THE TEMPEST BOOK
Enter a Master and a Boatswain. Master .. Perform'd to point the tempest that I bade thee? ARIEL. To every Come, swear to that; kiss the book: I will furnish. The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare, probably written in –, and thought to .. The Tempest is the first play in the book. It was proofread and. Start by marking “The Tempest” as Want to Read: The first time I read Shakespeare was when I was around ten years old. Prospero manipulates his daughter Miranda, the prince Ferdinand, his father (the King of Naples), Ariel, Caliban, and the rest of the cast!.
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It is entirely probable that the date of "The Tempest" is , and that this was the last play completed by Shakespeare before he retired from active connection. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes , the SparkNotes The Tempest Study Guide has everything you need to ace. A short summary of William Shakespeare's The Tempest. Gonzalo leaves them supplies and Prospero's books, which are the source of his magic and power.
I am in case to justle a constable. Why, thou deboshed fish thou, was there ever man a coward that hath drunk so much sack as I to-day? Wilt thou tell a monstrous lie, being but half a fish and half a monster? That a monster should be such a natural! The poor monster's my subject and he shall not suffer indignity. Wilt thou be pleased to hearken once again to the suit I made to thee?
By your patience, I needs must rest me. Even here I will put off my hope and keep it No longer for my flatterer: Well, let him go. Do not, for one repulse, forego the purpose That you resolved to effect. Solemn and strange music. Thunder and lightning. Enter ARIEL, like a harpy; claps his wings upon the table; and, with a quaint device, the banquet vanishes. He vanishes in thunder; then, to soft music enter the Shapes again, and dance, with mocks and mows, and carrying out the table.
O Ferdinand, Do not smile at me that I boast her off, For thou shalt find she will outstrip all praise And make it halt behind her. Our worser genius can, shall never melt Mine honour into lust, to take away The edge of that day's celebration When I shall think: Sit then and talk with her; she is thine own.
What, Ariel! Enter certain Reapers, properly habited: A noise of hunters heard. My charms crack not; my spirits obey; and time Goes upright with his carriage. How's the day? Say, my spirit, How fares the king and's followers? To keep from going mad, I would have to carve what I can remember of the great classics into the bark of wood.
They just happen to be on a ship passing close to the island. What opportunity be this! King Alonso of Naples, who helped Antonio overthrow his brother, is now on the island. So is his son Ferdinand, his brother Sebastian, and of course, the main focus of vengeance for Prospero, his brother Antonio.
Needless to say, treachery abounds among the troop. Antonio actively encourages Sebastian to do as he did and overthrow his brother. What better opportunity than here on an island?
Toss him in a bog, or run him through with a sword, or maybe let Caliban eat him. What makes this all very interesting to me is that Prospero, using Ariel, intercedes.
There has also been speculation about whether Caliban gets on the boat to sail back to Italy with them. In my mind, Caliban sees himself as the King of the Island, so why would he leave now that his usurper is leaving?
Nice parallel with Antonio overthrowing Prospero, and Prospero overthrowing Caliban. A scrivener is one who has a talent and is practiced at using a quill pen and ink to create legible manuscripts. Crane is thought to have neaten texts, edited the divisions of acts and scenes, and sometimes added his own improvements. He was fond of joining words with hyphens, and using elisions with apostrophes, for example by changing "with the king" to read: The entire First Folio project was delivered to the blind printer, William Jaggard , and printing began in The Tempest is the first play in the book.
It was proofread and printed with special care; it is the most well-printed and the cleanest text of the thirty-six plays. To do the work of setting the type in the printing press three compositors were used for The Tempest.
In the s, a landmark bibliographic study of the First Folio was accomplished by Charlton Hinman. Based on distinctive quirks in the printed words on the page, the study was able to individuate the compositors, and reveal that three compositors worked on The Tempest , they are known as Compositor B, C and F. He also was fond of dashes and colons, where modern editions use commas. In his role, he may have had a responsibility for the entire First Folio. The other two, Compositors C and F, worked full-time and were experienced printers.
Spelling and punctuation was not standardized, and will vary from page to page, because each compositor had their individual preferences and styles. There is evidence that the press run was stopped at least four times, which allowed proofreading and corrections.
