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FORCE ON FORCE RULES PDF

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FORCE ON FORCE. QUICK START RULES. 1. e USMC player or players will be in command of 14 figures. e standard unit for activation, movement and. FOF Rulebook layoutsqxd. Force on Force Core Rules (PDF Version). text. Road To Baghdad (PDF Version). Force on Force Enduring. Force on Force brings the drama and action of modern warfare to the tabletop using miniature soldiers. The rules cover all aspects of modern warfare from the.


Force On Force Rules Pdf

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The Force on Force Quick Start rules provide a glimpse at the basic This free, downloadable PDF is made available to assist Force on Force players in. Force on Force - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read Force on Force a truly modern rule-set capable of recreating both traditional. Force_On_Force_Simplified pdf. KB · Downloads. My notes taken from the rulebook. This cuts out all the extraneous non-rules related.

Regulars have an established chain of command and when a leader is lost, a subordinate is there to take over his role. Some leaders have a positive or negative effect on a units Combat Stress Level. Units that break cohesion due to movement or terrain must regroup to restore it in their next activation. Split Units Units may divide into smaller elements at the start of their activation.

Only one element of a unit may move and fire on the activation that the unit is split. From that point on, each element is treated as a separate unit for the purposes of movement and fire.

Split elements may merge to reform their unit at the beginning of any subsequent turn. Merging Units Units may merge to form a larger unit if one of the merging units has been reduced to half strength or less.

Single figures may also merge with a friendly unit. To merge, figures in both units must be within unit cohesion distance at the beginning of a turn. Merging units are not required to have the same Troop Quality or Morale.

Units with different Troop Quality and Morale ratings use the values associated. Leadership in Irregular forces tends to be based on force of personality or charisma without a leader, Irregular units become hesitant and indecisive. This is reflected in the fact that Irregulars must make a Troop Quality Check to perform any action if they do not have a designated Leader figure attached.

There is no limit to the number of Irregulars that a single Irregular Leader may have in his Unit. Unit Attributes Some units have inherent capabilities or characteristics that stand them apart from others. We refer to these as Unit Attributes. Unit Attributes may take the form of an attached asset such as a medic or scout , special training engineers, for instance , or a psychological effect like improved Morale against a hated enemy.

The chapter on Unit Attributes contains a selection of common attributes, but it is not an exhaustive list. More attributes will likely be described in future companion books and players are free to devise their own, as well. Sample Unit Attributes can be found in Appendix 1: Effects of Leaders If a leaders morale rating differs from the base morale of the unit he is attached to, the unit uses his morale for checks rather than their own.

Any unit within LOS of a higher command leader must use his morale rating rather than their own when taking morale based tests. A fireteam of Marines has a Morale of D8. Note that if the squad leader had a Morale of D6, the fireteam would have been forced to use a lower Morale for Morale tests. Positive and negative Leaders, identified in scenario briefs, can raise or lower a units Combat Stress.

These rules apply to equally to infantry and vehicle leaders. Roll a 4 or better. If the action calls for an opposed roll, such as firing on the enemy, Roll a 4 or better and roll higher than your opponent. Leaders Joining a Unit A separated leader may join any unit it pleases by moving into cohesion with that unit. If the unit the leader joins has already been activated in the turn he joins it, the unit and leader may perform no further actions.

Both the unit and the leader are finished for the turn. If the unit has not been activated before the leader joins it, it may be activated later in the turn but may.

Regardless of the source of the test, it will be resolved as described below. Die Shifts Tests and checks will indicate what die type will be used, normally based on the involved units Troop Quality or Morale. Under certain circumstances, the rules will call for the die type used to shift up or down.

This indicates that a die with more or less sides than the units normal die type is to be used for the test. The rule in question will indicate what die to use in the test in most cases this will probably be the units Troop Quality die. Roll the appropriate die type. Add any modifiers associated with the rule to the die roll.

On a modified roll of less than 4, your unit has failed! Figure facing is irrelevant. There is no maximum visual range unless a scenario or Fog of War card states otherwise.

The boards on which the game is played are small enough that figures can see and, indeed, fire from one side to the other. LOS can be blocked by terrain features, such as buildings, high walls, deep trenches, etc.

LOS is not determined on a per figure basis. LOS is traced from the rough center of the firing unit to the rough center of the target unit. If half or more of the firing unit can see the target unit, it may fire. If less than half the target unit is visible to the firing unit, it cannot be fired upon.

Six Iraqi soldiers are moving around a building. Since the Americans cannot see half or more of the Iraqi unit, they cannot react to it. On the other hand, since less than half the Iraqis can see the Americans, they cannot fire at them, either. Units or stands that are within 2 of the LOF of a target unit at a higher or lower elevation than the firing unit are not in the line of fire. An initiative unit is firing at an RPG gunner on a roof top.

Another initiative unit is directly in front of them at street level. Since they are firing over the heads of the intervening unit at a target above them, the street level unit is not considered to be in the line of fire. The initiative unit can engage the RPG gunner.

Conceptual Design for a Multiplayer Security Force Assistance Strategy Game

When we look at the example above, it may at first seem odd to say that the Regulars can see two out of six figures in an Irregular unit but cannot shoot at the unit or at the two exposed individuals, for that matter , but it is our intention to represent a fluid combat situation. Models on the table delineate the area controlled by a unit, but do not specifically represent the static location of individuals.

Figure placement simply indicates that the unit is exhibiting some control of the area they are placed in. When you embrace this idea, youll discover it opens a wide array of tactical options and provides a far faster, smoother game than those that depend on checking line of sight for individual figures. If there are other units or civilians between the firing unit and the target, Line of Fire LOF must also be considered.

LOF is a line traced from the middle of the firing unit to the middle of the target unit. Any units or civilian stands within 2 of this line and at the same elevation are considered to be in the line of fire.

Most units may not fire at a target if other friendlies are in the line of fire i. They may fire if civilians are in the LOF, but they have a chance of hitting them See Civilians on the Battlefield, pg. Note, however, that some scenarios may forbid fire that might injure civilians. Irregulars may fire at targets regardless of whom or what is in their LOF unless a scenario restricts them, but have the same chance of injuring friendlies as described in Civilians on the Battlefield.

Regular units may not fire directly through another unit at the same elevation. A unit of Republican Guard Regulars wants to fire at some Marines. Unfortunately, a second Guard unit is directly between them and their desired target.

All units have two movement rates, Tactical or Rapid. If he doesnt declare a movement rate, its assumed the unit is moving at Tactical speed. Movement may be restricted or modified by Terrain Effects see pg. Tactical Movement Tactical Movement allows units to take advantage of available cover and carefully assess their surroundings for threats.

Units making a Tactical move suffer no Reaction Test modifiers. Infantry units may make a Tactical move of up to 6. Mounted units may make a Tactical move of up to 8. Vehicles may make a Tactical move of up to Republican Guard units and the Marines are all at street level, so the second Guard unit blocks the first units fire.

Fog of War cards simulate this effect by providing an opportunity for unpredictable challenges or opportunities to arise. The Fog of War card will indicate whether the player must play the card immediately or may hold it in his hand and play it later.

