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by Tennessee Williams, SCENE 1 . THE SCENE DIMS OUT WITH ' GLASS MENAGERIE'. Music She is washing and polishing her collection of glass. ADELIUDE UNIT/ENSITY. TIIEATBE GTNLI). The Glass Menagerie. By TENNESSEE WILLIAMS. AT THE EUT. Monllay l0th July. Wednesday - lZth July ltursalay. Abstract The Glass Menagerie is one of the Tennessee Williams' most famous plays which won the New York Drama Critics' Circle award. It elevated him to be .

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You've been to the theater, all right, and you've seen a couple of performances you've enjoyed, but have you ever seen a memory play?. Sacramento Theatre Company. Study Guide. I Oughta Be in Pictures. The Glass Menagerie. By: Tennessee Williams. Study Guide Materials Compiled by Anna. THE GLASS MENAGERIE by Tennessee Williams transparent exterior wall is not brought down again until the very end of the play, during Tom's final speech.

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So, nothing out of sorts happens. Laura, once again left alone, gives Jim the unicorn as a souvenir. Amanda sees off Jim and starts yelling at Tom. For no reason whatsoever — because Tom never knew that Jim was engaged in the first place. Of course, only an imaginary version of her. Tom asks his sister to blow out the candles. She does. The End. Like this summary?

Click To Tweet How beautiful it is and how easily it can be broken. Click To Tweet In memory, everything seems to happen to music. Click To Tweet You are the only young man that I know of who ignores the fact that the future becomes the present, the present the past, and the past turns into everlasting regret if you don't plan for it.

Click To Tweet Being disappointed is one thing and being discouraged is something else. I am disappointed but I am not discouraged. However, we feel that none of them captures the essence of the play as it is written. And you kind of feel that something was missing once the ending credits roll. Only great authors are able to do such a thing. Learn more and more, in the speed that the world demands.

Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:. Tom: What're you shushing me for? The need for clarification in Tom's reactive move signifies a case of dependence on Laura for precise information. Furthermore, the above dialogic sequence is a reflection of real life situations where individuals rely on a speaker to clarify the the unexpected misunderstanding. In The Glass Menagerie, the playwright's skillfulness in structuring the sequences of dialogic action games gives meaning to the linguistic actions of the characters.

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Also, the readers' curiosity about the sequence of events within the context of the play is aroused because each independent utterance gives some meaning but not complete sense. Readers have to rely on the reactive moves of the interlocutors to understand the actions of the characters.

When people interact in a particular context, they bring with them different world views and preferences, which may lead to differences in the communicative world of the speaker and the hearer. Reflecting on the discourse of The Glass Menagerie, it is observed that the playwright dealt with the worldly views to shed light on attitudinal variations among the characters.

That hideous book by that insane Mr. No, no, no, no, no! Lawrence, as unethical and unacceptable behavior. The sense of ownership that Tom claims over the book, furthermore, is challenged and ridiculed by Amanda's reproach. The speaker, Amanda, seems to have a deep-rooted perception that it is immoral to read the books of Mr. These worldly views about Mr. Lawrence initiate Amanda to revolt against her son's reading habits of such books.

Who Should Read “The Glass Menagerie”? And Why?

She also opines that the differences in worldly views and different ways of communicating with the speakers are indications of the limitations of human rationality. Furthermore, the playwright depicts the psychological and attitudinal conflicts in the action games through the dialogic principle of different worlds. It is because the playwright introduces certain dialogues which are not coherently linked to any of the earlier actions in the text.

Here is a part of a scene that illustrates the open system principle. Datum 7, Scene Four Amanda [calling from the kitchenette]: Laura, are you going to do what I asked you to do, or do I have to get dressed and go out myself? Amanda [entering from the kitchenette]: Just butter. Tell them to charge it. Laura: Mother, they make such faces when I do that. Amanda: Sticks and stones can break our bones, but the expression on Mr. Tell your brother his coffee is getting cold. Readers have to understand that the reference is made to a grocery shop because the noun 'butter' is a familiar word is associated with the grocery items.

The phrase 'what else' conveys the abstract meaning related to other needed grocery items. Furthermore, the utterance of Amanda, 'tell them to charge it', means that the shopkeeper has to record the cost as an amount payable for purchasing 'butter. In the dialogic exchange between Amanda and Laura, a cooperative attempt made by each of the characters, using their cognitive knowledge, leads to successful communication.