However, a page with an error would not be discarded, so pages late in any given press run would be the most accurate, and each of the final printed folios may vary in this regard.
This is the common practice at the time. There is also an instance of a letter a metal sort or a type being damaged possibly during the course of a run and changing the meaning of a word: After the masque Ferdinand says,.
The word "wise" at the end of line was printed with the traditional long "s" that resembles an "f".
But in it was suggested that during the press run, a small piece of the crossbar on the type had broken off, and the word should be "wife".
Modern editors have not come to an agreement—Oxford says "wife", Arden says "wise". Our revels now are ended. These our actors, As I foretold you, were all spirits and Are melted into air, into thin air; And like the baseless fabric of this vision, The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, Leave not a rack behind.
We are such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life Is rounded with a sleep.
The Tempest is explicitly concerned with its own nature as a play, frequently drawing links between Prospero's art and theatrical illusion; the shipwreck was a spectacle that Ariel performed, while Antonio and Sebastian are cast in a troop to act. Thomas Campbell in was the first to consider that Prospero was meant to partially represent Shakespeare, but then abandoned that idea when he came to believe that The Tempest was an early play. Prospero is a magician, whose magic is a beneficial "white magic".
Prospero learned his magic by studying in his books about nature, and he uses magic to achieve what he considers positive outcomes. Shakespeare uses Caliban to indicate the opposite — evil black magic.
Caliban's mother, Sycorax, who does not appear, represents the horrors that were stirring at this time in England and elsewhere regarding witchcraft and black magic. Magic was taken seriously and studied by serious philosophers, notably the German Henricus Cornelius Agrippa , who in published in three volumes his De Occulta Philosophia , which summarized work done by Italian scholars on the topic of magic.
Agrippa's work influenced John Dee , an Englishman, who, like Prospero, had a large collection of books on the occult, as well as on science and philosophy. It was a dangerous time to philosophize about magic— Giordano Bruno for example was burned at the stake in Italy in — just a few years before The Tempest was written.
But another thing to note in The Tempest is that many different things can be interpreted as 'magic', or at least to have the effect of magic saying that magic has to have either a physical or emotional effect.
For example, the effect that alcohol has on Caliban  changes his way of thinking significantly and he reveals things he wouldn't reveal normally and acts in ways he wouldn't act normally.
Alcohol is as strong as any other magic in the manipulation of minds throughout the play and in this way, Shakespeare shows that magic can manifest itself in many guises, not just in the 'good' and 'evil' magic that we can become accustomed to. Prospero uses magic grounded in science and reality — the kind that was studied by Agrippa and Dee. Prospero studied and gradually was able to develop the kind of power represented by Ariel, which extended his abilities.
Prospero seeks to set things right in his world through his magic, and once that is done, he renounces it, setting Ariel free.
What Prospero is trying to do with magic is essential to The Tempest; it is the unity of action. Prospero seems to know precisely what he wants. Beginning with the tempest at the top of the play, his project is laid out in a series of steps. His plan is to do all he can to reverse what was done twelve years ago when he was usurped: First he will use a tempest to cause certain persons to fear his great powers, then when all survived unscathed, he will separate those who lived through the tempest into different groups.
These separations will let him deal with each group differently. What is beyond his magical powers is to cause them to fall in love. But they do. The next stages for the couple will be a testing. To help things along he magically makes the others fall into a sleep. The masque which is to educate and prepare the couple is next.
But then his plans begin to go off the tracks when the masque is interrupted. Prospero's magic hasn't worked on Sebastian and Antonio, who are not penitent. Prospero then deals with Antonio, not with magic, but with something more mundane—blackmail. Jan Kott considers it a disillusionment for both Prospero and for the author. Tillyard plays it down as a minor disappointment. Some critics consider Sebastian and Antonio clownish and not a real threat. Stephen Orgel blames Prospero for causing the problem by forgetting about Sebastian and Antonio, which may introduce a theme of Prospero's encroaching dotage.
