ppti.info Education Rapid Prototyping Ebook


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Accelerate Design Cycles and Lower Production Costs eBook. With Rapid Prototyping and Design Verification. You are here. Home; Accelerate Design Cycles. Download the eBook to: • Learn when to prototype and how to achieve faster time to market. • Reduce development cycles, lead-time and. Read "Rapid Prototyping Principles and Applications (with Companion CD-ROM) " by Chee Kai Chua available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off.

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Download Our Introductory Guide to Rapid Prototyping, and learn how to improve the time to profitability on your next lighting assembly project. Prototype-eBookpdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. In the process of rapid prototyping, a prototype or working model can be . Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. Rapid prototyping is a faster, more cost- effective # in Kindle Store > Kindle eBooks > Engineering & Transportation > Engineering > Industrial, Manufacturing & Operational Systems > Industrial.

Week after week, not just once in awhile. We want to make it a habit. That curiosity also got us wondering: That is why we went on a wild hunt to gather all the free ebooks that we could find. It took us some time, but the count is in. We invite you to join our hunt and bring your catch to this library. It is an open library so everyone is welcome to take, and everyone is welcome to add.

We want to salute every one of the authors for taking the effort to write these books and make their knowledge available to everyone.

So thank you for spreading knowledge, and thank you for sharing this list and adding your finds to it, in the comments, on twitter and everywhere you can. Download the full list of all free books including all the covers and all the download links. Quickly navigate all free ebooks: Essential, easy and fun information on creating a good looking website with primary coding knowledge.

Pixel Perfect Precision Handbook by ustwo. Why this book has grown from a page simple guide to a page designer bible that went through 3 editions. Illustrated digital design knowledge with best practices for visuals in web design How-to instructions for Photoshop with a focus on visual design. A short but very interesting book on browsers by the people that know most about them — the Google Chrome team. How browsers evolved through time. The intricate works of a browser.

How they have impacted the way we surf the web. A great guide for startups that helps them integrate UX into their workflow. Learn about all the steps your startup needs to take to grow from good UX. From validating your product assumptions and efficient UX design techniques, to quality research, measuring, and optimizing for growth. The difference between product managers and UX designers How communication works in the design process How product managers can use wireframes for maximum effect Usability studies and UX design tools product managers should use.

The Indispensable UX Designer: Know the pros and cons of starting your own web design business Avoid common mistakes made by new self-employed designers Tips and tricks for building successful client relationships from the beginning Bonus material from experts at Creative Market. Introduction to Good Usability by Peterpixel. For user-centered design or usability learners, this is a good reference to get you into the amazing and fun-filled world of UX.

Web Style Guide by Patrick J. Lynch and Sarah Horton. A book written in still remaining one of the best style guides for web interfaces. How to plan, develop and manage a website or web project Information on web teams and on interface design Highly readable, this book is overflowing with examples and is beneficial for a newbie and trained experts alike.

Bright ideas for user experience designers by Userfocus. UX Masters: The fundamental principles of successful UX. How to manage relations with other departments in the business. Important tips and tricks that you can implement within your UX team. David Travis.

An interesting journey of one young man as he learns the secrets of good user-centered design. It leaves you with a much better comprehension for the framework of the user-centered approach to UX and UI design. A page book on everything you need to get into web design written by the guy behind A List Apart. Why this book had a 5-star rating on Amazon before they released it for free.

A great read for print designers who want to design websites, art directors who want to move to the world of web, and professionals who want to deepen their web skills and understanding. Getting Real by 37signals aka Basecamp. Why this free ebook is the most popular and downloaded book on how to approach building a startup or your next project.

The right way to build web applications from the makers of Basecamp which is now used by more than Wow, that does not happen easily! Everything from the beginning and sketching your idea on paper, to delivering the final product to the public. Plus tips and tricks for customer support and keeping things alive and kicking. This guide will teach you the best techniques for designing your website, using the tried and true principles of graphic design.

It takes an approach that includes researching the usage of the site, understanding typography, utilizing color for navigation as well as presentation and creating a usable and satisfying layout. Keith Andrews. Well worth reading for UX beginners and advanced UXers as well! Carroll and Judith Reitman Olson. The effects of unchanging human psychology, learning, and mental models on great design While very academic, it contains many useful insights on user-centric design.

Converting the Believers by Usereffect. Learn how to use analytics, usability and testing to systematically improve online sales.

A massive ebook with interviews and stories from 42 UX gurus on their experiences of being a UX professional. Insight into UX gurus career paths and design processes, with useful links and references all around the book.

Almost every scenario ever experienced by a designer is covered. Six Circles — An experience design framework by James Kelway. This book will provide you with a framework for how to create and utilize an experience design framework in your organization.

The Vignelli Canon by Massimo Vignelli. A glimpse inside the mind of one of the important figures of modernist design. Clear ideas on what should be the foundations of mostly visual design. Numerous examples that convey applications in practice from product design to graphic design to corporate design. Who uses wireframes, why and how? What are mockups and what makes a good mockup?

