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Organic Chemistry: A Short Course 13th Edition by Harold Hart, Christopher M. Hadad, Leslie E. Craine, David J. Hart Read Like and Share. Organic Chemistry. A Brief Course. THIRTEENTH EDITION. David Hart. Ohio State University. Chris Hadad. Ohio State University. Harold Hart. David Craine. Organic Chemistry: A Short Course, 10th edition (Hart, Harold; Craine, Leslie E.; Hart, David J.) Joseph F. Organic chemistry text. View: PDF | PDF w/ Links.

Organic Chemistry Hart Pdf

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Fill Organic Chemistry Hart 13th Edition Pdf, download blank or editable online. Sign, fax and printable from PC, iPad, tablet or mobile with PDFfiller ✓ Instantly. Solutions Manual Click here to download the solutions manual / test bank INSTANTLY - ma,. 01 apr GMT BibMe: Free Bibliography & Citation. Organic chemistry: a short course: study guide & solutions book / Harold Hart, David J. Hart Hart, Harold, View online. Borrow Buy.. Fill Organic.

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Land Although France's old historic provinces were abolished by the Revolution, they remain the country's basic geographic, cultural, and economic divisions. These provinces mirror France's natural geographic regions and, despite modern administrative centralization, retain their striking diversity. South-central France is occupied by the rugged mountains of the Massif Central, one of the country's major natural features. It comprises the provinces of Marche, Limousin, Auvergne, and Lyonnais.

The last two constitute the great Aquitanian plain, drained by the Garonne and Dordogne rivers, which flow into the Bay of Biscay.

The central section of the west coast, between the Gironde estuary and the Loire, is occupied by the provinces of Saintonge, Angoumois, Aunis, and Poitou. Since France has been administratively divided into regions, which now number 18 as a result of consolidation. France also has a number of overseas departments, territories, and countries which, legally, are part of the French Republic. Mayotte is a departmental collectivity and region, and St. Until the end of World War II the population increase in France was perhaps the lowest in Europe, but in postwar decades the rate has increased.

The mingling of peoples over the centuries as well as immigration in the 20th cent. A large influx of predominantly North African immigrants has had a great effect on the cities, especially Paris and Marseille. There are also a number of regional dialects, which are largely declining in usage.

Alsatian, a German dialect, is spoken in Alsace and in parts of Lorraine. A small number speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, in French Flanders.

With growing immigration from Asia, Turkey, and North Africa, France also has a large Muslim population, estimated at 3 to 5 million.

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Separation of church and state was made final by law in Economy France is one of the world's major economic powers. Agriculture plays a larger role than in the economies of most other industrial countries. A large proportion of the value of total agricultural output derives from livestock especially cattle, hogs, poultry, and sheep. The mountain areas and NW France are the livestock regions. The country's leading crops are wheat, sugar beets, corn, barley, and potatoes, with the most intensive cultivation N of the Loire; the soil in the Central Massif is less fertile.

France is among the foremost producers of wine in the world. France's leading industries produce machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metals, aircraft, electronics equipment, textiles, and foods especially cheeses.

Coal, iron ore, bauxite, and other minerals are mined. Tourism is an important industry, and Paris is famous for its luxury goods. The government at one time had majority ownership in many commercial banks, some key industries, and various utilities, including the telephone system. The government has since reduced its holdings in many companies, although it still controls energy production, public transportation, and defense industries.

Leading exports are machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, iron and steel, and beverages.

Leading imports are machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, and chemicals. Government Since the Revolution of , France has had an extremely uniform and centralized administration, although constitutional changes in now permit greater autonomy to the nation's regions and departments.

The country is governed under the constitution as amended , which established the Fifth French Republic and reflected the views of Charles de Gaulle.

It provides for a strong president, directly elected for a five-year term; an individual is limited to two terms as president. A premier and cabinet, appointed by the president, are responsible to the National Assembly, but they are subordinate to the president.

The bicameral legislature consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. Deputies to the seat National Assembly are elected for five-year terms from single-member districts. The senators are elected for six-year terms from each department by an electoral college composed of the deputies, district council members, and municipal council members from the department, with one half of the Senate elected every 3 years.

France's 22 administrative regions see above under each have a directly elected regional council, primarily responsible for stimulating economic and social activity.

