ppti.info Education Xml Book Pdf


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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we This book is for anyone working with today's mainstream XML technologies. It was specifically. xsl:if with our Address Book xsl:choose xsl:for-each template-match or for-each? Lesson XPat h. What is XPath? Using XPath to Navigate an XML Document. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is a text-based markup language All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of.

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„XML is the cure for your data exchange, information integration, data pdf">. A . description>. book>. • Can be overridden in the elements by specifying the. Looking for books on Xml? Check our section of free e-books and guides on Xml now! This page XML Technologies and Applications (PDF 24P) Rajshekhar. read the entire document at ppti.info on the W3C Web site. note. As this book goes to press, the current version of the XML specification is.

An XML document consists of a sequence of human-readable characters, with no special additional codes or binary data.

The purpose of a start-tag is to mark the point in the sequence of characters at which some element , of a type indicated by the tag name, starts, and the purpose of an end-tag is to mark where that element ends. The purpose of an attribute specification is to add some extra information about an element occurrence beyond its name. But the XML standard says nothing at all about how elements or attributes should be named unlike, for example, HTML which defines a specific set of tags that must be used in a particular way in all documents , much less what their names mean.

A namespace is a way of labelling a group of elements: If the paragraphs are clearly marked, then a formatter can lay them out properly. If the place-names are clearly marked, a program can automatically pick them out to make a geographical index. But this can really only be done reliably if we have some control over how tags are introduced into the document and where they appear.

XML technology provides this additional level of control by means of what is called a schema , a kind of combined lexicon and grammar for valid XML documents. It may, optionally, also be said to be valid if the tags it contains conform to a schema.

More exactly, the TEI Guidelines define some five or six hundred different concepts , along with detailed specifications for the XML elements and element classes which may be used to represent them. Most, if not all, TEI documents need to use only a small amount of what is provided.

It is therefore somewhat misleading to think of the TEI as a single monolithic schema. To facilitate interoperability, every TEI document uses components taken from the same mammoth schema, but most TEI projects use quite small subsets of it, and a well-organised project will generally have its own customized documentation identifying that subset.

We discuss this topic in more detail in a subsequent chapter. This is a very large and fast-moving topic which is not treated here, though you will find some useful pointers on the TEI website and the TEI Wiki.

You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. Feel free to give our address: We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers.

Use the properties break-before and break-after with the value column to fine tune this behavior.

Prince also supports the properties column-break-before and column-break-after. However, you are encouraged to use the newer properties break-before , break-after with the keyword column from the CSS Fragmentation Module Level 3. If an element is to break the flow and span several columns, the property column-span helps to achieve this. For floated elements see Floats a numeric value tells Prince how many columns the element should span. For non-floated elements that are part of the regular flow of the document, only the keyword all can be used.

The following example instructs Prince to make the h1 heading element span all the columns:. Prince features also several column-specific extensions to the float property, namely Page and column floats and Page and column footnotes.

When printed texts contain images, the text is usually laid out to wrap around those images. To accomplish the same with CSS, the images are floated - either to the left or right of text, or at times even to the top or to the bottom of a column. The float property does just this - it floats an element, allowing the content of other elements to flow around it.

The property clear can be considered the float's sister property: Instead, it will move down after the float. Prince extends the traditional behavior of floats with a few features that have been ubiquitous in printing for a long time. Traditionally, floats move in the inline direction, left or right. Prince extends this behavior with page floats that move in the block direction, specifying that an element should be floated to the top or to the bottom of a page, and with column floats that move the float to the nearest edge of the column in a multi-column layout, with optional column spanning of the float.

This allows for more flexible layout options that meet the needs of formatting documents for print. When giving the float property the value top or bottom , the element will be floated to, respectively, the top or the bottom of the page.

The values column-top and column-bottom float the element to the top or bottom of the column it appears in, while column-top-corner and column-bottom-corner float the element to the top or bottom of the last column, rather than its natural column.

These can be useful if you wanted to create a magazine-style layout, floating an image to the right-hand corner of the current multi-column layout. A floated element can span several columns with the help of the column-span property see Columns. The following example instructs Prince to make the image span two columns:.