Best practices for designing mockups in Photoshop and Sketch Advice on how to use mockups of all types and levels 72 example-full pages and design advice. Why prototyping is mandatory for mobile. How to choose the right prototyping process. How to create prototypes from Photoshop and Sketch files.

Immediately actionable advice and excercises Pros and cons of the most popular offline and digital rapid prototyping methods How-to lessons on user flows and rapid prototyping. How to use wireframes in the UX design process. How to empathize and collaborate with developers for a mutual benefit.

Accelerate Design Cycles and Lower Production Costs eBook

How to communicate dev-friendly ideas. The Woork Handbook by Antonio Lupetti. A collaborative book about web design and programming Useful guidelines to improve CSS coding and maintainability Introduction to databases, Ajax, and JavaScript frameworks. Why the author believes the old way of doing web design is over.

What practices are taking over. How designers can better adapt to the ever changing needs of the web. Learn from Great Design by Tom Kenny. Page by page deconstruction across all devices Illustrated points with multiple screenshots. The State of Web Design: How to use a mobile-first approach by focusing on your content. How to use modular UI design to create reusable elements. A brief introduction to flexbox and what you can do with it.

How to handle responsive images and more. The new flat design and 5 characteristic components of it. How to combine minimalism with other styles. The hottest and latest techniques in flat design with dozens of visual examples. How big companies, such as Nike and Corona, are using flat design to attract their users. Tips and techniques for using typography, color, videos, and effects in a flat design.

A basic understanding of 10 web design trends and examples for how to use them effectively. How to use cards, animations, and other flat design techniques for deeper interactivity. How to be more confident in using typography in your design. How to use colors and captivating photography. Tutorial written by responsive designers for you to use immediately. How to use media queries, typography, responsive images and more.

Why and how to achieve a consistent experience accross devices. Responsive and adaptive design techniques Understanding a mobile-first process. Inspiration on clever card UI use, brilliant typography, vibrant colors, flat design 2. A set of best practices for designing meaningful products. How to design useful products with goal-centered design and minimal viable products MVPs. How to improve the usability of your product and make your product more desirable.

Overview of different types of research and when to use them Introduction to research methodologies like remote usability testing, prototype testing, competitor studies, and much, much more … How to organize and share your research results. Examples for how to communicate UX strategy to your team, define your vision, and turn it into action.

How to think about all your different stakeholders including users and beta testers. How to use data to inform your UX strategy and validate your UX strategy. Descriptions of the most helpful UX documents for any design project in all stages of your project. How to create your personalized UX library.

The whole UX process deconstructed, from user research and prototyping, to design and usability testing. UX resources worth browsing every day. Expert opinions on how to think about each design stage and its deliverables. How to use deliverables in lean and agile environments.

Designing a brilliant user experience through color, font, and icons by UserTesting.

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Learn about color theory and UX, and how color impacts your conversion rates. Determine which font is right for your users. Types of icons and their impact on the user experience. Idiot Buttons: See how Quora increased the perceived value of their content. Discover how Sketch subtly puts your mind at ease. How to apply agile UX in the enterprise environment and how to succeed at it. All the things you have to have in mind during the whole process.

The challenges and solutions of doing agile UX in enterprise throughout every phase — from research to development to testing. Introduction to neurodesign A useful shortcut to pattern recognitions Examples from companies like Dribbble, Jawbone, Duolingo, Dropbox, MailChimp, Medium, and more … 4-step approach to finding the right pattern for your needs.

How to use the scientific design processes to be more creative. How to change perspectives and uncover new insights that lead to better design. Lots of visual examples to illustrate each tip and point. How to design web services instead of web pages. How to use onboarding, invisible UIs and feedback to empower users. An overview of the 3 stages of design and how to document them. Best practices for requirements gathering, user research, UI design, usability testing, and more … How to conduct and document stakeholder and user interviews.

How to do and document user surveys and competitive analysis. How to create personas, user stories, scenarios, and customer journey maps.

How to create low- and high-fidelity prototypes. A practical approach to usability testing. A casual tone and memorable graphics. How gamification evolved, what went wrong with it, and how it came back. Identify the problem your feature should solve and define how you measure success.

Mockup the frontend, collect user feedback and refine. Release partially, collect qualitative feedback, and decide if the feature stays. Learn the most important thing — how people actually use websites and apps. How mental activities such as perception, learning, memory, and problem solving affect usability. A walk through the steps of designing systems based on user-centered tasks.

How users interact with design patterns. How to apply empathy to UI design patterns. How to plan, prototype and apply UI patterns. Topics on involving users as characters, gamifying interfaces, supplementing actions with interactivity, using easter eggs, and creating user journey maps.