Fog of War cards may affect either or both players the card drawn will indicate which force will suffer or enjoy its effects. Some scenarios will dictate that Fog of War cards should be drawn at the start of the game or when certain milestones in the scenario are met others may dictate that no Fog of War cards are used, even if a 1 is rolled on a Reaction Test.

Rapid Movement Units that move more than 6 in a turn are using Rapid movement. Units may make a Rapid move and then fire, but may not fire and then make a Rapid move. It is much easier to dash into position and start firing than it is to disengage at a sprint. Units that have moved rapidly receive a -1 penalty to all Reaction Test die rolls and lose one die of Firepower for the remainder of the turn.

Rapid moving units are also extremely vulnerable to fire, so units attacking them receive an additional die of Firepower. Infantry units may make a Rapid move of up to Mounted units may make a Rapid move of up to Vehicles may make a Rapid move of up to Units utilizing Out of Contact Movement must end their movement before they enter an initiative units line of sight.

This unrestricted movement is meant to represent the uncertainty of local force dispositions until the initiative force is able to fix their actual positions by moving into contact or through aerial reconnaissance. These rules approach combat with an emphasis on Troop Quality and the ability of units to react fluidly to one anothers actions.

Some aspects of the rules, such as group cover and LOS, may be different than what youre used to, but be patient and youll soon see how everything fits together to provide a quicker, more realistic feeling game. Moving Units on the Table To simplify movement, Force on Force bases unit movement on the position of a units leader.

To move a unit, simply measure movement for the units leader and then place the members of his unit within cohesion distance around him.

Rounds of Fire When a unit reacts to fire from another unit by firing back, it is referred to as a Round of Fire. Make a reaction Test to determine which unit fires first in a Round of Fire. When one unit engages another with fire, either as an Action or Reaction, a Reaction test is made to see which unit fires first. The unit that passes the test with the highest die score will fire first.

The side that fires first will resolve its fire as described in Resolving Fire Combat, below. If the unit receiving fire first survives, it will return fire unless it has suffered some morale effect that prevents it from doing so, has. Out of Contact Movement Out of Contact Movement may only be utilized by units designated by a scenario.

Generally, units capable of Out of Contact Movement will be local guerrillas, special forces units, or Irregulars under the command of an attached leader. Out of Contact Movement is generally only allowed to one side in a scenario and may only be used while that side is the non-initiative force. A unit capable of Out of Contact Movement that is not currently visible to any initiative unit, i.

Wheres the Weapon List? Force on Force puts less emphasis on the specific weapons used in a firefight than on the skill and training of the combatants using them. Rather than focus minutely on the individual characteristics of weapons, comparing one weapons range, reliability and accuracy to anothers, we assume that all classes of weapons designed to perform the same battlefield tasks are basically analogous it is the man using the tool that makes the difference.

Low Troop Quality units may be using better weapons than a higher Troop Quality unit, but its doubtful that the differences in weapon performance will make up for the disparity in training and experience.

On the other hand, high Troop Quality units are familiar with their weapons and know how to take advantage of their strengths and compensate for their weaknesses. This philosophy is represented in game terms by Force on Forces use of Troop Quality as the key factor in determining the effectiveness of units fire.

When both units have fired, the round of fire is complete. Note that irregular units may only participate in a round of fire that they have initiated by action or reaction. Otherwise, they must receive fire without responding to it. Since an irregular unit can only be activated or react once per turn, they can only engage in one Round of Fire per turn.

The defender matches his Defense dice to the attackers Firepower dice, attempting to equal or exceed the score on each dice.

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Any die which the unit being fired on cannot equal or exceed causes a casualty. Defense Defense represents a units ability to protect itself from enemy fire, either by wise selection of cover, use of body armor, or through effective counter-fire. Better trained or more experienced units are more likely to get the most out of the defensive options available to them, so Defense is tied directly to Troop Quality. Basic Defense A units basic Defense is equal to the number of figures in the unit or the number of Firepower dice with which.

Extra Defense dice for armor or cover are then added to the basic Defense to determine the units final defense value. The type of die thrown is determined by the units Troop Quality. A units Defense can never be reduced to zero. No matter what negative factors apply, a unit will always have at least one Defense die.

In instances where terrain features exist to provide obvious cover, its benefit is not determined on a per figure basis, but rather on the position of the unit as a whole. If half or more of a given unit is behind cover, the entire unit receives the benefit of that cover. Cover modifiers that overlap are cumulative. Six Jesh Al Mahdi militiamen move into position in the cover of some low walls surrounding a fountain. Since half or more of the militia figures are in Solid Cover, the entire unit is considered to be in Solid Cover.

A group of 8 militia soldiers is being fired on by a fireteam with a Firepower of 5D. The militiamen are moving on the other side of a brick wall and can claim Solid Cover. Since the militiamen are being attacked with a Firepower of 5D, their basic defense is 5D rather than 8D.

They can claim Solid Cover, though, which bumps their defense to 6D. Cover Dice Although Force on Force is played on a tabletop, the battles the games represent are not! Even the flattest expanse of land is crisscrossed with wrinkles and dotted with low rises which might provide ample cover for a unit of infantry. It must therefore be assumed that our gaming tables contain similar features which might provide cover for our figures. To represent this invisible terrain, we assume that any unit that is not Exposed see below is taking advantage of unseen terrain features.

Units may receive additional dice to their Defense based on any additional cover beyond the usual battlefield clutter: A unit that does not move may declare that it is In Cover. Units may get In Cover anywhere, even in a position that would normally be Exposed. Being In Cover represents a unit using all available cover to its full advantage, even if that means little more than laying a little flatter on the ground.

In Cover units benefit if theyre using better cover, so the In Cover bonus is applied in addition to any. Regular units are automatically In Cover on any activation that they do not move and are not Exposed.

Irregulars that have not moved during their activation and Exposed Regular units must pass a Quality Check to get In Cover. Pinned units may take a Quality Check to get In Cover even if they have moved.

This bonus die is cumulative with other applicable Defense Dice. Cover that has a good chance of deflecting or outright stopping bullets is considered to be Solid Cover. Some examples of Solid Cover might include concrete or adobe buildings, sand bags, stone walls, wrecked APCs, etc. A unit isnt required to be In Cover to benefit from Solid Cover.

Intervening Cover: If enemy fire passes over an intervening terrain feature, such as a stone wall, an AFV, etc. Cover that has been reinforced for extra protection against enemy fire such as trenches, sandbagged walls, etc. Fortifications designed specifically to provide protection from gunfire. Such positions are generally not available unless a scenario specifically states they are present.

Units sheltering within improved positions fortified expressly to protect them from enemy fire are particularly difficult to ferret out. Units in bunkers, fortified buildings, or improved trench networks receive the Fortified Position bonus. If a unit is in open ground and is not within 2 of a scenic piece representing cover of some sort, it is considered to be Exposed. Exposed units are extremely vulnerable to fire, so units attacking them receive an extra Firepower Die.

Armor Dice Units who are wearing body armor receive additional Defense dice. Cover Dice In Cover: If enemy fire passes over an intervening terrain feature to reach a unit, it may claim the Solid Cover bonus assuming the terrain would provide Solid Cover under normal circumstances. Fortified Cover purpose built trenches, log bunkers, and other field fortifications: Firepower A units Firepower represents its capability to bring effective fire against the enemy. Force on Force works on the assumption that the quality of the man using the weapon is more important than minor differences between individual weapons within the same class.