The value prince-snap instructs Prince to float the image to the nearest "end", i. In print one typically has to deal with left facing and right facing pages, together forming a spread. To take this into account when placing an element, Prince extends the float property with the values inside and outside , moving the element respectively to the inside or outside of a spread.

If the inside and outside values are used in a multi-column layout, the element is floated to the inside or outside of the column it appears in its natural flow. The value footnote transforms the element into a footnote: The footnote marker is placed outside of the block of the footnote. With the value inline-footnote , the footnote marker is placed inside of the block of the footnote. Two additional values, namely prince-column-footnote and prince-column-inline-footnote behave in an analogous way, but move the footnote not to the bottom of the page, but to the bottom of its column instead.

See also Footnotes. Prince also takes the additional modifier next. In a multi-column layout, this defers the float to the next column, otherwise it defers the float to the next page.

The optional modifier unless-fit is to be used in combination with other float instructions, and expresses a conditional: For example, If you have a large image that happens to occur at the end of the page, it could force a page break and leave a gap at the end of the previous page.

So you could float the image top unless-fit , which would move it to the top of the next page unless it fits on the current page without causing a break and leaving a gap:.

Prince supports footnotes using the float property. If an element has the property float: Each footnote implicitly increments the footnote counter which is used to number the footnotes. The footnote counter can be reset at each new page, section or chapter as necessary. This example resets the counter on each new page. Footnote calls are the numeric anchors in the text that refer to the footnotes. Prince will generate footnote calls using the:: This is the default style for footnote calls:.

This will display the current value of the footnote counter in a superscript position in a slightly smaller font than the main text. The line-height declaration ensures that the superscript position of the footnote does not affect the line height of the main text. The footnote call style can be customized to use different fonts or colors.


It can even be customized to include different content, such as placing the footnote counter in brackets rather than making it superscript.

This rule will generate footnote calls with the number of the footnote in brackets, like this: Prince automatically generates footnote markers, the numeric markers placed in front of the footnote text.

Footnote markers are similar to the markers added to list items see Lists in most respects, and can be styled in a similar fashion using the:: Footnote markers are rendered outside the footnote in the left margin area by default. If the CSS property footnote-style-position has value inside , the marker is rendered as the first inline box inside the footnote. This property is similar to the list-style-position property that applies to list markers see Lists.

Footnotes are placed within the footnote area of the page see Page regions , which can be styled within page rules. If there are no footnotes on a page, the footnotes area will not be displayed on that page at all. By default, the footnote area is at the bottom of the page. However, Prince allows to position the area in different places, effectively offering a mechanism to create simple sidenotes see Sidenotes.

Footnotes are created with the float property see also Floats: This creates a footnote call in the place where the element would be in its natural flow, and moves the element's content to the bottom of the page.

The footnote marker is rendered outside the footnote in the left margin area, and the footnote is displayed as a block element. The property footnote-display can be used to change the default display of footnotes: The value compact leaves it up to Prince to determine whether to display the footnote as a block or inline element: Making a footnote into an inline element moves the footnote marker into the footnote box as the first inline box inside the footnote.

The float property offers also the value inline-footnote , which is another mechanism to transform the footnote into an inline element. In a multi-column layout, footnotes can be rendered at the bottom of the page as normal footnotes, or alternatively at the bottom of each column by using the values prince-column-footnote or prince-column-inline-footnote for the float property.

See also Prince extensions to floats. In some situations it might happen that footnotes do not fit on the page on which the footnote call was placed. It might be desirable to tie the footnote to the same page as the call - the prince-footnote-policy can be of help. The following example instructs Prince to move the line with the footnote call to the next page, in order to keep it on the same page as the footnote itself:.

Alternatively, the value keep-with-block moves the entire paragraph to the next page. This property must be applied to the paragraph in which the footnote occurs, not to the footnote element itself.

Flex layout is a layout model similar to the block layout. It lacks Columns and Floats but gains powerful possibilities to distribute space and align content in a more flexible way.

The content of a flex container can alter its height and width to best fill the available space, it can be easily aligned even if the size is unknown or dynamic, and most importantly it can be laid out in any direction, as opposed to the traditional layout models that would either be vertically-based block layout or horizontally-based inline layout.

