SOCIAL NETWORKING PDF
PDF | The rapid adoption of social networking sites (SNSs) raises important questions about the social implications of such usage. Drawing on. Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship danah m. boyd http ://ppti.info~dwyer/research/DwyerAMCISpdf. Ellison, N., Steinfield. economics, has studied the importance of social networks in different The study of social networks was indeed initiated by sociologists more than a century.
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Social networking services are changing the ways in which people use and engage ppti.info~acquisti/papers/acquisti-gross-facebook-privacy-PET-final. pdf. Social Networking Services (SNS) are changing the ways in which people use and engage with the internet and with each other. Young people particularly are . 2. Agenda. ▫ Introduction & terminology. ▫ Market overview. ▫ Applications. ▫ The business of social networking. ▫ Where do I fit in? ▫ Future direction. ▫ Q&A .
Instead of connecting individuals based on social interest, companies are developing interactive communities that connect individuals based on shared business needs or experiences. Many provide specialized networking tools and applications that can be accessed via their websites, such as LinkedIn. Others companies, such as Monster. These more business related sites have their own nomenclature for the most part but the most common naming conventions are "Vocational Networking Sites" or "Vocational Media Networks", with the former more closely tied to individual networking relationships based on social networking principles.
Foursquare gained popularity as it allowed for users to check into places that they are frequenting at that moment.
Gowalla is another such service that functions in much the same way that Foursquare does, leveraging the GPS in phones to create a location-based user experience.
Clixtr, though in the real-time space, is also a location-based social networking site, since events created by users are automatically geotagged, and users can view events occurring nearby through the Clixtr iPhone app. Recently, Yelp announced its entrance into the location-based social networking space through check-ins with their mobile app; whether or not this becomes detrimental to Foursquare or Gowalla is yet to be seen, as it is still considered a new space in the Internet technology industry.
Companies have found that social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are great ways to build their brand image. According to Jody Nimetz, author of Marketing Jive,  there are five major uses for businesses and social media: to create brand awareness, as an online reputation management tool, for recruiting, to learn about new technologies and competitors, and as a lead generation tool to intercept potential prospects.
The niche social network offers a specialized space that's designed to appeal to a very specific market with a clearly defined set of needs. Where once the streams of social minutia on networks such as Facebook and Twitter were the ultimate in online voyeurism, now users are looking for connections, community and shared experiences.
Social networks that tap directly into specific activities, hobbies, tastes, and lifestyles are seeing a consistent rise in popularity. Niche social networks such as Fishbrain for fishing and Strava for cycling. These social platforms offer brands a rich space in which to engage with their target market and build awareness.
Science[ edit ] One other use that is being discussed is the use of social networks in the science communities. Julia Porter Liebeskind et al. Social networking is allowing scientific groups to expand their knowledge base and share ideas, and without these new means of communicating their theories might become "isolated and irrelevant". Researchers use social networks frequently to maintain and develop professional relationships.
This can be related to their need to keep updated on the activities and events of their friends and colleagues in order to establish collaborations on common fields of interest and knowledge sharing. Social networks like Academia.
For a number of years, Prensky's dichotomy between Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants has been considered a relatively accurate representation of the ease with which people of a certain age range—in particular those born before and after —use technology.
Prensky's theory has been largely disproved, however, and not least on account of the burgeoning popularity of social networking sites and other metaphors such as White and Le Cornu's "Visitors" and "Residents" are greater currency.
The use of online social networks by school libraries is also increasingly prevalent and they are being used to communicate with potential library users, as well as extending the services provided by individual school libraries. Social networks and their educational uses are of interest to many researchers.
According to Livingstone and Brake , " Social networking sites , like much else on the Internet, represent a moving target for researchers and policymakers. However, there are constraints in this area. Researches, especially in Africa, have disclosed that the use of social networks among students has been known to negatively affect their academic life.
This is buttressed by the fact that their use constitutes distractions, as well as that the students tend to invest a good deal of time in the use of such technologies. Albayrak and Yildirim examined the educational use of social networking sites. They investigated students' involvement in Facebook as a Course Management System CMS and the findings of their study support that Facebook as a CMS has the potential to increase student involvement in discussions and out-of-class communication among instructors and students.
SNSs like LinkedIn , a social networking website geared towards companies and industry professionals looking to make new business contacts or keep in touch with previous co-workers, affiliates, and clients. Not only does LinkedIn provide a professional social use, but it also encourages people to inject their personality into their profile—making it more personal than a resume.