Why visuals are such a compelling tool for retention, information processing, evoking emotions and more. How to strategically influence the user flow and decisions with visual hierarchy. Quick tips on creating visual hierarchy with size, color, layout, spacing and style. How beautiful designs impact your usability and draw attention. Past and future of the use of colors on the web. Best practices for contrast and complementary colors, mixing colors and more. How to design with the power of nothing.

A list of typography tools and grid generators to help you with your next design. How to tackle the feared white space and come out on top. How white space actually gets your users to interact more. How to create a sense of luxury and emphasize content with white space.

Effective types of white space in web design. How to create relationships with space. Examples from Squarespace, Wunderlist, Jukely, Redhat, and others. Topics on color palettes, contrasting colors, emotions of color, texture and more. Flat color palettes, high contrast colors, the emotions of color, how to pair color and texture, and more.

List of resources and tools for using color in web design.

How to get into the minimalism mindset, create harmony and contrast, and design with space. Why minimalism is not for every site. How flat design came to be and evolved, and its pros and cons. Understand the different purposes and uses of mockups versus wireframes and prototypes. Best practices for using mockups in the design process.

A short but actionable book with to the point explanations. How to effectively use the content-first design approach. All about the F and Z reading patterns. The user can get a higher output.

The speed of system development is increased. It is possible to get immediate feedback from the user. There is better communication between the user and designer as the requirement sand expectations are expressed in the beginning itself.

High quality product is easily delivered by way of rapid prototyping. Rapid prototyping enables development time and costs. There are many innovative ways in which rapid prototyping can be used. Despite all these benefits, there are many people who believe that there are many disadvantages of rapid prototyping. Disadvantages of Rapid Prototyping: Some people are of the opinion that rapid prototyping is not effective because, in actual, it fails in replication of the real product or system.

It could so happen that some important developmental steps could be omitted to get a quick and cheap working model. This can be one of the greatest disadvantages of rapid prototyping. Another disadvantage of rapid prototyping is one in which many problems are overlooked resulting in endless rectifications and revisions.

One more disadvantage of rapid prototyping is that it may not be suitable for large sized applications. The user may have very high expectations about the prototypes performance and the designer is unable to deliver these. The system could be left unfinished due to various reasons or the system may be implemented before it is completely ready. The producer may produce an inadequate system that is unable to meet the overall demands of the organization.

Too much involvement of the user might hamper the optimization of the http: The producer may be too attached to the program of rapid prototyping, thus it may lead to legal involvement. The cost reduction benefit of rapid prototyping also seems to be debatable, as sufficient details regarding the calculation basis and assumptions are not substantial. History of Rapid Prototyping Rapid prototyping is a revolutionary and powerful technology with wide range of applications.

The process of prototyping involves quick building up of a prototype or working model for the purpose of testing the various design features, ideas, concepts, functionality, output and performance. The user is able to give immediate feedback regarding the prototype and its performance.

Rapid prototyping is essential part of the process of system designing and it is believed to be quite beneficial as far as reduction of project cost and risk are concerned. Rapid prototyping is known by many terms as per the technologies involved, like SFF or solid freeform fabrication, FF or freeform fabrication, digital fabrication, AFF or automated freeform fabrication, 3D printing, solid imaging, layer-based manufacturing, laser prototyping and additive manufacturing.

History of Rapid Prototyping: The first rapid prototyping techniques became accessible in the later eighties and they were used for production of prototype and model parts. The history of rapid prototyping can be traced to the late sixties, when an engineering professor, Herbert Voelcker, questioned himself about the possibilities of doing interesting things with the computer controlled and automatic machine tools.

These machine tools had just started to appear on the factory floors then.

Rapid Prototyping of Biomaterials

Voelcker was trying to find a way in which the automated machine tools could be programmed by using the output of a design program of a computer. Voelcker developed the basic tools of mathematics that clearly describe the three dimensional aspects and resulted in the earliest theories of algorithmic and mathematical theories for solid modeling. These theories form the basis of modern computer programs that are used for designing almost all things mechanical, ranging from the smallest toy car to the tallest skyscraper.

Voleckers theories changed the designing methods in the seventies, but, the old methods for designing were still very much in use.

The old method involved either a machinist or machine tool controlled by a computer. The metal hunk was cut away and the needed part remained as per requirements. However, in , Carl Deckard, a researcher form the University of Texas, came up with a good revolutionary idea. He pioneered the layer based manufacturing, wherein he thought of building up the model layer by layer. He printed 3D models by utilizing laser light for fusing metal powder in solid prototypes, single layer at a time.

The results of this technique were extremely promising. The history of rapid prototyping is quite new and recent. However, as this technique of rapid prototyping has such wide ranging scope and applications with amazing results, it has grown by leaps and bounds. Voelckers and Deckards stunning findings, innovations and researches have given extreme impetus to this significant new industry known as rapid prototyping or free form fabrication. It has revolutionized the designing and manufacturing processes.