In Flex layout some properties apply to the parent element, i. To use the flex layout, flex needs to be enabled on the parent element to create the flex container by defining the flex value for the display property. Next, the direction of the flex layout can be defined by means of the flex-direction property: With the flex-wrap property the wrapping of the flex container is controlled - the default is to try to arrange all items on one line. The shorthand property flex-flow can be used to define flex-direction and flex-wrap together.

The property justify-content defines the alignment of the content along the main axis - extra free space can be distributed in various ways after or before the content, or in specific ways between the flex items.

The alignment along the cross axis is controlled with the align-items property. In case there are multiple item lines in a flex container, the alignment of the lines can be controlled with the align-content property. If there is only one line, the property has no effect.

By default, items are placed in the source order inside a flex container, but with the order property it can be modified! The flex-grow property defines the proportion by which a flex item can grow, if necessary, while flex-shrink defines the proportion by which an item can shrink.

Key Features

The flex-basis property defines the default size of an element, before the remaining space is distributed. However, it is recommended to use the shorthand property flex instead - the value for the flex-grow is mandatory, the other properties are automatically set in an intelligent way.

Finally, the property align-self allows the default alignment specified with the align-items property to be overridden for individual flex items. It is important to know that margins of flex items behave in a slightly special way: Please notice that percentage values of margins and paddings of flex items are resolved by Prince against the inline axis, i. Prince produces PDFs - which are a prominent example of paged media. There are a few differences that are crucial to keep in mind when preparing a document for paged media intended for print:.

Pages have a defined size and content can be laid out in a specific pattern making use of predefined page regions. Elements can not only be floated right and left, but they can also be floated to the top and bottom of the page, or of a column, or the float even can be deferred to the next page see Prince extensions to floats.

Pages can be selected and named , which allows for specific treatment of certain pages. Also, it is important to have an understanding of pagination: A basic unit for paged media in print is the page spread: Selected and named pages can be placed recto or verso , and Prince expands several properties and the page at-rule pseudo-classes with the values verso and recto , or inside and outside , referring to the layout on each page of the spread.

Last but not least, paged media intended for print is non-interactive by nature. All CSS properties referring to user interaction make no sense, scripting cannot be interactive and scripts need to run before layout is finished. But for these details and scripting after layout please check the section on JavaScript in Printed Media. Prince allows you to control a number of options that affect how to format pages, from straight-forward options such as page size , to page style , page regions like headers and footers, pagination control and page numbering.

For example, we can use the size property within the page rule to specify the page size see Page size. In this section we will show most of the properties that can be specified within a page rule, then we will show how pagination can be controlled and how page styles can be applied to selected pages. Page size can be specified using the size property in length units or by a page size keyword see Page Size Keywords for a list , optionally combined with the portrait or landscape keyword.

Sometimes it can be useful to specify the page dimensions in pixels, for example when creating presentation slides see Presentation slides.

Their margin , border , padding and background can be styled within page rules. The page rules can only style the page and its margin boxes - it cannot contain style rules to target specific elements, but it can contain at-rules to target the page regions for a complete list of possible at-rules, see Page regions. Prince also supports the margin-outside and margin-inside properties. These allow you to specify different margins for the inside and outside edges of paper as it is bound into a book.

For example it may be necessary to have a larger inside margin called a gutter so that after some of the margin is used by the binding, the remaining margins are even.

Most content appears inside the page area of one or more pages. Surrounding the page area, but within the margin area, are the page-margin boxes. Other special areas are overlaying the whole page or are placed at the bottom of the page area. Collectively, they are known as the page regions. This figure shows the positions of some page regions placed in the page margin, called the page-margin boxes. Some of them can be used for creating running page headers and footers.

The page background is grey and the body 's, i. Each of these page-margin boxes has a synonym ending in -center or -middle - for instance top-center is the same as top , while left-middle is the same as left.

You can place content in a page-margin box with the content property. For example, you can print the current page number at the bottom of each page see Generated Content:. Two examples in the next chapter show examples of page headers and footers:. Several other page regions can also be used. The full list of page regions is shown in the Page regions table. Prince will try to create page regions of the correct sizes.