Much of the early research on online communities assume that individuals using these systems would be connecting with others outside their preexisting social group or location, liberating them to form communities around shared interests, as opposed to shared geography. For individuals, social capital allows a person to draw on resources from other members of the networks to which he or she belongs. As well, networks within these services also can be established or built by joining special interest groups that others have made, or creating one and asking others to join.
Educators tap into user-generated content to find and discuss curriculum-related content for students. Responding to the popularity of social networking services among many students, teachers are increasingly using social networks to supplement teaching and learning in traditional classroom environments as they can provide new opportunities for enriching existing curriculum through creative, authentic and flexible, non-linear learning experiences.
In short, social networking services can become research networks as well as learning networks. Tweeting , instant messaging , or blogging enhances student involvement.
Students who would not normally participate in class are more apt to partake through social network services. Networking allows participants the opportunity for just-in-time learning and higher levels of engagement. When learning experiences are infused into a website student utilize everyday for fun, students realize that learning can and should be a part of everyday life.
It has been claimed that media no longer just influence human culture; they are human culture. Participants hone technical skills in choosing to navigate through social networking services.
This includes elementary items such as sending an instant message or updating a status. The development of new media skills are paramount in helping youth navigate the digital world with confidence. Social networking services foster learning through what Jenkins describes as a " participatory culture ".
Participants of social network services avail of this opportunity. Informal learning, in the forms of participatory and social learning online, is an excellent tool for teachers to sneak in material and ideas that students will identify with and therefore, in a secondary manner, students will learn skills that would normally be taught in a formal setting in the more interesting and engaging environment of social learning.
Applications for social networking sites have extended toward businesses and brands are creating their own, high functioning sites, a sector known as brand networking. It is the idea that a brand can build its consumer relationship by connecting their consumers to the brand image on a platform that provides them relative content, elements of participation, and a ranking or score system.
Brand networking is a new way to capitalize on social trends as a marketing tool. The power of social networks is beginning to permeate into internal culture of businesses where they are finding uses for collaboration , file sharing and knowledge transfer.
The term " enterprise social software " is becoming increasingly popular for these types of applications. Many social networks provide an online environment for people to communicate and exchange personal information for dating purposes. Intentions can vary from looking for a one time date, short-term relationships, and long-term relationships.
This usually includes a user's age, gender, location, interests, and perhaps a picture. Releasing very personal information is usually discouraged for safety reasons. Online dating sites are similar to social networks in the sense that users create profiles to meet and communicate with others, but their activities on such sites are for the sole purpose of finding a person of interest to date.
Social networks do not necessarily have to be for dating; many users simply use it for keeping in touch with friends, and colleagues. However, an important difference between social networks and online dating services is the fact that online dating sites usually require a fee, where social networks are free.
Many popular online dating services such as Match. Yet the vast majority of school districts have stringent rules against nearly all forms of social networking during the school day—even though students and parents report few problem behaviors online.
Social networks focused on supporting relationships between teachers and their students are now used for learning, educator professional development, and content sharing. HASTAC is a collaborative social network space for new modes of learning and research in higher education, K, and lifelong learning; Ning supports teachers; TermWiki , TeachStreet and other sites are being built to foster relationships that include educational blogs, portfolios, formal and ad hoc communities, as well as communication such as chats, discussion threads, and synchronous forums.
These sites also have content sharing and rating features. Social networks are also emerging as online yearbooks , both public and private. One such service is MyYearbook , which allows anyone from the general public to register and connect. A new trend emerging is private label yearbooks accessible only by students, parents, and teachers of a particular school, similar to Facebook 's beginning within Harvard.
The use of virtual currency systems inside social networks create new opportunities for global finance. Hub Culture operates a virtual currency Ven used for global transactions among members, product sales  and financial trades in commodities and carbon credits. The introduction of carbon to the calculation price of the currency made Ven the first and only currency that is linked to the environment.
Social networks are beginning to be adopted by healthcare professionals as a means to manage institutional knowledge, disseminate peer to peer knowledge and to highlight individual physicians and institutions. The advantage of using a dedicated medical social networking site is that all the members are screened against the state licensing board list of practitioners.
For alcoholics and addicts, SoberCircle gives people in recovery the ability to communicate with one another and strengthen their recovery through the encouragement of others who can relate to their situation. DailyStrength is also a website that offers support groups for a wide array of topics and conditions, including the support topics offered by PatientsLikeMe and SoberCircle.