The regions are further divided into 96 departments not including the four overseas departments , which are governed by a locally elected general council, with one councilor per canton. Further subdivisions are districts , cantons, and communes. The communes, however, are more powerful because they are responsible for municipal services and are represented in the national government by the mayor.

It was inhabited largely by Celts, or Gauls, who had mingled with still older populations, and by Basques in what became the region of Gascony.

History Ancient Gaul to Feudalism Some of the earliest anthropological and archaeological remains in Europe have been found in France, yet little is known of France before the Roman conquest 1st cent. Some of the Gallic tribes undoubtedly were Germanic. Settlements on the Mediterranean coast, notably Marseilles, were established by Greek and Phoenician traders c.

From the 3d cent. Among the Germanic tribes that descended upon fertile Gaul, the Visigoths, Franks, and Burgundii were the most important. Early in the course of the following five centuries of Roman rule Gaul accepted Latin speech and Roman law, developed a distinct Gallo-Roman civilization, and produced many large and prosperous cities.

Rome and its governors in Gaul sought, by alliances, to play the barbarians off against each other. But in 10 years after the traditional date for the fall of Rome the Franks, under Clovis I, routed Syagrius, last Roman governor of Gaul. Clovis, who had made himself ruler of all the Franks, then defeated the Visigoths and, after accepting Christianity , conquered the Alemanni. He extinguished the Arian heresy see Arianism and founded the dynasty of the Merovingians—but he failed to provide for the unity of Gaul when, as was customary, he divided his lands among his sons at his death.

Organic Chemistry: A Short Course, 10th edition (Hart, Harold; Craine

Throughout the 6th and 7th cent. Gaul was depopulated, the cities were left in ruins, commerce was destroyed, and the arts and sciences were ignored. In the meantime a more rigorous dynasty, the Carolingians, had come to rule Austrasia as mayors of the palace in the name of the decadent Merovingian kings, and had united Austrasia with Neustria.

His son, Pepin the Short, dethroned the last Merovingian in and proclaimed himself king with the sanction of the pope. Crowned emperor of the West in , Charlemagne expanded his lands by conquest. He gave his subjects an efficient administration, created an admirable legal system, and labored for the rebirth of learning, piety, and the arts. But his son, Emperor Louis I, could not maintain the empire he inherited. At Louis's death , his three sons were fighting each other.

Charles was recognized as the ruler of the lands that are now France. The Carolingians had only superficially transcended the economic, social, and political fragmentation of the land. The weakness of central authority was a major reason for the development of feudalism and the manorial system. Raids by Norsemen, beginning in the late 8th cent. The authority of the kings was increasingly usurped by feudal lords.

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Among the most powerful of these were the dukes of Aquitaine and of Burgundy and the counts of Flanders, of Toulouse, of Blois, and of Anjou. In the Norse leader Rollo was recognized as duke of Normandy.

It is from this date that the history of France as a separate kingdom is generally reckoned see table entitled Rulers of France since for a listing of the kings of France and subsequent French leaders. The early Capetians were dukes of Francia, a small territory around Paris, and were without power in the rest of France. By unremitting effort they gradually extended their domain, razed the castles of robber barons, and held their own against the great feudatories.

Drawing together for their common defense see commune , the townspeople won increasingly advantageous charters from the king and from their feudal lords. Commerce revived, and the great fairs of Champagne made France a meeting place for European merchants. The Cluniac order and the revival of theological learning at Paris which was to make the Sorbonne the fountainhead of scholasticism gave France tremendous prestige in Christendom.

French courtly poetry and manners became European models. In England, French manners and culture also predominated among the nobles because of the Norman Conquest The fact that the Norman English kings were also French nobles, holding or claiming vast fiefs in France, brought the two nations into centuries of conflict.

Defeating John in and again, resoundingly, at Bouvines , Philip soundly established the military prestige of France. The crusade against the Albigenses begun netted the crown the huge fiefs of the counts of Toulouse in S France, and the royal domain directly subject to the king now formed the larger part of the kingdom.

Philip made the royal authority felt throughout the land. Louis IX —70 organized an efficient and equitable civil and judicial system. Under Philip IV — , the royal administration was improved even more. Philip failed to incorporate Flanders into his holdings, as the Flemish crushed the French at Courtrai To meet his revenue needs Philip taxed the clergy, summoning the first national States-General to support his policy.