If you need to create boxes of specific sizes you may need to use only a single box eg: Note that in the above Page regions figure, Prince leaves space for top-right and left-bottom boxes because their counterparts top-left and left-top respectively have been defined. This keeps the top and left centered along the top and side of the page respectively. The page-margin boxes top , top-left or top-right can be used to create running page headers, and the page-margin boxes bottom , bottom-left or bottom-right are useful for page footers see Page Headers and Footers.

The page region prince-overlay is a special region, overlaying all of the page area. A typical use is for creating watermarks on all pages of the document see Watermarks. The page region footnote is placed by default at the foot of the page area and contains the footnotes see Footnotes. Note that if there are no footnotes on a page, the footnote area will not be displayed on that page at all.

All of the margin , border , padding and background properties can be used to style page regions. The vertical-align property can be applied to any page region to vertically align its content.

When a page region contains generated content, many inline style properties such as color and font can be applied to style the generated content. The footnote area can be positioned other than its default position see Styling and behavior of footnotes and Sidenotes.

All other page regions cannot be moved - their position is defined by the page margins. We have already shown an example of using the page counter to print the page number at the bottom of each page, this is one example of generated content.

The page counter is predefined and starts at 1; it increments automatically for each new page. Note that the page counter cannot be incremented manually using the counter-increment property. The page counter can be reset using the counter-reset property at any block-level element within a non-floating element in the normal flow.

This is useful for restarting page numbering at a new section of the document. Restarting page numbering also uses Named pages which we will explain in more detail below. We create three types of pages: Then the page rule for those pages generates a page footer that contains the current page number in lower-alpha style.

This rule also sets the page header to the string "Table of Contents". Then the page rule for the main pages generates a page footer that contains the current page number in the default decimal style. This rule, together with the. Pages that don't match either of these names have the default style, which does not include a page number in the footer.

In some documents, particularly those that are unbound such as office documents, it can be useful to show the total number of pages on each page.

The total number of pages can be accessed using the pages counter. This is a pre-defined counter that is fixed to the total number of pages in the document. This example demonstrates a more complete headers style. It uses generated content to print page numbers, the chapter number and title and the section number and title using different styles for left and right pages.

It also prints an underline under the header. The main content area is 2. On the left and right this is a margin of 2. This places the bottom border of the top page region 0. The header text has the vertical-align: This example uses many properties and page selectors discussed later in this section.

This is a small part of a larger example in our Prince samples repository. Generated content in page regions may contain text content copied from the document using the string-set property:. The page rule specifies that the top-center page region will contain the text content of the document title copied from the text content of the h1 element in the document.

The TEI and XML

The second argument to the string function is a page-policy see The optional page-policy value. For a dictionary, you might want to have a page header that says "a-af", where "a" is the first definition on the page and "af" is the last, so you apply string-set for each definition, and then you can select the first and last one with a page policy in the page header.

The page policy value first-except is equivalent to start , unless the string-set is applied on the current page, in which case it will return no value. This can be very useful as a means to repeating the title of a chapter as a page heading in the top-center page region, without duplicating the information on the page where the heading appears in the running text of the page. Page region content may also be taken from the document itself. Any block-level element can be removed from the normal flow and placed in a page region.

It will normally inherit from its original position in the document, but does not display there. Please also note the following:. To move the content into a page region, the element needs to be removed from the normal document flow position with the running function of the position property, and inserted into the specified region with the element function of the content property.

The page rule specifies that the top page region is a new running header named "header". The rule for the h1 element moves it to the "header" running element, removing it from the default normal flow.

Prince also provides another interface for creating running headers: In addition to the standard mechanism, the Prince specific one offers an extra feature that might be useful in certain scenarios: An example to clarify:. Unfortunately, if you want to place the footer element in the page footer, it will only appear on the last page - because it is at the end of the document!

To solve this, the document must be modified to look like this:.

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It can be achieved by using JavaScript to move the element, but the simple start keyword on the prince-flow property instructs Prince to pretend that the element was seen at the beginning of the document. The element and flow functions replace the entire margin box, and cannot be combined with other content.

If you just want to capture some text from the document, use named strings instead see Copying content from the document - they can be combined with other content. It is often necessary to apply styles to some pages, but not others.

