CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES DOUGLAS PDF
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES • James M. Douglas Un~ rsilY of Massodwsttts McGraw-Hili Rook Company New York 51 Louis San. Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes (by James M. Douglas) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. Textbook for process. Design Of Chemical Processes By James M Douglas [PDF] [EPUB] Download with Facebook or download with email - Fri, 05 Apr GMT (PDF).
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PDF | Systematic approaches for the invention of conceptual chemical process text, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes by Douglas (), was pub-. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES James M. Douglas, Ph. D., is currently a professor of chemical engineering at the. University of. Conceptual design of chemical processes / James M. Douglas Publisher: Singapore: McGraw-Hill, ; Digital Description: application/pdf, xviii, p.: ill.
It is implicit in the chain of assumptions used to create the simplified design methodology that a particular sort of process is being designed. Like all design heuristics, it has a limited range of applicability. Though it mentions other industries, it is based throughout upon an example taken from the petrochemical industry, and it is clear that it is most suited to that industry.
Having declined to consider many items which are of great importance in other industries, it finds time for pinch analysis, which was quite new when the book was written.
Perhaps this really was a worthwhile exercise for the beginning process designer in the petrochemical industries of the s, but there are many process plant designs in which do not have a single heat exchanger. There are many industries where process chemistry is given to chemical engineers by chemists, and considering process chemistry is not an engineering task.
This book in itself seems to be a plausible approach to the limited problem it sets out to solve, few of whose assumptions I can argue with in the context of its chosen example.
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Explaining the concepts behind process design, this book uses a case study approach, guiding readers through realistic design problems, and referring back to these cases at the end of each chapter. It also uses shortcut techniques that help engineers to obtain the whole focus for a design in a very short period generally less than two days. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 1.
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Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. Mar 16, Sean rated it it was ok.
Someone suggested to me that the approach to "Process Design" elaborated in academia can be traced back to a seminal book- this one. As the title suggests, it attempts to design chemical processes, rather than process plants.
Its author understands that the expert designer proceeds by intuition and analogy, aided by back of the envelope calculations, but sees the need for a method which helps beginners to cope with all of the extra calculations they have to do whilst they are waiting to become e Someone suggested to me that the approach to "Process Design" elaborated in academia can be traced back to a seminal book- this one.
Its author understands that the expert designer proceeds by intuition and analogy, aided by back of the envelope calculations, but sees the need for a method which helps beginners to cope with all of the extra calculations they have to do whilst they are waiting to become experts. The arguments underlying the academic approach since built on it are helpfully set out explicitly.
It assumes that the purpose of conceptual design is to decide on process chemistry and parameters like reaction yield.
Choices between technologies are not considered. Pumps are assumed to be a negligible proportion of the capital and running cost, and heat exchangers are assumed to be a major proportion of capex and opex.
Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes (By James M. Douglas).pdf
It is implicit in the chain of assumptions used to create the simplified design methodology that a particular sort of process is being designed. Like all design heuristics, it has a limited range of applicability.
Instrumentation[ edit ] Atomic absorption spectrometer block diagram In order to analyze a sample for its atomic constituents, it has to be atomized. The atomizers most commonly used nowadays are flames and electrothermal graphite tube atomizers.
Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes (by James M. Douglas)
The atoms should then be irradiated by optical radiation, and the radiation source could be an element-specific line radiation source or a continuum radiation source. The radiation then passes through a monochromator in order to separate the element-specific radiation from any other radiation emitted by the radiation source, which is finally measured by a detector.
Atomizers[ edit ] The atomizers most commonly used nowadays are spectroscopic flames and electrothermal graphite tube atomizers. Other atomizers, such as glow-discharge atomization, hydride atomization, or cold-vapor atomization might be used for special purposes. The latter flame, in addition, offers a more reducing environment, being ideally suited for analytes with high affinity to oxygen. A laboratory flame photometer that uses a propane operated flame atomizer Liquid or dissolved samples are typically used with flame atomizers.