Some social networks aim to encourage healthy lifestyles in their users. SparkPeople and HealthUnlocked offer community and social networking tools for peer support during weight loss. Other aspects of social network usage include the analysis of data coming from existing social networks such as Twitter to discover large crowd concentration events based on tweets location statistical analysis and disseminate the information to e. Social networking sites have recently showed a value in social and political movements.
Egyptian activists have credited social networking sites with providing a platform for planning protest and sharing news from Tahrir Square in real time.
By presenting a platform for thousands of people to instantaneously share videos of mainly events featuring brutality, social networking can be a vital tool in revolutions. Perhaps the most significant political application of social media is Barack Obama's election campaign in It was the first of its kind, as it successfully incorporated social media into its campaign winning strategy, evolving the way of political campaigns forevermore in the ever-changing technological world we find ourselves in today.
His campaign won by engaging everyday people and empowering volunteers, donors, and advocates, through social networks, text messaging, email messaging and online videos. In , when Obama first announced his candidacy, there was no such thing as an iPhone or Twitter. However, a year later, Obama was sending out voting reminders to thousands of people through Twitter, showing just how fast social media moves.
Obama's campaign was current and needed to be successful in incorporating social media, as social media acts best and is most effective in real time. Building up to the presidential election, it was interesting to see how strong the influence of social media would be following the campaigns, where Obama's winning campaign had been social media-heavy, whereas McCain's campaign did not really grasp social media.
JFK was the first president who really understood television, and similarly, Obama is the first president to fully understand the power of social media. Other political campaigns have followed on from Obama's successful social media campaigns, recognizing the power of social media and incorporating it as a key factor embedded within their political campaigns, for example, Donald Trump's presidential electoral campaign, Dan Pfeiffer, Obama's former digital and social media guru, commented that Donald Trump is "way better at the internet than anyone else in the GOP which is partly why he is winning".
Social media is, therefore, a very effective way in which politicians can connect with a younger audience through their political campaigns.
Crowdsourcing social media platform, such as Design Contest , Arcbazar , Tongal , combined group of professional freelancers , such as designers , and help them communicate with business owners interested in their suggestion.
This process is often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, and can also occur offline. There are a number of projects that aim to develop free and open source software to use for social networking services.
These technologies are often referred to as social engine or social networking engine software. The following is a list of the largest social networking services, in order by number of active users, as of January , as published by Statista: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Online platform that facilitates the building of social relations. This article is about the type of service. For the social science theoretical concept of relationships between people, see Social network. For a list of services, see List of social networking websites.
See also: Unauthorized access in online social networks. Main article: Troll Internet. Use of social network websites in investigations. Online dating service. Crowdsourcing creative work.
Comparison of software and protocols for distributed social networking. Anonymous social media Collective intelligence Comparison of research networking tools and research profiling systems Distributed social network Enterprise bookmarking Gender differences in social network service use Geosocial networking Internet Internet forum Internet think tanks Lateral diffusion List of social networking websites Mass collaboration Mobile social network Personal network Professional network service Online volunteering Social aspects of television Social bookmark link generator Social identity Social media Social network aggregation Social software Social television Virtual community.
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November 29, The Sydney Morning Herald. Social networking site such as Facebook and Twitter, adolescents who become members of these SNSs communities, they will firstly get a personal profile which will show their personal information including the name, job, photo, relationship status, religion, hobbies and so on then a network of friends are made and other users can then click on their profiles and traverse ever broadening social networks.
Although this facility is used by people of all age groups, but the predominant Social networking site users are young adults; three quarters of adult internet users under age 25 have a profile on these sites. The popularity of these sites is attracting more and more adult users. The excessive use of these sites not only has long lasting effect on students but also affects the physical, mental and social aspect of life. Besides the above mentioned view there is yet an arena of knowledge that holds the view that every student is unique in their own way; some are able to express themselves openly are termed as extroverts while others are shy in nature are called introverts.
Social networking facilitates open communication, leading to enhanced information discovery and delivery. In addition, it does not require one to voice out their opinions and ideas. Individuals are able to choose the preferred option and that is to communicate through social networks. Social networking sites have brought both good and bad to the present generation.
Social networking site has helped many students to acquire knowledge from one another over internet without necessarily have to meet physically.
Social networking service
On the other hand, social networking sites have caused many problems. For instance many students have lost their interest in their studies as they spent most of the time on these sites. What started out as a hobby for some computer literate people has become a social norm and way of life for people from all over the world.