This incoherent dialogic exchange introduced abruptly by the playwright progresses towards establishing coherence in the ongoing dialogue. The readers also cooperatively attempt to rely on the ongoing utterances of the interlocutors to comprehend the abrupt discourse introduced by the playwright to convey the poor economic conditions of the family. Approaching the cooperative attempt, Weigand is of the opinion that understanding the dialogic language is beyond the literal meaning of a sentence.

She points out that an effort to comprehend utterances implies that one is also trying to understand the function of the utterance in the context of dialogic interaction.

Dealing with the open-system principle, she also added that the interlocutors give coherence to what is uttered on a cognitive basis by referring to personal assumptions that include preferences, habits, knowledge and memory.

In the following dialogue, the actions and preferences of the character Tom suggest his irrational tendencies. Tom: I like a lot of adventure. Tom: Then most young men are not employed in a warehouse. However, Tom does not talk about himself but rather he compares himself to many other young men of his age who work in better professions. Amanda's suggestions to make Tom realize the value of his job seems to be futile because the presumptions of Tom about the word 'adventure' does not go with the reasoning abilities of Amanda.

The phrase 'not employed in a warehouse' depicts how young men like Tom, who are dissatisfied with their personal and professional life, suffers from unrealistic expectations and consequently 'justify' their current actions by comparing themselves to others.

The playwright shapes the discourse, deviating from the common belief that people usually go to movies for entertainment. The language of irrationality in Tom's argument supports his preferences and presumptions of the term 'adventure' rather than rationality. Human beings orient themselves, in relation to the world with these mental states, to express a claim of truth or violation.

There are instances where people control and stimulate their beliefs and desires which distinguish human beings from the animal physiology. Weigand also points out that human beings can initiate their thinking and question it innumerable number of times, justify and use the process of thinking in new contexts.

The language of the discourse among the characters in The Glass Menagerie, furthermore, expresses their beliefs and desires in a seemingly rational attitude, making a claim of truth or violation. In the utterance below, for instance, the linguistic verbatim of Amanda indirectly refers to Tom's violation of moral values by addiction to alcohol. Tom's reactive utterance fulfills the claim requested by Amanda as he says: Tom [turns to her grinning]: I will never be a drunkard, Mother.

The response of the interlocutor signifies how an individual obliges to the principles of rationality, avoiding a verbal conflict with the speaker's Amanda claim and accepting the action of being a 'drunkard. As it is evident from the above dialogic action game between Amanda and Tom, the playwright reveals the mental states of beliefs and desires, which often rules the actions of human beings.

Therefore, a part of the success of The Glass Menagerie lies in the playwright's linguistic ability to depict the mental states of the characters, using familiar communicative situations, and making connections to truth and violations. In The Glass Menagerie, the usage of conventional words and phrases in a creative way suggests the playwright's ability to manipulate the dialogic language to convey the intended message.

Datum 10, Scene Five Tom: One little warning. He doesn't know about Laura. I didn't let on that we had dark ulterior motives. I just said, why don't you come and have dinner with us? He said okay and that was the whole conversation. The playwright skillfully adhered to the conventions of language use because the word "ulterior" adjective often precedes motive noun to describe the nature of human actions which remain unknown to others.

The playwright adds a contextually appropriate word "dark" before "ulterior motives" to create an impact on the discourse, signifying negativity in the attitude of the interlocutors. This communicative situation arises after Tom invites Jim for a dinner.

The hidden motive of inviting Jim for a dinner is to give an opportunity for Laura to befriend and marry him. However, Tom makes sure that Amanda should not commit the mistake of revealing their "ulterior motives" to Jim. The response of Amanda also highlights the conventional lexis used to describe the qualities of a woman. The above communicative situation correlates with Weigand's view that the conventional ways of language use determine how one can express rational thoughts and feelings.

She further says that in the course of time, these conventional expressions become part of an individual's mental lexicon. The phrase "eloquent as an oyster" signals the playwright's conventional choice of lexis to exaggerate Amanda's observation of Tom's interaction with Jim.

Datum 11, Scene Five Amanda: I bet it was! However, he'll know about Laura when he gets here.