As a result, a units Troop Quality is the most important factor in determining its Firepower. To determine a units Firepower, total the number of figures in the unit. Subtract any dice lost from Reactions or Overwatch fire. The resulting total is the attacking units basic Firepower. Add any Support Weapon or bonus dice to the basic Firepower dice to determine the units final, adjusted Firepower.

This is the number of Troop Quality dice the unit will throw in an attack. Optimum Range The ranges for most weapons exceed the size of most tables used for Force on Force games. Units who are within Optimum Range of a target, however, have a better chance of causing casualties. Troops with better training or more experience have a greater Optimum Range than less experienced opponents. Optimum Range should not be confused with effective range, which is a term with a very specific meaning: It is the distance at which a weapon may be expected to fire accurately enough to inflict damage or casualties.

The effective range for most weapons used in the game will be many times the width of even the largest tables. Our term, Optimum Range, refers to the distance on the tabletop at which the average soldier of a given Troop Quality is likely to cause a wounding hit.

It is a measure of the firers ability to shoot well, rather than a gauge of the weapons innate accuracy. Optimum Range is directly linked to a firing units Troop Quality: The higher the units Troop Quality, the greater its Optimum Range. There is no maximum range for most weapons. If a target is in LOS, it is generally considered to be in range. Exceptions are noted in the rules. Vehicle mounted and emplaced Support Weapons always treat their attacks as being within Optimum Range, regardless of the distance fired.

A unit only receives one Optimum Range die per round of fire. A unit can only claim an Optimum Range die if all the weapons used in the attack are within Optimum Range. A Trained fireteam of four soldiers, two armed with rifles and one each with a grenade launcher and a SAW, are firing at an enemy unit 7 away. Since the enemy unit is within Optimum Range of all the fireteams weapons 8 for the rifles, 16 for the grenade launcher and SAW , the fireteam receives a bonus Firepower die.

The same fireteam described above is firing at an enemy unit that is 14 away. If the entire unit fires at the distant enemy, the Fireteam does not receive the Optimum Range bonus 14 is beyond the rifles Optimum Range. If the fireteam decides to split their fire, firing the SAW and grenade launcher at the enemy unit 14 away, that portion of their fire would receive the Optimum Range bonus die.

They are generally used against other infantry, but some infantry support weapons also have anti-armor capabilities. In Force on Force,. Figures using Support Weapons add dice to their units Firepower in excess of the dice received for the figures themselves.

Support Weapons fall into the following general categories: Light Support Weapons are man-portable and can be operated without assistance although an assistant gunner may be on hand to spot or pass ammunition, his services are not required to operate the weapon. Light Support Weapons generally use standard small arms ammunition, but have a greater range or rate of fire than their smaller brethren. Examples of Light Support Weapons include: Medium Support Weapons usually require a crew of at least two for transport and effective operation.

They are often vehicle mounted or emplaced. Other Medium Support Weapons, such as RPGs and other shoulder launched missiles, are easily portable but cause increased damage due to their explosive power.

Medium Support Weapons tend to be a bit unwieldy due to their weight and size. As a result, any unit that moves in a turn receives one bonus Firepower die rather than two i. Examples of Medium Support Weapons include: Heavy Support Weapons are rarely man-portable and are usually vehicle mounted or emplaced. However, some of the more powerful man-portable missile systems are also classified as Heavy Support Weapons due to their devastating explosive power. Heavy Support weapons are generally large, weighty chunks of ordnance, making moving and firing them in a short period of time difficult.

As a result, any Heavy Weapon that make a Tactical Move during a turn suffers a two dice penalty to its Firepower i. Heavy support Weapons whose crew makes a Rapid Move may not fire at all.

Heavy Support Weapons include: The Taliban unit has a basic firepower of 6 one die for each figure in the unit. Another one is armed with an RPG, which would normally provide two bonus dice to the Firepower of the unit. Since the unit moved this turn the RPG suffers a one die penalty, so it only provides one bonus die.

Support Weapon Annotation The stats for a support weapon are abbreviated in unit organization or vehicle write-ups. The stat-line for a support weapon indicates the weapons class, and the number of anti-personnel AP Firepower dice it adds to a unit or throws, in the case of a vehicle. If the weapon has anti-tank capabilities, its AT factor is listed along with its AT gun class.

As an example, a light support weapon, such as a SAW, would have a stat-line like this: An anti-tank RPG would look like this: Diminishing Firepower The more frantic a units movement and fire becomes, the less effective it is.

To represent this, a units Firepower diminishes the more it does in a single turn. The first time a unit fires per turn, it uses its full Firepower. After that, a unit loses one die of Firepower: Each time it fires as part of an Activation, Reaction, or Overwatch. Each time it moves as part of an Activation, Reaction or Morale test failure. When a units Firepower is reduced to zero, it may no longer fire during that turn.

The Firepower Cap No infantry unit may have a total Firepower greater than 10 dice. This rule reflects the fact that there are limits to even the most highly trained units fire discipline. Note that all negative penalties are applied to the 10D cap, regardless of the number of figures in the unit. Vehicular weapons, bombs, and certain game effects are exempt from the 10D cap. The Taliban have Poor Supplies, earning them -1 die penalty to their Firepower, reducing it to 9D for this attack.

Splitting Fire Units normally find that it is tactically advantageous to group their fire, but there may be situations in which a unit would benefit from splitting its fire between multiple targets in the same activation. Note that a unit that fires on infantry with its small arms while using Support Weapons to engage a vehicle is not considered to be splitting its fire.

To split fire, the owning player must announce what targets a unit is going to engage and how many Firepower Dice will be devoted to each target.

All negative penalties are applied to the 10D cap, regardless of the number of figures in the unit. Weapon dice must be allocated to one target and may not be split among multiple targets. The number of targets a unit can service is limited by its Troop Quality.

May engage FOUR targets. A Russian unit taking cover in a traffic circle is being engaged from two sides by Georgians. The Russians are D8 Troop Quality, so they can split their fire between two targets. The player decides to split his fire exactly in half, with one rifleman and the SAW gunner engaging one group of Georgians and the other rifleman and RGL engaging the other.

The Russians will engage each unit with a Firepower of 3. Making the Attack Roll To determine the outcome of an attack during a firefight, the attacker rolls his adjusted Firepower versus the defending units adjusted Defense. The attacker rolls a number of dice equal to his adjusted Firepower and discards any dice with a score of less than 4.

The defender rolls a number of dice equal to his adjusted Defense and discards any dice with a score of less than 4. The defender matches his Defense dice to the attackers Firepower dice, attempting to match each of the attackers dice with an equal or higher die roll. The defender may arrange his successful dice against the attackers successful dice as he sees fit.

Any of the attackers dice with a score of 4 or greater that cannot be equaled or exceeded by a Defense Die indicates a casualty. The Taliban are within the Marines Optimum Range. The Taliban are in Optimum Range for all the units weapons, so it receives another bonus die. The Marines final Firepower total is 8D The Talibans basic Defense is 4 dice, one for each member of the unit, which is less than the Marines 8D Firepower.