The youth use social networking sites as a means of interaction, socializing, and for purely entertainment purposes? Although many people do not think of it, social networking sites harbour many unsafe elements and many people are concerned about some major problems that they contain, which includes education and poor academic performance.
It directly causes the gradual drop of grades of students. The time spent on online social networks was found to be heavily influenced by the attention span of the students. Specifically, we determined that the higher the attention span, the lower is the time spent on online social networks. Further, attention span was found to be highly correlated with characteristics that predict or influence student Journal Impact Factor: On the other hand there are many researches highlighting that there is a use of social networking sites does not affect academic achievement adversely .
Argue that often students use social networking websites to discuss their academics issues formally and informally and also to interact with their instructor, teachers and professors. The University of New Hampshire agrees, and believes that current college students grew up in the technology era and social networking is now just a part of a student's daily routine.
Social Networking Sites: Their Users and Social Implications - A Longitudinal Study
The University of New Hampshire said that a majority of students use social networking for social connections and entertainment, but are also using it for education and professional reasons. What started out as a hobby for some computer literate people has become a social norm and way of life for people from all over the world, Teenagers and young adults have especially embraced these sites as a way to connect with their peers, share information, reinvent their personalities, and showcase their social lives.
Many people actively participate in content generation and value creation, and several researchers  Have examined their profiles to determine why and to what extent they are keen on posting their entire identity, sharing pictures and videos, and indicating their religious affiliations, marital status, and political orientations on the internet. These users interact with others, exchange information about their interests, and raise discussions about new topics, follows news about specific topics on different Social Networking Sites  Teenagers now use the Internet for their daily activities and information gathering, as opposed to older generations who used resources like the television or newspaper.
American Educational Research Association conducted a research and it was declared on its annual conference in San Diego, California that SNSs users study less and generated lower grades eventually 21stcenturyscholar.
Similarly, found a continuing drop of grades among student users of social networking sites. However, many researchers also found a positive association between use of internet and SNS and academic performance of the student users.
Students, using internet frequently, scored higher on reading skills test and had higher grades. An ever increasing growth rate of SNS not only calls for the parental and teacher monitoring of student users but also attracting the focus of academicians and researchers towards this phenomenon. A recent survey showed that approximately ninety per cent of teens in the United States have Internet access, and about seventy-five per cent of these teens use the Internet more than once per day.
This study also showed that approximately half of all teens who have Internet access are also members of social networking sites, and use the Internet to make plans and socialize with friends. Hence, their academic performance must be managed efficiently keeping in view all the factors that can positively or negatively affect their educational performance. Use of technology such as internet is one of the most important factors that can influence academic performance of students positively or adversely.
Several studies have been done regarding social networking and grades. The University of New Hampshire recently conducted a survey of over 1, students.
They asked questions regarding which social network sites were used, how much time they spent on a site, what their grade point average GPA was, and what they were going to school for.
It was concluded that there is no correlation between how much time is spent on a social networking site and grades The University of New Hampshire agrees, and believes that current college students grew up in the technology era and social networking is now just a part of a student's daily routine.
The University of New Hampshire said that a majority of students use social networking for social connections and entertainment, but are also using for education and professional reasons.
Kirschnera believes that even running a social networking site on the background on a student's PC while studying or doing homework could lower a student's grade. He believes that "the problem is that most people have Facebook or other social networking sites, their e-mails and maybe instant messaging constantly running in the background while they are carrying out their tasks . Also  noted that students use social networking sites not only for leisure and personal socialization but also as a podium for more meaningful and serious deliberations, and students are using social networking for making friends, sharing links, online learning, finding jobs to accomplish their economic, educational, political and social being.
According to recent social media industry figures, twitter currently ranks as one of the leading social networks worldwide based on active users. As of the first quarter of , Twitter had million monthly active users. Registered users can read and post tweets as well as follow others users via update feed. Use of Twitter goes beyond personal use and can be purposeful with practical applications.This is buttressed by the fact that their use constitutes distractions, as well as that the students tend to invest a good deal of time in the use of such technologies.
Detecting such spamming activity has been well studied by developing a semi-automated model to detect spams. While undergoing this development stage, adolescents become conscious about sexual identity, peer relationships and other social interactions.
Social interaction and co-viewing with Youtube: Improving spam detection in Online Social Networks. Retrieved February 7, Brand networking is a new way to capitalize on social trends as a marketing tool. Fouts stated that there were many ways of being involved and engaged in social media and lots of social media tools have been developed for this purpose Fouts,
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