Either applying them to only some pages, or on every page except selected pages. CSS and Prince provide a number of page selectors for choosing which pages a rule applies to. In a novel it is useful to print a page number at the bottom of every page, except for some pages such as the title page. In this example the page rule is applied to all pages. Then the page: See Page regions and Generated Content. In this example the page rule specifies styles that apply to all pages: It resets the content property for the footer and increases the top margin, printing the title of the novel in a reasonable place on the page see Page style.

This example also uses the break-before property to force a page break see Page breaks. When using the: See Page groups.

This is often used in text books to place the page number on the outside top corners of pages. Alternatively, the: See also Writing Mode. These rules also place the book title in the header of left pages, and the current chapter's title in the header of right-facing pages. The book title is copied from the text content of the h1 element while the chapter title is copied from the text content of the h2 elements see Generated Content. They also specify wider margins in the gutter of the page spread; binders may need this extra width for a book's binding.

The first page in a document using the default left-to-right reading order is a right page. Imagine the cover or a title page of a book which appear on a right page. The first page of a right-to-left document is a left page. By putting break-before: Sometimes it can be useful to select the N th page in a document.

Sometimes it is necessary to style pages depending on their content; named pages allow us to select pages that contain particular elements. We used this in Restarting page numbering , to apply a style to the table of contents pages to print their page numbers using roman numerals. The element containing the table of contents has a page property applied, specifying that this element's pages are table-of-contents pages. The page property may be applied to any block-level element within a non-floating environment in the normal flow.

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Then using this page name to apply a different page rule to the table-of-contents pages:. More than one element can belong to the same name, in other words, page names behave like CSS classes. Prince will create a page break between elements belonging to different named pages, including elements without a named page. So in Restarting page numbering , a page break will be inserted after the the table of contents, because the next element has the page name main rather than table-of-contents.

Selectors such as: For example:. This example only works when a page name is used only once within a document, such as for the preface of a document documents only have one preface.

If you wish to apply a style to the first page of every chapter then you must use the prince-page-group property to create page groups:.

The property prince-page-group: This is necessary for the div. As we discussed in the previous section, break-before: If the previous page is a right page, two page breaks are inserted, leaving a blank left page.

However, this page will have normal page styles applied to it, which is usually not what people want. This example clears the generated content used on these pages. This works because: Note that when used with named pages, the blank page has the same name as the page following it.

For example, when typesetting a book with pages named frontmatter for the title page, table of contents, etc. If chapter 1 also resets page numbering, then the page numbers will be reset on the first content page , i. It is not always desirable to have no content on blank pages. Sometimes otherwise blank pages are required have some content, such as a notice saying "This page sententially left blank". For example, in legal documents, this prevents people from mistaking a dangerous printing error for an intentionally blank page.

When consecutive elements belong to the same named page but logically separate structures such as individual chapters Prince combines them into one page group. This causes it to apply the: Instead we usually want: Prince provides the prince-page-group property that can be used to start a new page group. It can be seen in Fancy headers applied to h1 elements in the body of the document. The more specific left and right page take precedence over prince-page-group.

Prince will create page breaks automatically when new content will not fit on a page. Sometimes it is useful or necessary to control where page breaks should and should not be used.

There are two ways to do this, and both are useful in different circumstances: The simplest case is when you want to explicitly create a page break. This is typically used at the beginning of a chapter, to start the new chapter on a new page.

Other values are auto , avoid , avoid-page , avoid-column , left , as well as recto , verso and column. The previous example could therefore also have been written in the following, more semantic and possibly more flexible way:. The property break-after may also be used to force a page break after an element. It is necessary to force a page break when creating overhead slides.

This example shows other styling that may be required to create presentation slides. The font-family and color properties are specified both in the page and body rules, even though they're the same.

This is required because the page regions are outside of the body and must be styled separately, likewise the content within body cannot be styled by the page rule.

A rendered slide for this example is shown in Presentation slides example. This is part of our samples repository. You are encouraged to use samples from the repository and contribute your own. So far we have discussed forcing a page break, however suppressing page breaks is also important. For example, it is poor style to have a page break between a header and the first paragraph of a section. Therefore, the default Prince stylesheet will use the break-after property to suppress page breaks immediately after headers:.