Though, there are many references of people pioneering the rapid prototyping technology, the industry gives recognition to Charles Hull for the patent of Apparatus for Production of 3D Objects by Stereolithography.

Charles Hull is recognized by the industry as the father of rapid prototyping. Present-day Rapid Prototyping: Today, the computer engineer has to simply sketch the ideas on the computer screen with the help of a design program that is computer aided.

Computer aided designing allows to make modification as required and you can create a physical prototype that is a precise and proper 3D object. Rapid Prototyping Technologies Rapid prototyping is a process by which a working model or prototype is developed to test the various design ideas, features, concepts, use, functionality and performance. The user can immediately give a feedback to the producer. The technology of rapid prototyping is quite revolutionary and innovative and has found widespread applications in nearly all types of industries.

The prototypes can be developed on the basis of past design and its performance and necessary modifications can be made to refine the final product as per the requirements.

Rapid prototyping has manifold advantages like reduction of process cost, time and risks, conceptualizing of the actual product, delivery of high quality product, better communications and so on. As it is with all the technologies, there are some disadvantages as well associated with rapid prototyping like communication gaps, high expectations of the users which are not fulfilled and so on. However, the benefits surely do override all the advantages. There are a host of different rapid prototyping technologies.

Rapid Prototyping Technologies: The numerous rapid prototyping technologies may include the various types like additive, formative or subtractive. Initially, rapid prototyping technologies involved only additive processes. The major difference between the various additive technologies is the method in which layers are built for creating parts.

Some rapid prototyping technologies melt or soften materials for producing the Layers FDM, SLS , whereas other technologies lay down liquid material called thermosets and these are later cured by different methods.

SLA or Steroelithography: The rapid prototyping technology of SLA or stereolithography provides with the greatest accuracy and gives the best possible surface finish among all the rapid prototyping technologies. This technology uses liquid photopolymer resin that has the property of solidifying on contact with the correct color light.

Accelerate Design Cycles and Lower Production Costs eBook

The most commonly used photopolymer materials need UV light, but resins that work in visible light are also used. SLS or Selective Laser Sintering rapid prototyping technology uses metallic powders or thermoplastics. This technology is quite similar to stereolithography. The finishing time is reduced as the undercuts and overhangs are given support by the solid bed of powder.

The surface finishes are not as good as stereolithography. It requires no final curing like SLA, but the object is porous as it is sintered.

The mechanical characteristics of the object can be improved by infiltrating the object with some other material as required by the application.

This method is used in direct fabrication of ceramic and metal tools and objects. Other Rapid Prototyping Technologies: The rapid prototyping technology of 3D Printing makes use of different materials as base materials. What is Rapid Prototyping? Rapid Prototyping can be defined as the process of constructing physical objects automatically by making use of solid freeform fabrication.

The initial techniques regarding prototyping came into being in late s. They were then used for producing prototype parts and models. In todays world, they are being used for much wider applications. For instance- manufacture of quality parts.

This technology is used by certain sculptors for producing complex shapes in order to display them in fine arts exhibitions. Rapid prototyping has taken virtual designs through animation modeling software or computer aided design CAD.

Thereafter, transformation into virtual, thin, horizontal cross-sections takes place. Each cross-section then gets created in the physical space. This process goes on till the model gets completed. Let's understand this process in detail. It is used in computing for describing a system wherein content looks similar to final product at the time of editing. It is generally used in word processors. The popularization of this phrase was carried out by the comedian Flip Wilson.

His character Geraldine used to say this very often to give an excuse against her idiosyncratic behavior. This expression came to be applied later to computer-based applications as practicality in technology arrived. At times, it is phonetically spelt as. It has also been used as a brand name for a lighting design tool utilized in theatre industry to pre-visualize the shows and 3D CAD.

The process further: The additional fabrication causes the machine to read data from CAD drawing. After that, consecutive layers of powder, sheet material, or liquid are laid down. Likewise, a model gets built-up from a chain of cross-sections. Such layers, corresponding to CAD models virtual cross section, are then fused automatically or joined together for creating the ultimate shape. The basic advantage of additive fabrication goes to state that any geometric feature or shape can be created through this.

The function of STL file is approximating the shape of an assembly or a part by making use of triangular facets. Surfaces of higher quality are produced by smaller facets.

The word rapid can be used relatively. The construction of models using present-day methods could take time ranging from a few hours to a few days. This depends on the technique used, along with the complexity and size of the model. The additive systems take less time. They can produce models within some hours. Some techniques such as solid freedom fabrication make use of two materials for construction of parts. The 1st material is known as part material and the 2nd one as support material.

The removal of support material takes place by heat. It might also be dissolved with water or any other solvent. When it comes to manufacture of. Rapid Prototyping Prototyping: A Prototype or Prototyping is a total working model of an idea, which is created in such a method that it can be examined on a number of points such as user friendliness, usability, cost effectiveness, features, design etc. In order to produce your innovation or idea as a finished product, prototyping is a vital step and an important part of the designing process.