When he sees how lovely and sweet and pretty she is, he'll thank his lucky stars he was asked to dinner. A similar meaning of 'oyster' as "an extremely taciturn person" is found in Merriam-Webster English dictionary.

Tennessee Williams, in Amanda's talk, used familiar lexis like 'lovely', 'sweet', and 'pretty', to describe the female characteristics of Laura, emphasizing her physical features, thus making her personality appear more realistic. Williams' choice to elevate his context through such phrases like 'thank his lucky stars' makes the dialogic language appealing to the readers.

The language of the dialogic interaction between Tom and Amanda, though conventional in form, reflects the creativity of the playwright to communicate the psychological aspects that govern human behavior.

She also added that linguists have to study the emotions in dialogue while a playwright is concerned with creating dialogues. Weigand also points out that the emotions influence the discourse of the dialogic action game, and it has not been systematically studied.

In her view, analyzing emotions in a dialogue is a complex activity and an approach to study the language of dialogue is to identify independent dialogic units that communicate the emotions of the characters.

In The Glass Menagerie, a sense of anger is apparent from the very beginning of the play.

Tom accuses his mother of creating disorder in his state of mind by giving continuous directions on how to eat food. He depicted her complete attention to him like that of a hawk watching out its prey, thus giving hints about the dominating nature of Amanda. The playwright arouses the curiosity of the readers to the forthcoming situations in the play.

Discussion of Findings In the 'Production Notes', Tennessee Williams points out that since The Glass Menagerie is a memory play, it "can be presented with unusual freedom of convention" p. The findings of the current research examined the implied meanings and outcomes of different situations by the use of dialogic principles outlined by Weigand. The findings of the study support the ideas of Herman and Pavis that in order to make the dialogic discourse lively and dramatic in spatio-temporal settings, a playwright adheres to the style or genre of a spoken discourse.

In 'Production Notes' of The Glass Menagerie, Tennesse Williams states "when a play employs unconventional techniques, it is not, or certainly shouldn't be, trying to escape its responsibility of dealing with ALLS 7 3 , reality" p. An analysis of the discourse in The Glass Menagerie reveals that Williams' use of conventional expressions make the readers visualize and connect the incidents of play to real life situations.

A reference made to Tennessee Williams 'unconventional techniques' has to be understood in the context of the dialogic discourse, wherein he intertwined natural feelings such as emotions, anger, pain, frustrations into the lexicons, thus shedding light on psychological aspects of human behavior.

Tennessee Williams' skill of intermixing verbal and cognitive elements into the dialogic language fulfills the features of a memory play. The ongoing linguistic actions among the characters often dwell around presuppositions, creating a sense of curiosity in the mind of the readers. When the characters are immersed in dialogic-conversation, their discourse seems to convey diverse views at the cognitive level but is quite interdependent at the structural level.

The incomprehensibility of language cues like Laura's "shhh! Also, there are many situations in the play where the utterances of the characters end abruptly, paving the way for the readers to predict and give meaning to the context. In this way, the playwright also involves the readers into the dialogic action game, triggering them to visualize the context and produce the language of their own. If these dialogic units are introduced in the language classrooms, students may require higher order cognitive skills to predict and make strings of meaningful sentences.

The discourse analysis of this play shows that there are different attitudes and variations among people in accepting or responding to different habits.

The playwright depicts how differences in worldly views affects the tone of language to either accept, ridicule or correct the personal habits of other fellow beings. Readers, once encountered by the abrupt introduction of an action game, they have to use language tools like inference and supporting lexis to complete the meaning of the context. Furthermore, the language of rationality and irrationality through which the characters speak gives progression to the action game of the play.

Studying the language of a text may enable readers to differentiate between the characters from the point of view of rationality and irrationality. In order to be independent from the influence of a writer, readers or researchers, studying the discourse of emotions, should not isolate or separate the accompanying part of a linguistic action game for making sense of the dialogic sequences.

The situations in which characters interact to confirm or reject social relationships seem to be so obligatory and realistic that the readers get immersed into the dialogic action games.

The Glass Menagerie PDF Summary

The interrelatedness of initiative and reactive speech acts increases readers' interest towards The Glass Menagerie. It is observed that in most situations where Amanda and Tom interact, their language conveys impusliveness, agressiveness and remorse while at the same time Laura's role is to alleviate their agressiveness and impulsiveness.