Since a units basic Defense is equal to the lesser of the number of figures in the unit or the Firepower of the attack directed against it, the Taliban have an unmodified Defense of 4D. The Marine player rolls his Firepower of 8D10, noting each individual roll: The Taliban player rolls 6D8 for Defense and notes the result of each die: The rolls of 3 and 2 are discarded. The dice are laid out and the Taliban player matches his Defense dice against the Marines Firepower dice as best he can, trying to equal or exceed as many of the attackers scores as possible.

He arranges the dice as shown underlined numbers are the Firepower dice: This allows him to put his 8, 5 and remaining 4 against the Marines 7, 5 and 4, negating them. End result the defender takes two casualties, leaving two Taliban in need of some lucky Morale dice cowering behind the bulletpocked mud wall! Suppression Fire There are times when a unit is more interested in pinning an opponent unit down than in causing casualties. Suppression fire is intended to do just that and involves a massive barrage of fire which hopefully will keep the enemys head down and stick him in place.

A player must announce in advance that a unit is laying down Suppression Fire during its activation. The unit throws 2 less firepower dice than normal, but may Suppress its target unit even if no casualties are caused. Suppression effects are determined by the target units Confidence Level. Suppressed units suffer from the same effects as Pinned units, but multiple Suppressions will not force a unit to Pull Back. Any casualties resulting from Suppression Fire are resolved normally.

Morale Checks resulting from casualties are also resolved normally and take precedence over any Suppression results. A unit remains suppressed until the turns end. Hidden units can spring an Ambush on enemy units within twice their unmodified Troop Quality. Use the rules described in Spotting Stealthy Units, pg. If the ambushing unit is spotted, make a normal Reaction test to determine which acts first.

If the ambushing unit is not spotted, the ambush is resolved normally at a point in the enemy units movement designated by the ambushing unit in other words, if the Spot Check fails, the ambushing unit can wait to spring the ambush until the enemy unit is as close as possible. To successfully spring an ambush, a Hidden unit must pass a Troop Quality Check.

If they pass the test, no Reaction Test is required for the attack the Ambushing unit automatically fires or moves first.

If the Hidden unit fails the test, a Reaction Test is made as usual.

Units on Overwatch or sacrificing their activation to React may attempt to interrupt an Ambush, but their fire will always occur after the ambush fire, even if the ambushing unit failed its ambush Troop Quality Check.

At TQ D6, they can ambush any enemy unit within They opt to spring the ambush before the Marines are close enough to detect them. The Marines have a unmodified Optimum Range. Unfortunately, this means that the Marines will be outside of the Fedayeens Optimum Range 6 for TQ D6 , but the insurgent player is willing to sacrifice a die of Firepower for a good chance at going first in a round of fire.

The Fedayeen player makes a Troop Quality Check and rolls a 5: The Marines are caught in an ambush and must weather the Fedayeens fire before taking any action themselves! The same situation as above, but this time the Fedayeen player opts to let the Marines approach within 6 before springing the ambush, thereby bringing them within his units Optimum Range and gaining a die of firepower.

When the Marines are within 8 their unmodified Optimum Range , a Spot Check is made to determine if they notice the Fedayeen ambush. The Marines pass the check and spot the Fedayeen, spoiling the ambush. A Reaction test is made and the firefight is resolved normally.

Ambushing units suffer a Negative Die Shift when attempting to ambush enemy units with an attached Indigenous Scout or designated Pointman. Coalition Patrol walks into an insurgent ambush.

Night Fighting In the modern era, technologically advanced troops rule the night. Superior night vision devices give troops possessing them a decided edge over opponents who are not similarly equipped. Scenarios indicate whether units possess night vision and whether the scenario takes place at night, for that matter. Units with Abundant Supplies are likely to have night vision devices. Units fighting at night and lacking night vision devices have their Optimum reduced by half.

Treat all enemy units beyond their reduced Optimum Range as if they are Elusive see pg. Additionally, their Firepower against units beyond reduced Optimum Range is also halved. Units with night vision devices suffer none of the penalties above.

The unit has no night vision capability. Luckily, it makes the test, but the Taliban fighters are 5 away. Suppressed Weapons Suppression reduces a weapons report and muzzle flash. Suppressed weapons are normally used by Stealthy units, including sniper teams. Only small arms may be silenced, including pistols, assault rifles, and sniper rifles. Support weapons may not be silenced. A stealthy unit using suppressed fire must be spotted before it can be engaged with fire and can only be fired at by the unit s that spotted it.

When units with suppressed weapons engage a unit that hasnt spotted them, that unit cannot interrupt it can only take the fire and hope to fire back. It is difficult to spot the source of suppressed fire, though, so a unit being attacked with suppressed weapons must make a Spotting Check to return fire.

Units firing suppressed weapons are spotted in the same manner as Hidden units see Spotting Hidden Units, pg. Outgunned Units armed with vastly superior weapons are said to outgun their opponents.

Units who have their opponents Outgunned receive a bonus Firepower Die. So, what constitutes vastly superior weapons? Scenarios will usually indicate if one side or the other. Some examples might include: A unit armed with assault rifles would Outgun an opposing unit armed with bolt action rifles.

The assault rifles are roughly equivalent in range and accuracy, but have a far greater rate of fire. A unit armed with magazine fed bolt action rifles would Outgun an opposing unit armed with single-shot, bolt action rifles. Again, accuracy and range are roughly equivalent, but rate of fire is superior for the magazine fed rifle.

A unit armed with expensive, high quality assault rifles of western design would not outgun an opposing unit armed with cheap, shoddily made assault rifles. The quality of weaponry may be better in one unit, but both units have weapons that provide them with similar capabilities. SMGs, Shotguns, and Handguns Some weapons have been designed specifically for use in close quarters battle, including firearms like shotguns and submachine guns. Close Combat firearms have been designed to be very effective at in your face ranges, but the factors that make them so useful in a virtual knife fight dont serve them so well when engaging targets at long range.

Like SMGs and Shotguns, handguns are very handy in close quarters. They dont throw down the volume of. Troop Quality cannot be reduced below D6. Handguns cannot fire effectively enough at targets beyond Optimum Range to engage them at all. Handguns are very effective in Close Combat, however, and figures using handguns in Close Combat receive a bonus Firepower die and do not suffer the normal Negative Die Shift. Intimidating Weapons While nobody wants to get shot by anything, some weapons are particularly fearsome or intimidating.

Infantry units that come under fire from an Intimidating Weapon must make a Morale Check to avoid becoming Suppressed.

As a rule of thumb, any weapon that has an unmodified Firepower of 3D or higher is an Intimidating Weapon. Some weapons may be identified by theater specific rules or a scenario as Intimidating even if they have a Firepower of less than 3D. If a scenario permits, Medium Mortars may be direct layed at enemy units. Medium Mortars have a No Fire Zone of Heavy Mortars on the table are always present as objectives only and may never be fired at on table units.

On-Board Mortars Forces often have the support of off-board mortar teams some distance away that are responding to the forces calls for fire. Mortar teams can occasionally be fielded on the table as well. Small mortars that are homogenous to an infantry squad or fireteam, such as the 50mm mortar used by Britain, are treated as normal Medium Support Weapons. Light mortar teams may be deployed on the table.