To develop a prototype generally reduces the project cost and the risk on the whole. Prototyping an innovation regulates the possibilities of getting errors and deficiencies in the finished design of any product.

Prototyping an innovation is the initial and original working form that clears a route for its future versions or stages. In order to develop a prototyping, an appropriate documentation of this procedure, the flow and the idea or innovation has to be performed in the beginning. There are many types of prototyping methods which depend upon the particular type of product and its functionality.

The high fidelity prototyping method offers a dynamic computerized working form while the low fidelity prototyping method offers a static non-computerized working form. The exploratory prototyping method is being developed to observe the complicated and large systems while the operational and experimental prototyping method works to confirm specifications of the products and iterations for confirming the produce. The prototyping method filled with many features is the vertical prototyping method where as horizontal prototyping method is a prototype with modest features.

In the same way, global prototyping method provides working forms of the complete system while the local prototyping method focuses on a single functionality or usability of the product. Rapid Prototyping: Rapid Prototyping is said to be a procedure of making physical objects from CAD program which a prototyping machine can create http: This particular process was first utilized in the year in order to create prototype parts and models.

Rapid Prototyping generally suites many applications and is utilized to manufacture small quantity manufacturing parts. Recently, this process has become as important parts of three dimensional CAD design Engineering and Modeling.

This process generally utilizes CAD drawings and produces cross segments and later produces physical routes and even outputs resin and plastic. The constructing podium is later lowered and the other layer of a prototype is being produced until the entire process of prototyping gets completed. This particular process normally utilizes preservative fabrication where in the substance is added until the complete three dimensional model is created.

Preservative manufacturing is particularly resourceful because of its capacity to produce almost any geometrical parts. The three dimensional CAD models generally take around 3 to 72 hours which depends on the type of a machine and the size of the model.

On the other hand, Rapid Prototyping normally takes only 24 hours. Alpha Prototyping generally specializes in the process of Rapid Prototyping and every other aspects of Prototyping.

It simplifies the prototyping process with the online prototyping quote tool that helps straighten out the confusion of fees and costs associated with the process of rapid prototyping. Inventions and Prototypes Invention prototypes cannot be ignored because they sought to prove the concept of the inventor to potential customers, suppliers, and investors-and most importantly, to the inventor himself. This has been the opinion of majority of experts. The idea behind creating a prototype is the accomplishment of a lot from the point of view of creativity, that too without having to put on so much of money in the idea of product or going for its commitment early on.

Construction of an invention prototype at the appropriate time: Its essential to construct an invention prototype much before buying the tooling for building the product or seeking contract manufacturers.

Many a times, it so happens that the inventor might, in reality want to build a prototype much before getting too fancy regarding computer drawings. He is likely to burn up loads of cash on engineering drawings when possibly what he needs 1st is the papier-mache clearly showing him what is being tried by him. If that is the case, he is advised to revert to computer-aided drawings.

Assessing the proper time for prototype is not all that tough. It just requires a proof of workability of the product invented by the concerned person. The proper invention prototype for proper audience: An invention prototype should be aimed towards the proper audience for doing its job. It means that the tailoring should be done in such a way that the requirements of the customers get fulfilled much to their satisfaction.

Not only that, the prototype should be able to bear the critics of potential partners, investors, suppliers, and customers. Hence, it should be noted that just friendly appraisals are not enough. The more slicker looking and operable the.

However, its advisable to not get carried away by the praises. Its better to spend less on this production, as there would be many other places for spending the start up capital. If the overheads are not very much, let the invention prototype be made into multiple versions.

The inventor is likely to improve the designs subsequently. Due to this, the latest product arrived at would fetch more money owing to its modern and sharp design. Some people also have the habit of making two prototypes at a time. The first one would be meant for show and the second one for go, i. For instance- Battery Buddy had a looks-like and works-like prototype.

The 1st one was created at University of Michigan. A box was fashioned to proper exterior dimensions as per the engineering drawings. It was painted with fancy, fine graphics. The 2nd one consisted of a plastic box. It was grey-colored and around 4 times bigger than actual Battery Buddy. Finishing was not the issue then. The workability had to be checked; and it happened! Hence, the two versions made the task simpler from the buyers as well as sellers point of view.

Designing and Prototyping Designing and prototyping have revolutionized the manufacturing processes in all industries nearly. There is not a single industry or process that is untouched by the technology of designing and prototyping.

Designing is the process by which you will design a product in advance before actual production. Designing will help you to innovate, change, modify and invent. Designing involves the process of idea generation, conceptualizing and actual design development.

Prototyping is a process in which a working model or prototype is developed for the purpose of testing the various design aspects like features, ideas, viability, functionality, output and performance. The prototyping will help in getting a quick user feedback. Prototyping is considered to be an essential element of the process of system designing. Designing and prototyping go hand in hand, as both are complementary.