Papal objections to these moves led to the Babylonian Captivity —77 of the popes see papacy. Within a few years after the death of Charles IV, who was also without a male heir, progress toward national unification was halted, and for more than a century France was rent by warfare and internal upheaval.

Thus began the dynastic struggle known as the Hundred Years War — , actually a series of wars and truces. It was complicated by many secondary issues, notably civil troubles in Flanders and the War of the Breton Succession.

Charles VI — became insane in , although he had lucid intervals. Rivalry for power at court led to the terrible strife between Armagnacs and Burgundians.

In , Henry V of England revived the English claim, renewed the war, and crushed the French—unaided by the Burgundians—at Agincourt. The dauphin nevertheless assumed the royal title in , but his authority extended over only a small area. The English now held most of France, including Paris. Powerful Burgundy, under Philip the Good, was allied with England. In , Burgundy, although exacting exorbitant concessions, allied itself with France see Arras, Treaty of. In the English lost their last hold on French soil outside Calais.

It was left for Louis XI —83 to destroy the power of the last great feudal lords and to incorporate into the royal domain almost all of present France. He was aided by the downfall of Charles the Bold of Burgundy and by the extinction of the Angevin dynasty. Brittany was united with France shortly afterward see Anne of Brittany , and the larger part of the fiefs held by the Bourbon family was confiscated in The superficially brilliant reign of Francis I —47 was taken up with almost constant warfare against the Hapsburg Charles V; however, this period also saw the spread of the Italian Renaissance into France see French art; French literature.

In religious conflict flared up in the first of the ferocious civil wars see Religion, Wars of that tore France asunder during the reigns —89 of the last Valois kings, Charles IX and Henry III.

Navarre was supported by some moderate Catholics as well as by the Protestants. He defeated the League but had to accept Catholicism before being allowed to enter Paris.

With his great minister, Sully, he made France prosperous once again and encouraged French explorers in Canada. Religious freedom and political security for Protestants were promulgated in the Edict of Nantes ; see Nantes, Edict of , but after Henry's assassination by a Catholic fanatic the rights of the Huguenots were steadily reduced.

They led France to victory in the Thirty Years War —48 , which France entered openly in , joining the Protestant allies against the Hapsburg powers, Austria and Spain.

At home, Richelieu destroyed the political power of the Huguenots, and Mazarin overcame the nobles in the wars of the Fronde. Raising the position of the king to a dignity and prestige hitherto unknown in France, Louis XIV made France the first power in Europe and his court at Versailles the cynosure of Europe.

But his many wars undermined French finances, and his persecution of the Huguenots the Edict of Nantes was revoked in caused serious harm to the economy as thousands of merchants and skilled workers left France.

Organic Chemistry: A Short Course, 10th edition (Hart, Harold; Craine

His successes in the War of Devolution —68 against Spain and the Dutch War see Dutch Wars of —78 inspired all Europe with fear of French hegemony and resulted in the diplomatic isolation of France.

France, at the end of Louis's reign, was exhausted from its attempt at primacy; yet its latent strength and wealth were so great that it recovered prosperity within a few years. The "absolute" power of the king was hedged in by a stupendous multitude of dusty charters and special privileges—often granted to remove the recipients from national politics—held by families, guilds, monopolies, communes, and provinces, and by the clergy and nobles. Taxes, although onerous, were raised inefficiently and inequitably, partly by the farmers general see farming, in taxation , partly by the state.

Commerce, based on mercantilism, was hampered by restrictive regulations, monopolies, and internal tariff barriers. Rural overpopulation outstripped the stagnant agricultural productivity. Colbert had reorganized the administration by curtailing the power of the provincial governors and by reestablishing the administrative units called intendancies, originated by Richelieu.

The intendants were trusted civil servants who carried out the policies of the central government, but their capacity to break down local privilege was limited. In several provinces, notably Brittany, the local assemblies of the three estates retained the power to thwart reforms. A more significant stronghold of aristocratic privilege and vested interests was the parlement; the parlements skillfully related their special interests to the still popular ideal of local liberty.