These observations on the dialogic language of Laura differ from the findings of Islamiah where Laura is considered to be violating the cooperative principle more dominantly when compared to other characters in The Glass Menagerie. During the progress of a sequence of dialogic action game, it is also observed that the playwright abrputly introduces certain communicative situations which seem to have no relationship to the earlier action games.

However, the playwright communicates the reason for such a deviation through his characters, as in one instance Amanda says "I sent your sister so I could discuss something with you" p.

This mutual relationship communicated through the discourse of the characters links the dialogic purposes to communicative means giving meaning to the sequence of events, and paving a way for comprehension in the minds of the readers.

The phrase "unconventional technique", which Tennessee Williams referred to in 'Production Notes' reflects his creativity to communicate the purpose of introducing certain abrupt dialgoues through the discourse of the characters.

The Glass Menagerie PDF Summary

The playwright begins the opening scene of the play with a tone of spoken discourse by intentionally disregarding the use of punctuations to create a verbal and visual effect in the readers mind. In the opening lines of the play, furthermore, the playwright uses an informal tone to establish a personal contact with the readers by introducing characters and showing his relationship to them using personal pronouns like 'I', 'my mother, 'my sister' and 'our father'.

These features of dialogic language support the views of Pavis that the playwright reproduces the style or genre of spoken discourse to create a dramatic effect in the minds of the readers. In The Glass Menagerie, Tennessee Williams has included very short as well as extended dialogues among the characters.

He seems to have chosen these short dialogues with a purpose of brevity and suitability to a given situation. Such a dialogic unit which is constituted either by a word or a phrase has an impact on the rapidity of linguistic and non- linguistic actions among the characters. These incomplete intended sentences demands the readers to perceive the playwright's unspoken words, phrases, and messages. Further, the intention of the playwright to manipulate brevity in his text not only covers language aspects but also embodies emotions to use their cognitive skills during the reading process.

Another discourse feature that characterizes this play is merging of past, present and future events in a dialogic ALLS 7 3 , action game. When the characters meet and exchange dialogues, they tend to refer to the past events as we find in an instance where Amanda refers to "one Sunday afternoon in Blue Mountain" p.

Conclusion This paper has presented a discourse analysis of The Glass Menagerie. In doing so, the researchers relied on the nine dialogic principles stated by Weigand Researchers found that the application of these principles clarified the conventional and unconventional techniques of language use in The Glass Menagerie.

Applying the principles of Weigand, the researchers could deduce abstract linguistic concepts embedded in the dialogic language of the play.

The intensity of feelings and emotions in the linguistic actions of the characters are analyzed in order to understand the lexis and phrases. This process consequently enhanced the understanding of intended hidden meanings of the text, and also gives insights to the abstract issues and feelings which are conveyed to the readers using conversational tone. This study will help readers to explore meaning behind clauses and phrases intertwined in each of the dialogue. References Barnard, D.

Chowdury, Abhishek.

European Academic Research, II 2 , Observations about the Sound Shape of Spontaneous Discourses. In Edda Weigand eds. Dascal, Marcelo. In Savas L. Tsohatzidis eds. Fernkorn, Maria.

Fodor, Jerry Alan. Cambridge, Mass. London: MIT Press. Friedrich, Toni. Coherence in Text and in Mind. Hama, B. Journal of Literature, Languages and Linguistics, 18, Dramatic Discourse: Dialogue as Interaction in Plays. London and New York: Routledge.

Hasanuddin University. King, T. The Tennessee Williams Annual Review 13, Pavis, P. Dictionary of the Theatre: Terms, Concepts and Analysis. University of Toronto Press.Amanda's suggestions to make Tom realize the value of his job seems to be futile because the presumptions of Tom about the word 'adventure' does not go with the reasoning abilities of Amanda. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Many studies in The Glass Menagerie focused on literary and stylistic elements while the key aspects of language use to express rationality, emotions and psychological states of characters remain to be explored.

The Glass Menagerie Epilogue After a nice special dinner prepared by Amanda, the electricity goes down — due to Tom not paying the power bill. Tom asks his sister to blow out the candles. However, Tom makes sure that Amanda should not commit the mistake of revealing their "ulterior motives" to Jim. What're you shushing me for?

The Principle of Suggestion 7.

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