On table light mortar teams are treated as Weapon Teams. When firing at a target that is out of their LOS, on board mortar teams use the same fire request rules as off-board mortars and artillery. On board mortars may engage enemy units in their LOS without going through the call for fire sequence. Light mortars have a No Fire Zone of They may not be fired at enemy units that are18 away or closer. On board mortar teams may also direct lay their mortars at enemy units within line of sight and beyond the mortars No Fire zone of Direct Lay fire suffers a -1 die Firepower penalty.

If fired upon directly by enemy units, the mortar team may react in the same way as any other unit. If attacked by an enemy unit that is within their No Fire Zone, the mortar team may reply with small arms fire.

Medium or Heavy Mortar teams may be placed on the table as part of a scenario. They are normally placed as scenario objectives, because neither type of mortar may normally fire at targets on the table. Smoke Smoke and other obscurants delivered in the form of grenades, shells, or vehicular dispensers have long been used to mask movement and blunt the force of enemy fire.

Each type of smoke delivery system has its own characteristics, which are described in the following sections. If the unit passes the Check, it can claim the smokes defensive benefits. If the unit fails the check, they were unable to deploy the smoke successfully and receive no defensive bonus. A unit may only attempt to lay smoke once per turn and, in the case of grenades, it can only be placed within the units Optimum Range.

MMortars deploying smoke must be contacted to request fire in the same manner as normal fire mission requests. Firing smoke counts as the mortar assets fire mission for the turn. On board mortars may lay smoke when activated instead of conducting normal fire. Smoke from grenades, grenade launchers, or light mortars only provide protection for the unit for whom the smoke was deployed one unit may pop smoke for another designated unit.

This type of smoke only persists for the duration of the turn in which it is deployed. Units protected by smoke gain an extra Defense die whether they move or not. Smoke reduces visibility for friend and foe alike, however, so units protected by smoke also lose one die of Firepower.

Smoke Grenades, Rifle Grenades: Must be requested. Persists two turns Heavy Mortars, Light Artillery: Persists two turns Medium Artillery: Persists three turns Heavy Artillery: Persists three turns. Firing smoke counts as the mortar or artillery assets fire mission for the turn. Smoke shells create a smoke cloud of the same size as a normal salvo for the artillery type used.

This cloud completely blocks Line of Sight. Heavy Mortar and Light Artillery smoke will last two turns. Medium and Heavy artillery smoke will last three turns. Units outside a smoke cloud can see 2 into it. Units inside a smoke cloud have a maximum visibility of 4 and may only see out of the cloud if within 2 of its edge. Sometimes the only way to dislodge the enemy from a position is at the end of a sharpened length of cold steel.

If one or more figures in a unit are within Rapid movement distance of an opposing unit, the entire unit may launch a charge and attempt to engage the enemy in a Close Assault. If the unit fails its Quality Check, it must remain in place and forfeits its activation.

The unit may spend its activation taking cover or tending to its wounded, however. It may also still react to enemy units. Units with Dependents may not flee. Regardless of how it responds to the assault, the defending unit forfeits any other actions for the turn.

Resolve defensive fire in the same manner as regular fire combat, but subtract 1 die from the defending units Firepower to reflect the unnerving effect of being charged and subtract 1 die of Defense from the Assaulting unit to represent how heedless they are of danger during their break-neck charge into the enemy. Assaulting units are subject to this modifier even when being fired upon as part of Reaction or Overwatch fire from units not directly involved in the Close Assault itself.

If the Assaulting player takes casualties, he must make a Morale Check as usual. A Pinned or Shaken result aborts the assault. If the defending unit fails its Quality Check it can either stand in place and fight without the benefit of defensive fire or it can flee up to one full Rapid move and become Pinned.

Remember, units with Dependents may not flee. If the defending unit doesnt flee, the assaulting figures are moved into contact with the defenders and the Close Assault is resolved. Resolving an Infantry vs. Close Assault combat continues until one side is either wiped out or captured. Neither side may claim Cover dice other than Body Armor. Neither side may claim Support Weapon dice.

Neither side may claim the Optimum Range bonus. The short answer is you can! You just dont get the bonus Firepower dice for it! Support weapons are designed to perform a specific tactical function in combat and that purpose invariably involves some sort of stand-off capability which increases a units ability to cause casualties or suppression through fire combat at a distance.

The very attributes that make support weapons so successful in their designated roles generally reduces their effectiveness in a Close Assault. Additionally, theyre not very handy. A SAWs great rate of fire, for instance, is counterbalanced by its extra weight. The assaulting unit makes the first attack roll, casualties are determined, and Morale Checks are resolved. If the defending unit isnt wiped out or captured, it may make an attack using its surviving figures.

This process continues until one side is wiped out or surrenders. Morale Checks are resolved normally, but their results are used to determine if a unit has lost the will to continue fighting. If an Irregular unit becomes Shaken enough to break its morale is reduced below D6 , they are considered to be captured by their opponents. Regular units are also subject to Morale Checks during close combat. If they become Pinned, their Morale suffers a minus one Die Shift.

If a unit is wiped out in Close Assault, roll 1D6 to determine the fate of each of its figures. Each figure that rolls a 1 is captured and becomes a POW if the Irregulars deign to take prisoners.

On any other roll, the figure is considered slain and is removed from play. It is assumed that such figures have been stripped of all their weapons and armor and are quite likely in a debilitating state of shock. The Casualty Penalty If a unit has casualties that have not been escorted to the rear usually the owning forces home table edge by one of the units healthy members or handed over to CASEVAC area, the unit must make a Quality Check each time it attempts to move faster than Tactical.

This reflects that the unit is forced to move more cautiously with their wounded comrade in tow and perhaps a little less than eager to take risks in general. Who Got Hit? When a unit takes casualties, it may be important to determine who the casualty is. For the most part, it doesnt matter what figure in a unit of regular soldiers was hit. If the Fireteam Leader was hit, one of the other Fireteam members will take over.

If a Special Weapon gunner was hit, everyone in the fireteam is cross-trained on the weapon, so someone else will pick it up. If a unit contains specialist troops such as a Medic or TAC , however, who was hit becomes more important. If a unit containing such figures sustains casualties, roll a die for each casualty to determine who got hit. A unit containing a fireteam leader, a grenadier, a medic and two riflemen is fired on and takes two casualties.

There are five figures in the unit, so players could either assign each figure in the unit a number from. POWs If figures from one side surrender to the other, they are kept with the victorious unit until they are either escorted off the table or the game ends.

This allows their owning player a chance to rescue them. Rescued POWs become Dependents to the unit that rescues them until that unit moves to a friendly board edge where it is considered to have handed off the POWs to another friendly unit or disposes of the POWs in some other way dictated by a scenarios special rules. Once a figure has been made a POW, it may not be used in combat for the duration of the game, even if it. Lets assume the players decide to go the D10 route.

They agree to number the figures in the unit thusly: Leader, 2: They roll 2D10, one for each casualty. The first D10 roll is a 4, which divided by 2 results in a 2, indicating the grenadier was hit. The second D10 is 7, which divided by 2 rounding up , is a 4: Irregulars arent as flexible in their command structure as regular soldiers, nor are they as well trained. So, its important to see who went down when an Irregular unit takes casualties. Always dice to see if an irregular units casualties include its Leader or Special Weapon gunners.