If a heading occurs at the bottom of a page, it may be moved to the next page to keep it with the content that follows it, usually a paragraph. Avoiding page breaks within an element is also important. For example, it is best to avoid breaks within a figure or table. This can be done with the break-inside property:.

If the figure or table would have been split across two pages, it may be moved to the next page to keep it in one piece.

An element longer than one page will still need to be split across multiple pages. The break-inside property cannot be used to create forced page breaks; its only valid values are auto and avoid. These three properties can be applied to block-level elements, table rows and table row groups that occur within an in-flow element ie. Therefore the figure and table example only make sense when the figure or table is not floated. Prince also supports the properties page-break-before , page-break-after and page-break-inside from the CSS 2.

However, you are encouraged to use the newer properties break-before , break-after and break-inside from the CSS Fragmentation Module Level 3. Page breaks have similarities with column breaks, see Columns. When a page or column break occurs within a box such as a div its bottom and top borders are cloned so that they also appear at the bottom of the first section and the top of the second section of the box. This is shown in the left of Box decoration break sample.

This is the default but may be set with the box-decoration-break property, setting its value to clone. If instead you wish the borders to remain open, as if the box were simply sliced in half, as in the right of Box decoration break sample , then you can set this property to slice. Just as breaking a page between a heading and the first paragraph below the heading can look bad, breaking the page after only one or two lines of a paragraph also looks bad.

These stray lines are called orphans. The minimum number of orphans to allow can be specified with the orphans property the default is 1. Likewise the minimum number of lines to move to a new page widows can be specified with the widows property the default is 1.

It can be easy to confuse widows and orphans. However a mnemonic device can help: Source Widows and orphans — Wikipedia. When typesetting a magazine or flier it can be useful to print right to the edge of the paper. However most printers will refuse do do this.

It is better to print on larger stock and then crop the paper to the correct size. If you use the marks property, Prince will create bleed and trim areas around your content and the declared page size. This can be seen in the catalog example, adapted from the Catalog sample in the Prince samples repository.

This example uses some of the properties that we introduced above, plus three new ones: These options enable crop and cross marks and specify bleed and trim areas. Note that size of the content does not change when we add these options, the page is still 8.

Instead 0. Therefore we will need to print on 9. Prince also allows the placement, length and width of the crop marks to be specified respectively with the prince-mark-offset , prince-mark-length and prince-mark-width properties. Generated content is text and other content that is not found in the original input document, but is added to the output from a style sheet using the CSS content property. Useful applications of this property include Page regions , List markers or Footnotes.

Generated content is inserted by means of several functions that typically are used within the content property. However, please note that these functions are not unique to the content property, but can be used for the same purpose in several other ones, namely:.

The most simple use of generating content in these properties is to insert a literal string. A literal string can also be passed as an argument to the leader function, which expands to fill the available space on the line like justified text, by repeating the string as many times as necessary. The properties can also insert external content fetched from another resource. This can be done with the following functions:. It can also be done with the prince-fallback url function, which works just like the url function, but also has the possibility of specifying a fallback content , in case the loading of the URL should fail.

The content to be inserted can also be fetched from the attributes of other elements with the attr attribute-name function, or from other elements with the following mechanisms:. All counter functions can take an optional argument to define the counter style see Counter styles.

Prince also offers two mechanisms to create user-defined counter styles: Last but not least, Prince supports arbitrary JavaScript functions to be called from CSS generated content using the prince-script function see Script Functions. A special function is prince-glyph-index int , which allows to choose a glyph from a font by the index of that glyph in the font.

Note that this is very non-portable, as glyph indices are specific to individual font versions. But it is a possible escape hatch for people who need a specific glyph and don't have any other way of accessing it by Unicode character or OpenType substitution. The generated content functions element , counter , counters , string and flow , have a second, optional argument, namely page-policy , which can be one of the following:.

The page policy values of the string function are only meaningful for string used in page region content. For a good example of its use, please see Copying content from the document. For example, adding section numbers in front of headings or including quotation marks around a block of text. Counters are the mechanism provided by CSS to perform numbering. They can be used to number list items, pages, footnotes, sections and any other document content that needs to be numbered.