In prototyping, new prototypes are developed on the basis of the performance of earlier designs. The deficiencies or problems in the previous designs can be detected and corrected. The prototype is redesigned after refinement and successfully meets the designing goals like functionality, manufacturability, performance and robustness. After this, the product can be readily produced. The scope of designing and prototyping is unlimited. Both have applications in all types of industries like CAD, CAM, automotive industry, workshops, fashion designing and innovative products and so on.

With designing, you are able to create digital data in the form of 3D images and this digital data can be transformed into actual physical object by way of prototyping. You can visualize about how the final product will look.

You can translate your inventions and innovative ideas in real terms with the help of designing and prototyping. You may be toying with many innovative product ideas in your mind and you wish to convert them into realities. You can successfully develop your new invention from an idea to actual manufactured product with designing and prototyping.

You can test your product by testing its commercial viability. You can have an open communication with the user regarding the expectations of the product and its performance. This will give you a fair idea regarding the designing and prototyping. Appropriate Designing and Prototyping: If you want your invention or innovative product to be successful, then it needs to have a good design and there have to more additives than a plain good idea.

The design should be such that it reduces the manufacturing costs. The design must have excellent functionality and it should be attractive as well along with the benefit of maximized durability. The designing and prototyping should work together to maximize the chances of success. The best approach for an appropriate designing and prototyping plan, would be to design and create an eye-catching and working prototype along with http: Necessary legal protection should be obtained.

Engineering drawings should be produced and pricing data for manufacturing process should be generated. All the production facilities of the factory should be lined up. Take feedback from the end users and buyers and you will get an idea of the demand for your product.

This appropriate designing and prototyping plan, is sure to spell success for you. There are very few companies dealing with rapid prototyping overseas.

One of them is Global Sources Group. It can boast of offering overseas rapid manufacturing. Todays fast world speaks of competition. The US is no exception. It has been ruling the world since the last century on this count. This has led to the emergence of Global Sources Group. The customer would always feel obliged by seeking the services of Global Sources Group, as this would result in substantial increase in his productivity and profit.

This company is associated with factories across Vietnam and China. Thus, the required competitive edge that is needed in market of today is ensured. Global Sources Group has the ability of designing the rapid prototype within 10 days.

Not only that, the patent of the new product acquired can be obtained within 4 weeks. Here, time is equated with money. Hence, the new product would be air freighted to the topmost overseas factory to have the quality and fast productivity maintained. This would thus take the client to the subsequent level.

Global Sources Group assists companies in rapid prototyping, right from design to manufacture. It specializes in manufacturing and Art to Part Design. This company has been into rapid prototyping for the last 20 years. Another company dealing with rapid prototyping overseas is Delcam. This company was established in , when 3D modelling was not even talked of. Then in late s, rapid. The process can be described as follows: It is independent of composition.

The errors can be automatically detected and repaired by a set of wizards. It provides the customer with total control over the creation of mesh. This means that if the surfaces of original model of CAD are damaged or missing, the work wont be stopped, i.

CopyCAD, Delcams software for reverse engineering, possesses comprehensive tools to repair and modify the STL models on an interactive basis. This enables the process chain to continue in an unbroken manner even if there is no CAD model to start with. They can be built upto five axis-simultaneous, directly from the STL models. This causes the manufacturing process to become more flexible.

Delcams software is being tried and examined with majority of general Rapid Prototyping Systems, to produce both, prototype tooling and formand-fit testing parts. Its constant involvement in projects of Europe like HiperMoulding and CARP ensures that the customer is guaranteed of results of high quality irrespective of the type of Rapid Prototyping System used.

Delcam has been into news in terms of rapid prototyping for quite some time now. All the 3D printers posses five basic process functions for creating a three-dimensional model. Second - The powder is spread on print surface by a roller at a preset depth. This process takes just a few seconds for its completion. The mixture of Ink Jet Color and powder results in formation of a bond. The solidification occurs this way. So, if no printing is carried out at the specified layer or location, the powder retains its state, i.

Once the printing process comes to a halt, the powder gets blown out, thereby leaving the output which is the reflection of the original model or drawing. Depending on complexity and size of output, this process takes around an hour. These 3D printers do a commendable job, especially when pre-production examples or working prototypes of the specified objects are seen on the computer monitor.

Self-replicating 3D printers: The self-replicating rapid prototype, better known as RepRap is believed to lessen the price of three-dimensional printers, thereby paving way for the future where spare parts and broken objects are just re-printed on a homely basis. There would also be a way out for creation of unique and novel objects. They are still to capture the domestic market.

They are instead being used by the industry for developing parts for machines like aircraft engines, hearing aids, and spaceships. Plummeting Prices: He has further stated that these machines would turn out to be more competent and build up new capabilities.