If an irregular Leader or Special Weapon Gunner is hit, the following effects apply: Irregular Leader is a Casualty: If an irregular unit loses a leader, it remains leaderless until joined by a new leader. Irregular Special Weapon Gunner is a Casualty: If an irregular units Special Weapon Gunner is hit, the unit must make a Quality Check to see if anyone else is able to use the weapon.

If the check succeeds, another irregular can use it. If the check fails, either nobody else in the unit knows how to use the weapon or the weapon has been damaged and is no longer usable. More Casualties than Figures A unit may receive more casualties than it has figures. If so, any excess hits are ignored. A unit 4 of French Foreign Legionnaires is caught in an artillery barrage that causes six hits against them.

Since there are only 4 figures in the unit, the 2 excess hits are ignored. First Aid Checks When a unit takes casualties, it must make a First Aid Check at the beginning of the following turn to determine the severity of their casualties injuries and provide immediate aid. At least one healthy figure must be present to make the First Aid Check. If no healthy figure is present, a First Aid Check may not be made until assistance from able-bodied troops or medics arrives.

In such cases, the wounded figures are left tipped on their side where they were wounded and are considered wiped out. A friendly unit may provide First Aid for a wiped out unit by moving into cohesion with it.

A First Aid Check may be made for all casualty figures in both units at the beginning of the following turn. A wiped out unit may be captured by an enemy unit that moves into cohesion with them.

Once a unit takes custody of enemy wounded it is subject to the Dependents Penalty. Unit may act as normal if it passes a TQ Check.

If not, it may only react fire to fire this turn, but may act normally next turn. Unit suffers Casualty penalty. Unit may only react to fire this turn. Injured man may not participate in combat and does not count towards the units Firepower. The injured man may be escorted to the rear or to a medic. Unit may take turn as normal.

Lightly wounded figures may remain with the unit and fight, but the unit suffers from the Casualty penalty.

OK, gets back up! To determine the seriousness of a casualtys injuries, roll 1D6 for each figure hit by enemy fire and consult the appropriate First Aid table. Apart from figures with Light Wounds, a units casualties are not counted when determining the units basic Firepower or Defense. Seriously wounded figures are too preoccupied with their immediate survival to contribute meaningfully to their units offensive or defensive capabilities.

In a similar vein, seriously wounded troops do not contribute Morale dice when their unit is forced to take a Morale Check. If a casualty is found to be Dead, a Troop Quality Check must be made to determine the units reaction to the loss of their comrade.

If the unit passes the TQ Check, it suffers no penalty. If not, it may only react fire to fire for the duration of the turn, but may act normally next turn. If a casualty is found to have a Serious Wound, its.

The unit suffers from the Casualty penalty until the wounded figure is escorted off the table or to an on-table casualty evacuation center by a healthy team-mate, medic, stretcher team, or ambulance. If a casualty is found to have a Light Wound, it remains with its unit and may even contribute to the units Firepower. The unit suffers from the Casualty penalty, however. A figure with a light wound may be voluntarily removed from play, move off the edge of the table, or make its way to a CASEVAC point thus removing the Casualty penalty from the unit , or the unit may elect to keep the lightly wounded figure to benefit from the Firepower die it contributes.

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If the casualty just had the wind knocked out of him, he pops back up with his buddies care and the unit may finish the turn without a penalty of any sort. A RAR fireteam is fired on by foreign fighters. The attack causes two casualties. They pass their Morale Check and return fire, pinning their attackers.

One D6 is rolled for each downed soldier. A 1 and a 6 are rolled. The roll of 1 indicates that the figure is dead. The RAR fireteam must pass a Quality Check or it can do nothing but react for the duration of the turn. The check is successful, so the unit may act normally in this turn. The roll of 6 indicates that the figure was only winded or stunned and returns to the fight immediately. An American fireteam is caught in the blast of an IED and one of their number is injured.

On the following turn, a D6 is rolled on the First Aid table a 3 is rolled. The 3 indicates that the downed man has received a Serious Wound. Since his unit is busy giving him lifesaving aid, they may only react this turn. A squad of Iraqi regulars is struck by American sniper fire. One of their men drops to the ground, bleeding.

On the following turn, a D6 is rolled on the First Aid table a 4 is rolled. The 4 indicates that the fallen man has received a Light Wound. His squad may take its turn normally and he may continue to fight alongside them, adding to their Firepower like any other figure. Units qualify for Advanced First Aid rolls if they are special operations units in which most members are given advanced life-saving training or their wounded are being treated by an actual medic.

Calling a Medic Units who are making a First Aid Check for casualties at the start of a turn may call for a medic to treat them if. Units with a severely wounded member suffer the Casualty Penalty, but those with a KIA dont so whats up with that? Our answer is a subjective one based on our reading of first person accounts and the input of a few folks whove been there , it seemed to us that most soldiers suffer an immediate shock at the loss of one of their comrades.

Some are able to shake it off more quickly than others hence our TQ Check to avoid being immobilized a turn , but almost all describe putting the awful reality out of their mind to deal with after the fighting was over.

The same accounts present an entirely different view of wounded comrades, though. Soldiers are tremendously concerned about taking care of their own and go to great lengths to keep their wounded safe. Force on Force is scale indifferent in other words, any scale of figure can be used to play the game. The choice is up to the individual player as to what they prefer. While there are many different scales available, the three main scales used by players are 15mm, 20mm and 28mm.

While these are nominal sizes, it is worth noting that figure sizes within the same scale do vary between makers. Most tend to match together fairly well, though. Manufacturers such as QRF www. They offer both figures and vehicles for a variety of conflicts, providing a great place to pick up a complete army. Rebel Miniatures www. Whatever choice a player makes they will be assured of an ever increasing selection of models to choose from as 15mm is enjoying an increase in popularity.

The next scale is 20mm. This size will be familiar to anyone who has played with little plastic soldiers in the past! However a number of companies now make metal figures in this scale suitable for modern armies. Elhiem Figures www. Britannia Miniatures www. They also offer a number of modern vehicles in resin.

Wartime Miniatures www. Kellys Heroes Getting Started www. Many of these can now be bought pre-painted offering a great opportunity for the lazy gamer! Several companies offer resin or metal models for use with 20mm figures. Mongrel Miniatures www. Eureka Miniatures www. Whatever scale a player chooses they will also need some ground to fight over. Many companies produce resin buildings that match figure scales.

A quick search of the internet will turn up suitable items. Fine building models of various scales are produced by GameCraft Miniatures www. Most players will also use some sort of cloth for their playing surface and these again can be found online. Everything from simple gaming mats to sculptured terrain tiles are available. All the models a player buys will require painting.

Most wargamers use acrylic paints, which are water Firefight, Vietnam, soluble. Several lines of acrylic paints have been produced specifically for use by model makers and wargamers. A wide variety of brands are available, most of which offer hues produced to match historical uniform and vehicle colors. For many wargamers the painting and building of their army is as much part of the hobby as playing games with them.

Finally, many wargamers store their completed armies in cases to keep them safe and ready for use. Companies such as KR Cases www. While we cant offer a complete guide to starting the hobby, we hope that this short introduction to what is available may provide you with a stepping stone.