To use a counter, it first needs to be initialized with the counter-reset property, which can be applied to any element and initializes one or more counters to the specified values, or to zero if no value is specified. The property can be used to reset a counter by re-initializing it. Unless the resetting of a counter creates a nested counter, the scope of the counter includes the current element and all of its following siblings.

The counter-increment property applies to any element and increments or decrements one or more counters by the specified values, or by one if no value is specified.

Here it is again, with a few more nodes added to it: Example 1. It really is as good as we say it is--or your money back. As Figure 1. Notice the little minus signs next to some of the XML nodes? A minus sign in front of a node indicates that the node contains other nodes. If you click the minus sign, Internet Explorer will collapse all the child nodes belonging to that node, as shown in Figure 1.

Collapsing nodes displaying in Internet Explorer. View larger image. The little plus sign next to the first product node indicates that the node has children. Clicking on the plus sign will expand any nodes under that particular node. In this way, you can easily display the parts of the document on which you want to focus. Now, open your XML document in any text editing tool and scroll down to the cost node of the second product.

You should see an error message that looks like the one pictured in Figure 1. Error message displaying in Internet Explorer. Furthermore, it provides a nice visual of the offending line, a little arrow pointing to the spot at which the parser thinks the problem arose.

Because Internet Explorer uses a non-validating parser by default remember, this means it only cares about well-formedness rules , it runs into problems at the end tag. You now have to backtrack to find out why that particular end tag caused such a problem. Open your XML document in an editor once more, and fix the problem we introduced above. Save your work and reload your browser. You should see an error message similar to the one shown in Figure 1.

Debugging a more complex error. At first glance, this error message seems a bit more obscure than the previous one. However, look closely and what do you see? Firefox is a popular open-source browser, and at the time this book went to print the latest version was 1.

You can download a free copy from the Mozilla website. How do you do that? Well, there are a couple of options, listed below. All you have to do is visit the appropriate page, upload your document, and the parser will validate it. Here is the most popular online parser.

Viewing raw XML in Firefox. Using a Local Validating Parser Sometimes, it may be impractical to use a Website to validate your XML because of issues relating to connectivity, privacy, or security. Just download the package and install it by following the instructions provided. Be warned, however, that you will have to know something about working with Java tools and files before you can get this one installed successfully.

This checks for well-formedness if the document has no DTD, and for well-formedness and validity if a DTD is specified. Results of the validation will appear under the Results area, as illustrated in Figure 1. For most purposes, an online resource will do the job nicely. If you work in a company that has an established software development group, chances are that one of the XML-savvy developers has already set up a good validating parser.

This project will help ground your skills as you obtain firsthand experience with practical XML development techniques, issues, and processes. It usually consists of the following components: A data back-end comprising XML or database tables that contains all your articles, news stories, images, and other content. A data display component — usually templates or other pages — onto which your articles, images, etc.

A data administration component. This usually comprises easy-to-use HTML forms that allow site administrators to create, edit, publish, and delete articles in some kind of secure workflow. Requirements Gathering Before you build any kind of CMS, first you must gather information that defines the basic requirements for the project. The goal of the CMS is to make things easier for those who need to develop and run the site.When Unicode is not in use, the size in bytes of a text file is simply the number of characters, including spaces, and with a new line counting for 1 or 2.

It takes the same values as text-align. Every piece of metadata could potentially drive some kind of site behavior, but each piece of metadata also must be managed by the administration tools you set up. Make sure that the checkbox for "Enable Document Scripts" is checked, and click on the "Convert" button to convert the documents into your documentation in PDF format. Various standard properties are available to position the background, to clip it or to determine whether, and how it should be repeated.

It goes without saying that your administrative interface has to be secure, otherwise, anyone could click to your CMS and start deleting content, making unauthorized changes to existing content, or adding new content that you may not want to have on your site.

As such, suitably formatted files can be, and sometimes are, generated by hand using a plain text editor or programmer's editor.

LAREE from New Hampshire
Review my other articles. I take pleasure in parallel bars. I do love sharing PDF docs yawningly.