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Oracle PL/SQL Interview Questions & Answers - 11 to Oracle PL/SQL Interview Questions & Answers - 21 to Oracle PL/SQL Interview Questions. Dear readers, these PL/SQL Interview Questions have been designed specially to get you they continue based on further discussion and what you answer: Routines written in PL/SQL can be called in Oracle call interface, Java, Pro*C/C ++. Oracle interview questions and answers - Oracle FAQ ppti.info - Free download as Latest Chapter Wise PLSQL Inteerview Questions and Answers PDF.

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What is Two Phase Commit? Ans: Two Phase Commit is a mechanism wherein ORACLE automatically controls and monitors the commit or rollback of a distributed transaction and maintains the integrity of the global database. Explain about snapshots in detail? Ans: Snapshots are read-only copies of a master table or multiple tables located on a remote node. A snapshot can be queried, but not updated; only the master table can be updated.

A snapshot is periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table. A snapshot is a full copy of a table or a subset of a table that reflects a recent state of the master table. A snapshot is defined by a distributed query that references one or more master tables, view, or other snapshots.

Simple vs. Complex Snapshots : Each row in a simple snapshot is based on a single row in a single remote table.

If a snapshot's defining query contains any of these clauses or operations, it is referred to as a complex snapshot. It uses this view when it refreshes the snapshot. All of these internal objects are created in the schema of the snapshot.

Do not alter, change data in, or delete these objects manually. What is Ref Cursor? A variable created based on such a data type is generally called a cursor variable. A cursor variable can be associated with different queries at run-time.

30 Most Important PL/SQL Interview Questions and Answers

The primary advantage of using cursor variables is their capability to pass result sets between sub programs like stored procedures, functions, packages etc. What is row chaining, how does it happen? This results in the row chaining to another block.

It can be reduced by setting the storage parameters on the table to appropriate values. It can be corrected by export and import of the effected table.

Describe hit ratio as it pertains to the database buffers. What is the difference between instantaneous and cumulative hit ratio and which should be used for tuning?

Ans: The hit ratio is a measure of how many times the database was able to read a value from the buffers verses how many times it had to re-read a data value from the disks.

If you simply take the ratio of existing parameters this will be a cumulative value since the database started. If you do a comparison between pairs of readings based on some arbitrary time span, this is the instantaneous ratio for that time span. An instantaneous reading gives more valuable data since it will tell you what your instance is doing for the time it was generated over. What is a Cartesian product? Ans: A Cartesian product is the result of an unrestricted join of two or more tables.

What is a mutating table error and how can you get around it? Ans: This happens with triggers. It occurs because the trigger is trying to update a row it is currently using. The usual fix involves either use of views or temporary tables so the database is selecting from one while updating the other. They can be used in exception handling to report, or, store in an error log table, the error that occurred in the code. What are Transactional Triggers?

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Give the uses of Transational Trigger? Ans: Transactional Triggers fire in response to transaction processing events. These events represent points during application processing at which Oracle Forms needs to interact with the data source.

Examples of such events include updating records, rolling back to savepoints, and committing transactions.

However, by defining transactional triggers and user exits, you can build a form to interact with virtually any data source, including even non-relational databases and flat files. Calling User Exits When you define transactional triggers to interact with a non-ORACLE data source, you will usually include a call to a user exit in the appropriate triggers.

Once the user exit has performed the appropriate function as indicated by the trigger from which it was called , it returns control to Oracle Forms for subsequent processing. For example, a user exit called from an On-Fetch trigger might be responsible for retrieving the appropriate number of records from the non-ORACLE data source. Once the records are retrieved, Oracle Forms takes over the display and management of those records in the form interface, just as it would if the records had been fetched from an ORACLE database.

What is Autonomous transaction? Where do we use it? Ans: In Oracle's database products, an autonomous transaction is an independent transaction that is initiated by another transaction. When an autonomous transaction is called, the original transaction calling transaction is temporarily suspended.

The autonomous transaction must commit or roll back before it returns control to the calling transaction. Once changes have been made by an autonomous transaction, those changes are visible to other transactions in the database. Autonomous transactions can be nested. That is, an autonomous transaction can operate as a calling transaction, initializing other autonomous transactions within itself. What is a package, procedure and function?

Ans: Package : A package is a group of related program objects stored together as a unit in the database. A package is an encapsulated collection of related program objects stored together in the database. Program objects are: procedures, functions, variables, constants, cursors, exceptions.

SQL Server - Multiple Choice Questions

The main difference between a procedure and function is functions return a single variable by value whereas procedures do not return any variable by value. Rather they return multiple variables by passing variables by reference through their OUT parameter.

What do u mean by overloading? Ans: Function Overloading : Packages allow you to overload procedures or functions. Overloading a procedure means creating multiple procedures with the same name in the same package, each taking arguments of different number or datatype.

What are the constructs of a procedure, function or a package? What are cascading triggers? What is the maximum no of cascading triggers at a time? Ans: When a statement in a trigger body causes another trigger to be fired, the triggers are said to be cascading. If all the values from a cursor have been fetched and another fetch is issued, the output will be?

Ans: Last Record What is a forward declaration? What is its use? Therefore, you must declare a subprogram before calling it. This declaration at the start of a subprogram is called forward declaration. A forward declaration consists of a subprogram specification terminated by a semicolon. These are inserting, updating, deleting clauses. These clauses are used in statement, row-level trigger.

These triggers are also called as trigger predicate clauses.

Syntax: If inserting then stmts; else if updating then stmts; else if deleting then stmts; end if; Q What is Discard File? Ans: This file extension is. Discard file also stores reflected record based on when clause condition within control file.

This condition must be satisfied into table tablename clause. Ans: Oracle 7.

In static cursor database servers executes only one select statement at a time for a single active set area where in ref cursor database servers executes number of select statement dynamically for a single active set area that's why those cursor are also called as dynamically cursor.

Generally static cursor does not return multiple record into client application where as ref cursor are allowed to return multiple records into client application Java,. This is an user defined type so we are creating it in 2 steps process i.

What are The Types of Ref Cursors? Strong ref cursor Weak ref cursor Strong ref cursor is a ref cursor which have return type, whereas weak ref cursor has no return type.Database Triggers. You can have DML insert,update, delete statements in a function. Explainitscharacteristicfeatures Typesofjoins. The maximum length of an Oracle error message is characters including the error code, nested messages, and message inserts such as table and column names.

It is called Binding.

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