The ever-expanding bourgeoisie as well as the large body of landowning farmers, however, were finding the remnants of feudal dues, services, and other customs increasingly intolerable.

Economic reform became the rallying cry of the physiocrats and their disciples such as Turgot. Many philosophers of the Enlightenment, notably Voltaire, looked hopefully to the monarchy for administrative rationalization, but the crown's sporadic attempts at reform, particularly of finances, were hindered by the parlements.

Operating under a system of outworn privilege, the wealthiest country in Europe was ruled by a government perennially on the verge of bankruptcy.

Cell line identities were confirmed by STR fingerprinting except murine cell line CT26, and all were found to be negative for mycoplasma using the MycoAlert kit Lonza.

Paclitaxel was administered intravenously at a dose of 0. Cisplatin Bristol-Myers Squibb was administered intravenously at a dose of 0. In several preclinical studies, cetuximab was intravenously injected via tail vein to mice at 2.

However, the antibody was intravenously injected via tail vein to mice in our study while intraperitoneal injection was used in many reported preclinical studies. Mice were obtained from Charles River. HSC-2 orthotopic transplantation mouse model Under anaesthesia by subcutaneous injection of medetomidine hydrochloride 0.

Seven days after transplantation, the tumour volume was analysed using the bioluminescence signal from HSCLuc cells. For the bioluminescence imaging, 0.

Living Image software PerkinElmer was used to grid the imaging data and integrate the total bioluminescence signal in each region-of-interest ROI. All bioluminescence images were acquired with a 1 second exposure. The microtubule dynamics in the live cells can be visualized as the movement of the comet-like structure of EB3-AG. In vitro antiproliferation assay Cancer cell lines were seeded in well plates. Serial dilutions of the test compounds were added one day after plating, and the viable cell number was determined 72 h after treatment by a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay Dojindo Laboratories.

Three experiments were independently performed in triplicate. The treated cells were cultured for an additional 2 days before being subjected to immunocytochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis Microvessel density in the xenograft tumour samples was analysed by immunohistochemistry using the anti-CD31 antibody DIA, Dianova.

The area of Kipositive cancer cells in the xenograft tumour samples was analysed by immunohistochemistry using an anti-Reticular Fibroblasts and Reticular Fibres ER-TR7 antibody ab; Abcam. The overall stroma area in the xenograft tumour samples was analysed by immunohistochemistry using an anti-Ki antibody ; Cell Signaling Technology. Immunostained slides were scanned using the Vectra 2 Automated Slide Imaging System Perkin Elmer , and quantification of the whole tumour was performed using the inForm 2 software Perkin Elmer.

The area of the tumour region was measured by assessing the haematoxylin-stained area. For immunofluorescence, Alexa Fluor goat anti-rabbit and Alexa Fluor goat anti-mouse were used as secondary antibodies Life Technologies , and DAPI was used for nuclear staining.

The quantification was carried out with four-fold magnified images of the central region of the stained wells using Hybrid cell count software KEYENCE. The following primary antibodies were used: anti-smad antibody , Cell Signaling Technology ; anti-phospho-smad antibody , Cell Signaling Technology ; anti-S6 antibody , Cell Signaling Technology ; anti-phospho-S6 antibody , Cell Signaling Technology ; anti-Akt antibody , Cell Signaling Technology ; anti-phospho-Akt antibody , Cell Signaling Technology ; anti-beta-actin antibody , Cell Signaling Technology.

References 1. Uemura, D. Norhalichondrin A: an antitumor polyether macrolide from a marine sponge. Journal of the American Chemical Society , — Powered by a Honda cc engine, this mower Lastmanuals offers a socially driven service of sharing, storing and searching manuals related to use of hardware and.

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Commerce, based on mercantilism, was hampered by restrictive regulations, monopolies, and internal tariff barriers.


The commercialization of the social media will result in the increase of social media marketing. Citation Mustang Pilots Operating Manual. The vote was seen as rejection of the government's moves to make changes in the French social welfare system, with its generous welfare, health-care, and pension benefits. Luchaire, and Fustel de Coulanges; for the 17th cent. In religious conflict flared up in the first of the ferocious civil wars see Religion, Wars of that tore France asunder during the reigns —89 of the last Valois kings, Charles IX and Henry III.

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