In the end Prospero is learning the value of being human. The story draws heavily on the tradition of the romance , a fictitious narrative set far away from ordinary life. Romances were typically based around themes such as the supernatural, wandering, exploration and discovery. They were often set in coastal regions, and typically featured exotic, fantastical locations and themes of transgression and redemption, loss and retrieval, exile and reunion.
As a result, while The Tempest was originally listed as a comedy in the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays, subsequent editors have chosen to give it the more specific label of Shakespearean romance. Like the other romances, the play was influenced by the then-new genre of tragicomedy , introduced by John Fletcher in the first decade of the 17th century and developed in the Beaumont and Fletcher collaborations, as well as by the explosion of development of the courtly masque form by such as Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones at the same time.
Prospero's struggle to regain his dukedom; it is also confined to one place, a fictional island, which many scholars agree is meant to be located in the Mediterranean Sea.
In the denouement of the play, Prospero enters into a parabasis a direct address to the audience. Prospero, and by extension Shakespeare, turns his absolution over to the audience. Four centuries after original productions of the play audiences are still clapping at the end of The Tempest , rewarding Prospero for recreating the European hegemony.
One need not change the text of The Tempest for feminist and anti-colonial reproductions. All that is needed is a different kind of audience, one that is aware of itself and its agency. In Shakespeare's day, much of the world was still being colonized by European merchants and settlers, and stories were coming back from the Americas, with myths about the Cannibals of the Caribbean, faraway Edens , and distant tropical Utopias.
With the character Caliban whose name is almost an anagram of Cannibal and also resembles " Cariban ", the term then used for natives in the West Indies , Shakespeare may be offering an in-depth discussion into the morality of colonialism. Different views of this are found in the play, with examples including Gonzalo 's Utopia, Prospero 's enslavement of Caliban, and Caliban's subsequent resentment. Caliban is also shown as one of the most natural characters in the play, being very much in touch with the natural world and modern audiences have come to view him as far nobler than his two Old World friends, Stephano and Trinculo, although the original intent of the author may have been different.
There is evidence that Shakespeare drew on Montaigne 's essay Of Cannibals —which discusses the values of societies insulated from European influences—while writing The Tempest. Beginning in about , with the publication of Psychology of Colonization by Octave Mannoni , The Tempest was viewed more and more through the lens of postcolonial theory.
This new way of looking at the text explored the effect of the coloniser Prospero on the colonised Ariel and Caliban.
Although Ariel is often overlooked in these debates in favour of the more intriguing Caliban, he is nonetheless an essential component of them. Fernandez Retamar sets his version of the play in Cuba , and portrays Ariel as a wealthy Cuban in comparison to the lower-class Caliban who also must choose between rebellion or negotiation. For example, Michelle Cliff , a Jamaican author, has said that she tries to combine Caliban and Ariel within herself to create a way of writing that represents her culture better.
Such use of Ariel in postcolonial thought is far from uncommon; the spirit is even the namesake of a scholarly journal covering post-colonial criticism.
Feminist interpretations of The Tempest consider the play in terms of gender roles and relationships among the characters on stage, and consider how concepts of gender are constructed and presented by the text, and explore the supporting consciousnesses and ideologies, all with an awareness of imbalances and injustices.
The Tempest is a play created in a male dominated culture and society, a gender imbalance the play explores metaphorically by having only one major female role, Miranda. Miranda is fifteen, intelligent, naive, and beautiful. The only humans she has ever encountered in her life are male. Prospero sees himself as her primary teacher, and asks if she can remember a time before they arrived to the island—he assumes that she cannot.
When Miranda has a memory of "four or five women" tending to her younger self 1. Other women, such as Caliban's mother Sycorax , Miranda's mother and Alonso's daughter Claribel, are only mentioned. Because of the small role women play in the story in comparison to other Shakespeare plays, The Tempest has attracted much feminist criticism. Miranda is typically viewed as being completely deprived of freedom by her father.
Her only duty in his eyes is to remain chaste. Ann Thompson argues that Miranda, in a manner typical of women in a colonial atmosphere, has completely internalised the patriarchal order of things, thinking of herself as subordinate to her father. Most of what is said about Sycorax is said by Prospero, who has never met Sycorax — what he knows of her he learned from Ariel.
