us that when it comes to the smallest of particles, it is impossible to measure more than 1 of a pair of complementary properties such as velocity and location, or energy and time frame accurately and not just because of a practical issue, but because of a theoretical constraint. One repercussion of the Uncertainty Principle is that elementary particles are allowed to act in very peculiar ways, so long as they do so in a time frame that is too short to be measured accurately.

Lawrence M. Krauss - A Universe from Nothing.pdf - PRAISE...

In the same vein, but even more strangely, quantum mechanics allows for elementary particles to pop in and out of existence—as long as they do so in a time frame that is too short to measure. For instance, in one such scenario, two particles with opposite charge pop into existence next to a pre-existing electron, then the new particle with the positive charge collides with the original electron causing both to be annihilated, and leaving the third to persist p.

Particles that pop in and out of existence too quickly to be observed are called virtual particles p. Now, if virtual particles are gone before they can be measured then we might well ask how it is we know that they truly exist? We know that they exist because, while we cannot observe them directly, we can observe their effects.

For instance, when we look at the electrical properties of an atom, such as a hydrogen atom with one proton and one electron , it turns out that the electrical properties of this atom cannot be explained by its single proton and electron alone p.

However, when we assume the existence of virtual particles, the new calculation not only agrees with what we observe more closely, but to the remarkably accurate degree of 1 part in a billion or better p.

As it turns out, electrons are not the only entities out of which virtual particles pop into existence. Indeed, virtual particles are also thought to be constantly popping in and out of existence next to the quarks that make up protons and neutrons p.

Here, they interact with the quarks and the energy fields between quarks to themselves generate energy p.

In fact, the energy that is created by the existence of virtual particles within protons and neutrons actually makes up the majority of the energy, and hence the mass, of protons and neutrons p.

Since the mass of all baryonic matter is accounted for by the mass of the protons and neutrons within it, and since this mass is made up mostly of the energy created by virtual particles, then the mass of baryonic matter including your own body is made up mostly of virtual particles popping in and out of existence in empty space!

So, if virtual particles are capable of generating energy in empty space in atoms, then what is to stop them from generating energy out of the empty space in the universe?

If they did so, they might just be responsible for the energy in the universe that is necessary to account for its flat shape. The least we could do would be to calculate how much energy should exist in the empty space in the universe dubbed dark energy [p. So much for the idea that energy permeates empty space.

Or was it? Measuring the Expansion Rate of the Universe and the Discovery of Dark Energy As mentioned earlier, it was known at this point that the universe is expanding. As for the precise expansion rate of the universe, this was not known.

However it was assumed at the very least that the expansion rate of the universe is slowing down, since it was understood that the dominant form of energy in the universe is gravity—an attractive force that opposes the expansion of the universe and will necessarily slow it down p.

The technique that was employed involves measuring the velocity and distance of far distant supernovae p.

Scientists immediately set out to perform the required observations in order to determine the precise rate at which the expansion of the universe was slowing down, since this represented another way to determine the shape of the universe, and hence its future p. What the scientists discovered shocked everyone. The expansion of the universe was not in fact slowing down, but speeding up p.

A universe that is expanding at an accelerating rate implies that there must exist a form of energy in the universe that not only opposes gravity, but that outweighs it.

Suddenly, the idea of a form of energy permeating empty space was not looking so far-fetched after all. In fact, it is the only thing that could explain an accelerating and flat universe p. As incredible as this sounds, discovery after discovery since the universe was first observed to be expanding at an accelerating rate has corroborated that this is precisely what we have p. Included amongst these discoveries is that the universe is precisely This number was derived from the extremely precise measurement of the cosmic radiation of the universe provided by the WMAP satellite probe in p.

That is, the age of the universe in conjunction with other discoveries that we have made suggests that dark energy must exist, and it must exist in a form such that it permeates space with a uniform density throughout p.

A Universe from Almost Nothing The strange thing about energy existing in the form of a cosmological constant is that it implies that as the universe expands the amount of this energy increases p. How is it that the amount of energy in empty space is allowed to increase?

As it turns out, this can be explained by an implication of the theory of relativity. According to general relativity, any amount of energy in empty space will cause this empty space to have negative pressure. It is this negative pressure, in fact, that causes the energy in empty space to behave in a gravitationally repulsive way. Since empty space infused with energy is gravitationally repulsive, it naturally expands, and as it does so it draws energy into itself.

As a result of this negative pressure, the universe actually does work on empty space as it expands. As helium is pumped into a balloon it becomes pressurized by the constraining inner walls of the balloon.Here is the triumph of physics over metaphysics, reason and enquiry over obfuscation and myth, made plain for all to see: Weighing the Universe and the Discovery of Dark Matter Let us leave aside the question concerning the expansion rate of the universe for a moment, and tackle the second question regarding the force of gravity which requires measuring the mass of matter in the universe.

Your First Name. We get a universe that is open p. Included amongst these discoveries is that the universe is precisely Actually, we have already seen how.

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