Once the soft ware guiding the process of self-replication becomes available, it http: This has also been said by Adrian Bowyer. Tepid Metal: Circuits are normally built by 3D printers by carrying out the fusion of powdered metal and laser. However, the self-replicating 3D printers are aimed at use of metallic alloy of cadmium, tin, lead, and bismuth that have a low-melting point and squirting them to have the circuits formed from a syringe that is thoroughly heated.

Its not compulsory for the machine to be capable to assemble itself. Just production of all those parts that are very necessary excluding the lubricating grease and microprocessors is required. The function typically performed by 3D printers is that of printing consecutive layers on the previous ones for building up a 3D object. It is easier, more affordable, and faster to use 3D printers as compared to other technologies related to additive fabrication.

Initially, production of a prototype required a lot of manhours, tools, and experienced labor. For instance, after designing a novel Street Light Luminaire digitally, drawings used to be sent to accomplished craftsmen where the paper design used to be followed with utmost pains and a 3D prototype used to be formed in wood through the utilization of the entire shop that is full of costly tools and working machinery.

One can easily make out that this process consumed a lot of time. Moreover, the skillful labor was not all that cheap. These shortcomings necessitated the need of rapid prototyping. It involves binding of fine powder layers resins, cornstarch, or plaster by the way of printing a gum from inkjet print head as per the shape of every cross-section as spotted by the CAD file.

This is the only technology allowing full color prototypes to be printed. It is believed to be the quickest method. Alternately, liquids are fed by these machines. Photopolymer is one of such kind.

These machines make use of UV ultraviolet flood lamp. It is mounted. FDM Fused deposition modeling makes use of nozzle for depositing molten polymer layer by layer, on the support structure. The other approach is Selective Fusing of Print Media in the granular bed. Here, the media that has been unfused supports thin walls and overhangs in the piece which is being produced, thereby reducing need for temporary auxiliary supports for the work piece.

Ultimately, 3D Micro fabrication technique having a photo polymerization of 2-photons might be used to make ultra small features. Here, the preferred 3D object gets traced out by a completely focused laser in a gel block. The curing of gel into a solid takes place only in places where laser had been focused, owing to photo excitations non-linear nature. The gel that is left out gets washed away. Resolution is measured in terms of layer thickness.

The X-Y resolution is given in dpi. The X-Y resolution is compatible with laser printers. Diameter of the particles, i. Off late, 3D printing technology is being used in artistic expressions. Its biotechnological applications include bio-printing, computer-aided Tissue engineering, and organ printing.

The main purpose behind using 3D printing technology is its ability to replicate itself. RepRap is one such printer. It has the ability to print plastic parts and circuit boards. It is believed to print metals in future. Additive fabrication is also known as solid freeform fabrication, layered manufacturing, rapid manufacturing, and rapid prototyping.

Additive fabrication is carried out using a number of techniques. Let some of them be studied in detail. Electron Beam Melting: It is better known as rapid manufacturing method. The parts are manufactured by having the metal powder melted layer by layer through a beam of electron in high vacuum.

The parts produced acquire strength, solidity, and are void-free as well. The electrons have a very high speed; around 5 to 8 times the light speed. The bombardment of these electrons takes place on the work materials surface. This generates heat which is enough for melting the parts surface and causing it to vaporize locally. Vacuum is required for the operation of EBM. This means that the size of work piece is directly proportional to vacuum used.

This technique works on composites, ceramics, non-metals, and as stated above, metals.

Fused Deposition Modeling: Fused Deposition Modeling FDM can be described as a kind of rapid manufacturing RP or rapid prototyping technology which is generally used in engineering design. Scott Crump had. It caught the commercial market in It states that the material has to be laid down in layers. The metal wire or plastic filament is then unwound and material is supplied through it to the extrusion nozzle that can turn off and on the flow. The nozzle then is heated for melting the material.

It could be moved in vertical and horizontal directions with the help of a mechanism which is numerically controlled. This numerical control is obtained through Computer Aided Design software package. Like stereo lithography, the building of the model takes place from layers. This happens because the material starts hardening after getting extruded from nozzle.

Numerous materials are offered with diverse trade-offs between temperature and strength. Temporary supports can be made by using a water-soluble material. These supports are needed when manufacturing is still going on. The commercial applications include making prototypes of servo or stepper motors. Selective Laser Sintering: Selective Laser Sintering can be defined as an additive type of rapid manufacturing wherein a high power laser like carbon dioxide laser is used for fusing tiny particles of ceramic, metal, or plastic powders into mass representing the desired three-dimensional object.

In comparison to other methods of rapid manufacturing, selective laser sintering has the capacity of producing parts from several powder materials http: They include polymers polystyrene and nylon , metals composites, alloy mixtures, titanium, steel , and not to forget- green sand. This physical process could be liquid-phase sintering, partial melting, or full melting.

At present, the practice of controlling the process of manufacturing with the help of computer by making use of mathematical model that has been created through the computers aid is being followed. Rapid manufacturing, if done with the help of Parallel Batch Production is capable of providing a huge advantage in terms of cost and speed in comparison with alternative techniques of manufacturing like die casting or Plastic Injection Molding. The venue was Detroit, MI.