When Miranda asks Prospero, "Sir, are you not my father? This surprising answer has been difficult for those interpretations that portray their relationship simply as a lordly father to an innocent daughter, and the exchange has at times been cut in performance.
Adaptations of the play, not Shakespeare's original, dominated the performance history of The Tempest from the English Restoration until the midth century. Upon the restoration of the monarchy in , two patent companies —the King's Company and the Duke's Company —were established, and the existing theatrical repertoire divided between them. They tried to appeal to upper-class audiences by emphasising royalist political and social ideals: Miranda has a sister, named Dorinda; Caliban also has a sister, named Sycorax.
In , Thomas Shadwell re-adapted Dryden and Davenant as an opera of the same name, usually meaning a play with sections that were to be sung or danced.
Samuel Pepys , for example, described it as "an old play of Shakespeares" in his diary. The opera was extremely popular, and "full of so good variety, that I cannot be more pleased almost in a comedy" according to Pepys. Eckhard Auberlen describes him as "reduced to the status of a Polonius -like overbusy father, intent on protecting the chastity of his two sexually naive daughters while planning advantageous dynastic marriages for them. It opened with what appeared to be a tempest, but turns out to be a riot in a brothel.
Ariel was—with two exceptions—played by a woman, and invariably by a graceful dancer and superb singer. Caliban was a comedian's role, played by actors "known for their awkward figures". In , David Garrick staged another operatic version, a "three-act extravaganza" with music by John Christopher Smith.
The Tempest was one of the staples of the repertoire of Romantic Era theatres. John Philip Kemble produced an acting version which was closer to Shakespeare's original, but nevertheless retained Dorinda and Hippolito.
Kemble's Dorinda and Miranda, for example, were played "in white ornamented with spotted furs". In , a year after the debut of his operatic version, David Garrick produced a heavily cut performance of Shakespeare's script at Drury Lane , and it was revived, profitably, throughout the century.
It was not until William Charles Macready 's influential production in that Shakespeare's text established its primacy over the adapted and operatic versions which had been popular for most of the previous two centuries. The performance was particularly admired for George Bennett 's performance as Caliban; it was described by Patrick MacDonnell—in his An Essay on the Play of The Tempest published in —as "maintaining in his mind, a strong resistance to that tyranny, which held him in the thraldom of slavery".
The Victorian era marked the height of the movement which would later be described as "pictorial": Hans Christian Andersen also saw this production and described Ariel as "isolated by the electric ray", referring to the effect of a carbon arc lamp directed at the actress playing the role.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Caliban, not Prospero, was perceived as the star act of The Tempest , and was the role which the actor-managers chose for themselves. Frank Benson researched the role by viewing monkeys and baboons at the zoo; on stage, he hung upside-down from a tree and gibbered. Continuing the lateth-century tradition, in Herbert Beerbohm Tree wore fur and seaweed to play Caliban , with waist-length hair and apelike bearing, suggestive of a primitive part-animal part-human stage of evolution.
John Gielgud played Prospero numerous times, and is, according to Douglas Brode, "universally heralded as … [the 20th] century's greatest stage Prospero". Peter Brook directed an experimental production at the Round House in , in which the text was "almost wholly abandoned" in favour of mime. Evil is born.
In spite of the existing tradition of a black actor playing Caliban opposite a white Prospero, colonial interpretations of the play did not find their way onto the stage until the s. Miller's production was described, by David Hirst, as depicting "the tragic and inevitable disintegration of a more primitive culture as the result of European invasion and colonisation".
This used a mixed cast made up of white actors as the humans and black actors playing the spirits and creatures of the island. According to Michael Billington , "von Sydow's Prospero became a white overlord manipulating a mutinous black Caliban and a collaborative Ariel keenly mimicking the gestures of the island's invaders.
The colonial metaphor was pushed through to its logical conclusion so that finally Ariel gathered up the pieces of Prospero's abandoned staff and, watched by awe-struck tribesmen, fitted them back together to hold his wand of office aloft before an immobilised Caliban. The Tempest suddenly acquired a new political dimension unforeseen by Shakespeare.