Youll also find wargame forums a useful resource. These provide new and experienced players alike with tips, news, support and ideas to help them get the most out of the hobby. Most forums are populated by wargamers who are more than happy to help out new players. In order to do the subject justice, Force on Force has to cover subjects as diverse as infantry and mechanized actions, air mobile operations, combat between AFVs, air and artillery support, and the use of irregular troops.

This makes for a big pill to swallow, no matter how much effort has been put into streamlining and unifying mechanics. With this in mind, weve divided this rule book into major sections, each of which represents a thematic chunk of related rules. Each section builds upon the last, allowing players to master the mechanics incrementally. Players may try out the new mechanics using the sample scenarios found at the end of each section.

By following this approach, you should be able to play the game quickly without the necessity of mastering the rules in their entirety. Several other forums are well worth visiting. The Guild www. The Miniature Page is a great source for constant news of whats happening in the hobby, as is Tabletop Gaming News www. Our advice to new players is this: Get online, join one of the forums and see what other players are up to. Ask for advice and you will be overwhelmed by the response of tips and suggestions.

Spend some time looking at what models suit you from the view of cost, space and storage. Take time to decide what it is you want and need for you hobby and, most importantly, have fun doing it!

A kinetic engagement is an active engagement in which opposing forces rely on their ability to damage or destroy their opponents in order to accomplish their missions. Kinetic warfare is traditional warfare, roughly symmetrical in nature and muscular in its prosecution: Easily identifiable combatants meet on the field of battle and take each others measure in blood, grit, and determination.

Victory is measured in ground controlled, hills taken, and advances thwarted. Non-kinetic operations, on the other hand, are generally asymmetric and their success hinges more on political gain rather than actual control of ground. Counterinsurgency, or COIN, operations are a prime example of non-kinetic warfare. For now, well focus our attention on kinetic engagements. This allows us to master the basic mechanics of Force on Force: Infantry combat, mechanized combat, and air mobile operations.

Well also learn how to utilize air and artillery assets. Once we have these skills mastered, well wade in to the murkier waters of asymmetric operations. Enemy units may react to an activated units actions. Activation: The player with initiative activates his units one at a time. An activated unit can perform actions. Confidence: A units confidence determines how it will react in the face of overwhelming fire or other tactically challenging situations.

Die Shifts: Some actions may be modified by a die shift. A positive die shift allows a player to throw a higher die type than normal from a D8 to a D10, for instance.

A negative die shift forces a player to throw a lower die type. First Aid Check: When a unit takes a casualty, a First Aid Check is made to determine how serious the casualtys injuries are.

At least one healthy figure must be within cohesion of the figure or its unit to perform the check. In Cover: A unit that is In Cover is actively taking advantage of that covers properties to get the best protection possible. This is different than simply being behind cover, which provides more passive protection. Bonuses for covering terrain and being In Cover are cumulative.

Initiative Unit: A unit that has been activated by the player with initiative is an Initiative Unit.

Morale: Units Morale state is represented by a die type. The higher the die type, the more steadfast the unit. Morale Checks: When a unit takes casualties or is subjected to some other traumatic experience, it must make a Morale Check to determine if it becomes pinned or shaken. Pinned: Enemy fire that unnerves a unit can pin it. This is usually the result of a failed Morale Check.

Pinned units must scurry to cover and their ability to engage the enemy and actively defend themselves is degraded. Pinned units who suffer further Morale failures become Shaken or be forced to Pull Back.

Pull Back: Regular units that suffer a second Pinned result in a single turn are forced to Pull Back. They must move away from the enemy and into a covered position to regain their nerve. Reaction: When one unit responds to something another unit has done, it is termed a Reaction.

A unit that is fired upon may React by trying to move out of the line of fire, for instance. Units may also choose not to React at all. Reaction Tests: Reaction Tests are called for when one unit attempts to React to another. The winner of the Reaction Test acts first i. Regulars: Regulars are professional soldiers with a welldefined chain of command and a shared understanding of tactics and battlefield operations.

Round of Fire: Regular units can return or even pre-empt fire when attacked by another unit. When a Regular unit is fired upon, a Reaction Test is made to see who fires first. Fire is then resolved between each unit. This is referred to as a round of fire. Shaken: Irregular units who fail a Morale Check become Shaken. They must move away from the enemy and their Morale suffers a permanent negative die shift. If their Morale is reduced below D6, they are no longer fit for combat and are removed from play.

Supply Level: Better supplied units have more ammunition to burn than less well supplied units. Suppression: A unit may decide to lay down a large volume of fire in an effort to keep the enemys head down. This fire is slightly less likely to cause a casualty, but it may suppress the enemy and hinder his movement and fire. Troop Quality TQ : A units overall training and combat capability is represented by its Troop Quality; this is a gauge of a units discipline, training, and experience.

The better a units Troop Quality, the larger its Troop Quality die. A mob of angry civilians or a poorly led group of conscripts would probably have a Troop Quality of D6. A typically trained, welldisciplined military unit will generally have a Troop Quality of D8. Highly experienced combat veterans or specially trained troops might have a Troop Quality of D Only rare individuals combining an abundance of natural talent and years of training and discipline would ever attain a Troop Quality of D Each step of the sequence is explained in more detail in the following sections.

Choose a Scenario 2. Set Up the Table 3. Draw Fog of War if Scenario Dictates 4. Set Up Units 5. Set Up Hot Spots 6. Declare and test for unbuttoned AFVs 7. Initiative Force activates first unit 9. Resolve Reactions Regular Initiative units who are fired at may react as part of a Round of Fire, as may units on Overwatch Start New Turn. If Initiative is not dictated by the scenario, perform an Initiative Test. The force that wins the test has initiative in the new turn.

First Aid b. Arrival of Reinforcements starting on turn 2 or as dictated by the scenario c. Declare and test for unbuttoned AFVs d. Declare Overwatch Units e. Merge Units Repeat steps 6 through 12 until the turn limit for the scenario is met or a force achieves victory through attrition or fulfillment of an automatic victory condition.

If victory is not clear-cut, determine the winner by totaling Victory Points for both forces. Choose a Scenario Force on Force is a scenario-driven game. The victor isnt determined by totaling up points of troops lost or by playing till one side is obliterated.

Instead, the victory conditions of the scenario being played determine who gets bragging rights and who is left cursing their dice. Players can either pick one of the provided scenarios to play or they can create their own.

Force on Force will be supported by future campaign and scenario packs and player created scenarios are frequently posted on the Ambush Alley Games website www.

Ambush Alley Games will be providing a wealth of ready-made scenarios in the form of official companion books focusing on specific periods, campaigns, or operations. Companion books will contain historical background, any special rules peculiar to the subject, unit organizations, vehicle descriptions and a large selection of scenarios.

Set Up the Table Each scenario contains a description of how the table should be set up, including the location of key roads, buildings, and other terrain features. Table sizes in Force on Force are generally 2x2 or 2x3 for 15mm games, but may be much larger depending upon the scenario in play.

Table size will be designated by the scenario. See Reaction Tests and Fog of War, pg. SeeVehicle Commanders Buttoned and Unbuttoned, pg. Set Up Units The scenario will indicate how many units each side will receive, what their composition will be, and where theyll be placed on the table.