The year was This creation is attributed to 3D Systems Company. The present scenario: Rapid manufacturing might involve replacement parts, custom parts, series production, or Short Run Production. This process can be referred to as Rapid Prototyping only if the use of the part is for development. Rapid Manufacturing carried out for big products with Layerbased Manufacturing from composite materials, plastics, or metals is widely used for numerous industrial applications pertaining to aerospace Boeing and military MPH-Optomec sectors.

Micro system applications and small products are well known in medicines, sensor technologies micro TEC , and diagnostics. Batch production regarding tiny parts by techniques of rapid manufacturing like RMPD give vent to advantages related to time and cost. Now days, collectibles, consumer products, orthodontics, dentistry, jewelry, motor sports, and automotives are being experimented with rapid manufacturing.

Amazing results are expected in future. The world economy is becoming competitive day by day. Manufacturers are facing the challenge to deliver novel customized products faster than before for meeting customer demands. A late delivery or development might could mean failure of business. Rapid manufacturing has been devised with the objective of shortening the production cycle and design, and promising to revolutionize the age-old manufacturing procedures.

The initial process: Before starting with the construction of product, a prototype or sample is required quite often as a portion of design cycle, for allowing evaluation, testing, or demonstration of proposed product.

This process is iterative, as a chain of prototypes gets built up. These prototypes can then be used for testing various options. Rapid Manufacturing is also inclusive of rapid application of tools needed for production on a large scale, like jigs, dies, and specially shaped molds.

Several Layer manufacturing Processes are being developed now, by making use of a wide range of materials. Parts produced so far have proven to be steadily durable.

The size has also been increasing. Due to all these successes, layer manufacturing is the most sought after technique for fabricating the parts for functional prototypes as well as production tools.

The process of applying layer manufacturing for making components utilized in production can be called Rapid Tooling. It is being applied to investment casting, injection molding, and many processes related to mold casting. Digital 3D models can be constructed from the data collected. Such devices are being used by the amusement industry extensively for producing video games and movies. This technology is more widely used in reverse engineering, industrial design, prototyping, keeping records of cultural artifacts, and computer vision.

A number of technologies have been used for building the three-dimensional scanning devices. Every technology has limitations, costs, and advantages. The idea behind using a three-dimensional scanner is creating a Point Cloud of the Geometric Samples on the subjects surface. The subjects shape can then be extrapolated by using these points.

If information regarding color is gathered at every juncture, the determination of colors on subjects surface can be easily done.

Combined with distance that corresponds to r component 3D position of every point in picture is described by the spherical coordinates. Non-contact three-dimensional scanners could be divided further into 2 major categories- passive and active scanners.

Some light or radiation is always emitted by active scanners.

It is advised to detect the reflection of this light, as it would help in locating environment or an object. The kinds of emission possibly used include x-ray, ultrasound, or light. Contact three-dimensional scanners locate the subject by the way of physical touch. It is widely used in manufacturing processes due to its precision.

However, it has a disadvantage that contact with object to be scanned is required. The target object might get modified or damaged by scanning. Historical artifacts, in particular, have to be specially taken care of. The basic advantage of 3D prototyping is that numerous materials can be used as base materials.

It involves taking of virtual designs through CAD computer-aided design or Animation Modeling software, transforming them into virtual, thin, and horizontal cross sections, and then creating every cross-section in the physical space, 1 by 1 till the model gets completed. This interface carries out the approximation of shape of an assembly or part by making use of triangular facets.

Surfaces of a superior quality are produced by smaller facets. Pioneer companies are striving to master the technique. The conservative. Reverse Engineering Reverse Engineering can be defined as the process wherein a devices, objects, or systems technological principles are discovered by analyzing its operation, function, and structure. It often refers to detaching something, say- a software program, electronic equipment, or mechanical device and carrying out the analysis of its workability in detail.

This is done in order to manufacture a new program or device which performs the same function without doubling anything from original. Reasons behind the emergence of reverse engineering include interoperability, lost documentation which means loss or non-existence of documentation of the concerned device, product analysis, security auditing, exclusion of protection of copy, circumvention of restrictions regarding access, and fraud.


Reverse Engineering of mechanical devices:There have been several new technologies available for rapid prototyping including Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective laser sintering, 3D printing, and Electron Beam Melting. Overview of different types of research and when to use them Introduction to research methodologies like remote usability testing, prototype testing, competitor studies, and much, much more … How to organize and share your research results.

Prototyping an innovation is the initial and original working form that clears a route for its future versions or stages. It is an open library so everyone is welcome to take, and everyone is welcome to add. Collaboration secrets and advice for designers.

This process of development of working model is quite quick. Stereolithography Stereolithography or SLA is one of the most commonly used rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing technology for creating several parts with excellent surface finish and high accuracy. Paul James Thadhani.

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