Psychoanalytic interpretations have proved more difficult to depict on stage. However neither was regarded as wholly successful: Shakespeare Quarterly , reviewing Freedman's production, commented, "Mr.
Freedman did nothing on stage to make such a notion clear to any audience that had not heard of it before. In , John Wood played Prospero for the RSC , emphasising the character's human complexity, in a performance a reviewer described as "a demented stage manager on a theatrical island suspended between smouldering rage at his usurpation and unbridled glee at his alternative ethereal power".
Japanese theatre styles have been applied to The Tempest. It was staged as a rehearsal of a Noh drama, with a traditional Noh theatre at the back of the stage, but also using elements which were at odds with Noh conventions.
Controversially, in the early performances of the run, Ariel spat at Prospero, once granted his freedom. Wolfe in the outdoor New York Shakespeare Festival production of , where the casting of Aunjanue Ellis as Ariel opposite Patrick Stewart 's Prospero charged the production with erotic tensions. The Tempest was performed at the Globe Theatre in with Vanessa Redgrave as Prospero, playing the role as neither male nor female, but with "authority, humanity and humour The performance was in collaboration with The Imaginarium and Intel , and featured "some gorgeous [and] some interesting"  use of light, special effects, and set design.
The Tempest has more music than any other Shakespeare play, and has proved more popular as a subject for composers than most of Shakespeare's plays. Scholar Julie Sanders ascribes this to the "perceived 'musicality' or lyricism" of the play. Two settings of songs from The Tempest which may have been used in performances during Shakespeare's lifetime have survived. The Tempest has also influenced songs written in the folk and hippie traditions: At least forty-six operas or semi-operas based on The Tempest exist.
In Act 3, a psychoanalyst, Mangus, pretends to be Prospero and uses situations from Shakespeare's play in his therapy sessions. This opera is unique in that the three vocalists, a soprano , contralto , and tenor , are voices rather than individual characters, with the tenor just as likely as the soprano to sing Miranda, or all three sing as one character.
There is an instrumental alter ego cello also for Prospero. Ballet sequences have been used in many performances of the play since Restoration times. Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano Sonata No.
But this story comes from his associate Anton Schindler , who is often not trustworthy. Stage musicals derived from The Tempest have been produced.
A production called The Tempest: Percy Bysshe Shelley was one of the earliest poets to be influenced by The Tempest. The poem uses simple diction to convey Ariel's closeness to nature and "imitates the straightforward beauty of Shakespeare's original songs".
One writer who explored these ideas was Robert Browning , whose poem " Caliban upon Setebos " sets Shakespeare's character pondering theological and philosophical questions. Sequel to The Tempest , in This features a female Ariel who follows Prospero back to Milan, and a Caliban who leads a coup against Prospero, after the success of which he actively imitates his former master's virtues. Auden 's "long poem" The Sea and the Mirror takes the form of a reflection by each of the supporting characters of The Tempest on their experiences.
The poem takes a Freudian viewpoint, seeing Caliban whose lengthy contribution is a prose poem as Prospero's libido. From the midth century, Shakespeare's plays, including The Tempest , began to appear as the subject of paintings. The Missing Link The work attempted to translate the contents of the plays into pictorial form. This extended not just to the action, but also to images and metaphors: Gonzalo's line about "mountaineers dewlapped like bulls" is illustrated with a picture of a Swiss peasant with a goitre.
The illustrations highlight the fairy-tale quality of the play, avoiding its dark side. Of the 40, only 12 are direct depictions of the action of the play:At the end of the play, he shows mercy to those of have wronged him.
But here in The Tempest the spells and incantations are only hinted at: Knowing how much Prospero loves his books, Gonzalo arranges for them to be placed on the ship when Miranda and Prospero are exiled from Milan. They have also among them books that they say Abraham, Aaron, and Solomon made; Caliban suggests that in order to overthrow Prospero, Stephano must seize his books.
Some critics consider Sebastian and Antonio clownish and not a real threat. Prospero, great as he is both as man and as magician, is not perfect, — not the ideal type of human genius and character, and not absolute master of himself.
It is amazing that two critics at least should have taken the ground that Miranda is not listening attentively.
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