It will also indicate which side sets up their units first.

Normally, all units will be set up on the table at the beginning of play, but some scenarios will call for units to be held off the table for later deployment. Note that it is not unusual for opposing units to begin play in line of sight and range of each other.

Starting games with units in contact is one of the defining features of any Ambush Alley Games title. Players may declare that units including vehicles and guns placed in buildings, woods, behind walls, etc.

Declare Overwatch Units At this time, the player with initiative must declare which of his units will be on Overwatch for the duration of the turn. See Overwatch, pg. Activate First Initiative Unit Scenarios indicate which side has initiative in the first turn. Units belonging to the player currently holding initiative are referred to as initiative units, while those belonging to the other player are called non-initiative units.

The player with initiative may pick which unit he wishes to activate first and what action s it will perform. The activated unit may respond to the Reactions of non-initiative units as long as it has remaining Firepower dice or Movement, as appropriate. If the activated unit will move, its controlling player must clearly state where he intends to move it including announcing that hes charging into close combat and indicate the route it will take. If the unit is not moving, the player should announce whether it is getting In Cover.

Example: The initiative player is about to activate his first unit. He decides to activate one of his fireteams and move them to a position behind a wall where they can engage an enemy fireteam from a position of cover.

He points at the unit and tells his opponent, Im going to move this fireteam at Tactical speed around the corner of this building to take up a position behind this wall.

See Hot Spots, pg. To reflect this, an Initiative Check is made at the beginning of each turn. To make an Initiative Check, both players roll one Initiative die for every two units in their force, rounding down rounding cannot reduce a force to less than one Initiative die, however. The type of Initiative die rolled is determined by the Initiative Value for the force as dictated by the scenario. Add one die for each armored vehicle not including soft-skins, whether they are up-armored or not treat soft-skin vehicles as infantry units for purpose of Initiative.

The resulting total number of dice for infantry units and vehicles indicates how many basic initiative dice the Force has. The maximum number of basic initiative dice a force may have is ten 10D. A forces basic initiative dice may be modified by certain factors. These factors are described in the Bonus Initiative table and may raise a Forces Initiative dice above 10D.

A force can never have its initiative reduced below 1D. Resolve Reactions Units on the side without initiative referred to as noninitiative units may React to the Actions of initiative units within their line of sight.

Reactions may take the form of fire or movement well go into more detail later in the rules. Continue Activating Initiative Units Continue activating initiative units and resolving Reactions until all initiative units have been activated. Such units may also be moved into Close Assault with opposing units within Rapid movement range. Only Overwatch units may react to a non-initiative unit that moves in the End Phase, although units being charged by a non-initiative unit initiating Close Combat may still perform defensive fire according to the rules for Close Combat.

If a non-initiative unit chooses to fire at an initiative unit, that unit may respond with fire or movement, assuming it has not moved or has Firepower dice remaining. Overwatch units may interrupt the movement or fire of non-initiative units in the End Phase as normal again, assuming they have the Firepower dice to do so and have not fallen off Overwatch.

Start New Turn Roll for reinforcements if the scenario indicates they are available. When reading first-hand accounts of modern combat one will find that the moment in which one side achieves operational dominance over the other is often described in terms of sound: the force whose roar of gunfire is drowning out its opponents has almost certainly one the upper hand.

In more traditional terms, the force with the highest volume of fire is more likely to dominate. Volume of fire is a tricky thing to establish in game terms. It cannot be represented by casualties inflicted or the number of gunmen firing. The advantage in a firefight can be lost without a single casualty and vastly outnumbered units are known to seize the reins in an engagement.

We felt that initiative came down to which side had the most units that were able to aggressively lay down fire, whether that fire was effective or not. This is represented by the mechanic described above in which an Initiative Die is rolled for each unit the side with the most successes has more units enthusiastically or desperately pouring it on the enemy.

Both players roll their initiative dice and discard all dice with a score less than 4. Scenario briefings indicate which player has initiative on the games first turn. Some scenarios will dictate that one side has initiative throughout the game and no Initiative Checks are required.

Force on Force

In games featuring Regulars vs. Certain Fog of War cards may also dictate which force has initiative in the following turn. Example: The first turn of a scenario with no special initiative instructions is over and its time to decide which force has initiative in Turn 2.

Totaling up the dice, he determines he has 8 initiative dice. His basic initiative is thus 11 dice. A units basic initiative cannot exceed 10 dice, so it is reduced to The Blue player outnumbers the Red player, however, which garners him a bonus initiative die that raises his total to 11 dice.

Red rolls 8D8 and discards any dice with a score of 3 or less. Hes left with 7 dice. Blue rolls 11D6, discards all dice with a score of 3 or less, and is left with 8 dice. Blue has initiative for this turn and becomes the initiative force. Red becomes the non-initiative force. See First Aid Checks, pg.

The scenario will describe what sort of reinforcements will arrive, as well as when and where they will appear. Reinforcement units always arrive at the beginning of the turn, unless they arrive as the result of a Fog of War card, in which case they arrive when and where the card indicates. Some reinforcements may arrive at Hot Spots, as designated by the scenario. Hot Spots Hot Spots are used to randomize entry points for reinforcements. Unless the scenario dictates a different method, Hot Spots are placed as follows: At the beginning of the game, place five 5 Hot Spot counters on the table.

No Hot Spot may be placed within 6 of another. Each Hot Spot should be labeled with a number from 1 to 5. To determine which Hot Spot a reinforcement unit arrives from, roll 1D6. A roll of 1 through 5 indicates which numbered Hot Spot the unit arrives at.

A roll of 6 allows the player to pick the Hot Spots at which the reinforcements will arrive. Units may be placed Sayeret MatKal Commando, anywhere within 4 of the hotspot Beirut, they arrive at. They may be placed as Hidden units upon arrival. Reinforcements that arrive at Hot Spot that is already occupied by a friendly unit may automatically merge with that unit if desired.

Some scenarios will specify Hot Spot locations while others will leave their placement entirely to the players discretion.

Some scenarios may use board edges and forego the use of Hot Spots all together. To neutralize a Hot Spot, the Regular unit must spend one turn stationary and in contact with its counter. Neutralized Hot Spots are removed from the table. If the reinforcing player rolls a neutralized Hot Spot number when checking for placement of reinforcements, those reinforcements are lost. The player may not re-roll for an active Hot Spot. If a Reinforcement Roll results in reinforcements arriving at a hot spot which a unit is attempting to neutralize, the reinforcement unit can be placed anywhere within 4 of the Hot Spot as usual.

The Reinforcement unit can opt to immediately initiate Close Combat following the normal procedure.Lightly wounded figures may remain with the unit and fight, but the unit suffers from the Casualty penalty. However, leaders who are not within cohesion with a unit may not act as its leader unless it is established in the scenario or in the units notes that he has the capability to contact units by radio, cell-phone, HUD, etc. What Does the Initiative Roll Represent?

Red becomes the non-initiative force. In such cases, the wounded figures are left tipped on their side where they were wounded and are considered wiped out. Regardless of the source of the test, it will be resolved as described below. Each section builds upon the last, allowing players to master the mechanics incrementally. Declare and test for unbuttoned AFVs d. Example 1:

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