The radiation beam passes through this flame at its longest axis, and the flame gas flow-rates may be adjusted to produce the highest concentration of free atoms. The burner height may also be adjusted, so that the radiation beam passes through the zone of highest atom cloud density in the flame, resulting in the highest sensitivity.
The processes in a flame include the stages of desolvation drying in which the solvent is evaporated and the dry sample nano-particles remain, vaporization transfer to the gaseous phase in which the solid particles are converted into gaseous molecule, atomization in which the molecules are dissociated into free atoms, and ionization where depending on the ionization potential of the analyte atoms and the energy available in a particular flame atoms may be in part converted to gaseous ions.
Each of these stages includes the risk of interference in case the degree of phase transfer is different for the analyte in the calibration standard and in the sample. Ionization is generally undesirable, as it reduces the number of atoms that are available for measurement, i. In flame AAS a steady-state signal is generated during the time period when the sample is aspirated.
This typically consists of stages, such as drying — the solvent is evaporated; pyrolysis — the majority of the matrix constituents are removed; atomization — the analyte element is released to the gaseous phase; and cleaning — eventual residues in the graphite tube are removed at high temperature. Tubes may be heated transversely or longitudinally, where the former ones have the advantage of a more homogeneous temperature distribution over their length. In ET AAS a transient signal is generated, the area of which is directly proportional to the mass of analyte not its concentration introduced into the graphite tube.
This technique has the advantage that any kind of sample, solid, liquid or gaseous, can be analyzed directly. It shows a very high degree of freedom from interferences, so that ET AAS might be considered the most robust technique available nowadays for the determination of trace elements in complex matrices.
The glow discharge occurs in a low-pressure argon gas atmosphere between 1 and 10 torr. In this atmosphere lies a pair of electrodes applying a DC voltage of to V to break down the argon gas into positively charged ions and electrons. These ions, under the influence of the electric field, are accelerated into the cathode surface containing the sample, bombarding the sample and causing neutral sample atom ejection through the process known as sputtering.
Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes (by James M. Douglas)
The atomic vapor produced by this discharge is composed of ions, ground state atoms, and fraction of excited atoms. When the excited atoms relax back into their ground state, a low-intensity glow is emitted, giving the technique its name. The requirement for samples of glow discharge atomizers is that they are electrical conductors.
Consequently, atomizers are most commonly used in the analysis of metals and other conducting samples. However, with proper modifications, it can be utilized to analyze liquid samples as well as nonconducting materials by mixing them with a conductor e. Hydride atomization[ edit ] Hydride generation techniques are specialized in solutions of specific elements.
The technique provides a means of introducing samples containing arsenic, antimony, selenium, bismuth, and lead into an atomizer in the gas phase.
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With these elements, hydride atomization enhances detection limits by a factor of 10 to compared to alternative methods. The volatile hydride generated by the reaction that occurs is swept into the atomization chamber by an inert gas, where it undergoes decomposition.These spectrometers use a compact double monochromator with a prism pre-monochromator and an echelle grating monochromator for high resolution.
Community Reviews. Sh marked it as to-read Jul 12, Multi element lamps produce slightly less sensitivity than single element lamps and the combinations of elements have to be selected carefully to avoid spectral interferences. Background correction techniques in LS AAS[ edit ] In LS AAS background absorption can only be corrected using instrumental techniques, and all of them are based on two sequential measurements,  firstly, total absorption atomic plus background , secondly, background absorption only, and the difference of the two measurements gives the net atomic absorption.
Its author understands that the expert designer proceeds by intuition and analogy, aided by back of the envelope calculations, but sees the need for a method which helps beginners to cope with all of the extra calculations they have to do whilst they are waiting to become experts.
Other atomizers, such as glow-discharge atomization, hydride atomization, or cold-vapor atomization might be used for special purposes.
Another source of background absorption, particularly in ET AAS, is scattering of the primary radiation at particles that are generated in the atomization stage, when the matrix could not be removed sufficiently in the pyrolysis stage.