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NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM PDF

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Abstract. Novel drug delivery systems present an opportunity for formulation scientists to overcome the many challenges associated with antihypertensive drug. In the form of a Novel Drug Delivery System an existing drug molecule can get a new life. An appropriately designed Novel Drug Delivery. PDF | Drug delivered can have significant effect on its efficacy. Buckyballs, a novel delivery system with 60 carbon atoms formed in the shape.


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PDF | On Mar 4, , Shaktipal Patil and others published A REVIEW ON NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A RECENT TREND. Review Article ISSN – REVIEW: APPROACH ON NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Kagalkar A. A*, Nitave S. A. Anil Alias Pintu Magdum. The aim of Novel Drug Delivery System is to provide a therapeutic amount of drug The drug- delivery system should deliver drug at a rate control by the.

It is achieved by using drug-carrying polymers that respond to specific stimuli e.

For over 20 years, researchers have appreciated the potential benefits of nanotechnology in providing vast improvements in drug delivery and drug targeting. Improving delivery techniques that minimize toxicity and improve efficacy offers great potential benefits to patients, and opens up new markets for pharmaceutical and drug delivery companies. Other approaches to drug delivery are focused on crossing particular physical barriers, such as the blood brain barrier, in order to better target the drug and improve its effectiveness; or on finding alternative and acceptable routes for the delivery of protein drugs other than via the gastro-intestinal tract, where degradation can occur.

When developing these formulations, the goal is to obtain systems with optimized drug loading and release properties, long shelf-life and low toxicity. Figure: 1 Pharmaceutical carriers a MICELLES: Micelles formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers nm in aqueous solutions are of great interest for drug delivery applications. The drugs can be physically entrapped in the core of block copolymer micelles and transported at concentrations that can exceed their intrinsic water- solubility.

Moreover, the hydrophilic blocks can form hydrogen bonds with the aqueous surroundings and form a tight shell around the micellar core. As a result, the contents of the hydrophobic core are effectively protected against hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation. In addition, the corona may prevent recognition by the reticuloendothelial system and therefore preliminary elimination of the micelles from the bloodstream.

A final feature that makes amphiphilic block copolymers attractive for drug delivery applications is the fact that their chemical composition, total molecular weight and block length ratios can be easily changed, which allows control of the size and morphology of the micelles. Functionalization of block copolymers with crosslinkable groups can increase the stability of the corresponding micelles and improve their temporal control.

Substitution of block copolymer micelles with specific ligands is a very promising strategy to a broader range of sites of activity with a much higher selectivity. The pharmaceutical industry is altering day to day based on the varying patient requirements and global developments. The industries have diverted their www. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences research focuses from conventional dosage forms to novel drug delivery technologies which has got significantly improved market requirements.

In recent years the pharmaceutical companies are struggling to maintain a balance between the downward pressure on prices and significantly raised innovation cost. It is going to be always a green zone for companies developing novel delivery technologies to maintain their market presence and share.

The introduction of novel delivery systems to an existing molecule should significantly improve its safety, efficacy and improved patient compliance. Most of the innovator companies have a parallel research pipeline for biopharmaceuticals and concentrates on protein-peptide base drug portfolio [3].

The method by which a drug is delivered can have a significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs like Ginseng and Rosemary have an optimum concentration range within which maximum benefit is derived and concentrations above or below this range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all. On the other hand, very slow progress in the efficacy of the treatment of severe diseases has recommended a growing need for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to targets in tissues.

Keeping in view the above facts new ideas on controlling the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-specific toxicity, immunogenicity, biorecognition and efficacy of drugs were generated. These new strategies, often called drug delivery systems DDS are based on interdisciplinary approaches that combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, bioconjugate chemistry and molecular biology. An ideal drug delivery system possesses two elements i ability to target ii to control the drug release.

Targeting will make sure high efficiency of the drug and reduce the side effects especially when dealing with drugs that are presumed to kill cancer cells but can also kill healthy cells when delivered to them.

The prevention of side effects is achieved by controlled release of drug. Therefore, different types of delivery system are used for variety of synthetic drugs, phytomolecules and herbal extracts to ensure better bioavailability and targeted delivery. Liposomes are small artificial vesicles of spherical shape that can be created from cholesterol and natural nontoxic phospholipids.

Due to their size and hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, liposomes are promising systems for drug delivery. Liposome properties differ considerably with lipid composition, surface charge, size, and the method of preparation. It has been displayed that phospholipids impulsively form closed structures when they are hydrated in aqueous solutions.

Such vesicles which have one or more phospholipid bilayer membranes can transport aqueous or lipid drugs, depending on the nature of those drugs. Because lipids are amphipathic in aqueous media, their thermodynamic phase properties and self assembling characteristics influence entropically focused confiscation of their hydro-phobic sections into spherical bilayers.

Novel drug delivery systems, devices, and fabrication methods

Those layers are referred to as lamellae. Generally, liposomes are definite as spherical vesicles with particle sizes ranging from 30 nm to several micrometers. They consist of one or more lipid bilayers surrounding aqueous units, where the polar head groups are oriented in the pathway of the interior and exterior aqueous phases.

On the other hand, self-aggregation of polar lipids is not limited to conventional bilayer structures which rely on molecular shape, temperature, and environmental and preparation conditions but may self-assemble into various types of colloidal particles [6].

Fig 1: Structure of liposme. Advantages Some of the advantages of liposome are as follows: General Method of Preparation and Drug Loading: The lipid soluble lipophilic materials are solubilized in the organic solution of the constitutive lipid and then evaporated to a dry drug containing lipid film followed by its hydration.

These methods involve the loading of the entrapped agents before or during the manufacturing procedure Passive loading. However, certain type of compounds with ionizable groups, and those which display both lipid and water solubility can be introduced into the liposomes after the formation of intact vesicles remote loading [7].

Fig 2: General method of liposomes preparation and drug loading.

References

Colon delivery: Colon delivery refers to targeted delivery of drugs into the lower GI tract, which occurs primarily in the large intestine i. Other potential applications of colonic delivery include chronotherapy, prophylaxis of colon cancer and treatment of nicotine addiction. It has www.

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences also gained increased importance not just for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases, but also potential site for the systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides which are being delivery by injections. Clinically relevant bioavailability may be achieved if the peptide can be protected from acid and enzymes in the stomach and upper intestine. Thus selective delivery of drugs to the colon could not only lower the required dose but also reduce the systemic side effects caused by high doses.

Colon specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for delivery of the drugs in the treatment associated with the colon, but also as a potential site for the systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins. To achieve successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug need to be protected from degradation, release and absorption in the upper portion of the GI tract and then to be ensured abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon.

This review mainly compares the primary approaches for CDDS Colon Specific Drug Delivery namely pro-drugs, pH and time dependent systems, and microbial triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery ORDS-CT which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process [8].

Fig 3: Design of enteric coated timed-release press coated tablet ETP Tablet. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3.

INTRODUCTION

Cubosomes are the biocompatible novel approach for the drug delivery system. The controlled release application of these nanoparticles is of a great significance in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical fields.

Low cost of the raw materials, flexibility and the potential for controlled release through functionalization makes them an attractive vehicle for several in-vivo drug delivery routes. Precursor forms of cubosomes are among the modification possible to overcome its difficulty in loading of drugs. Cubosomes are the square and rounded particles with internal cubic lattices visible [9].

Cubosomes are discrete, sub-micron, nanostructured particles of bi-continuous cubic liquid crystalline phase. Cubosomes are typically produced by high-energy dispersion of bulk cubic phase, followed by colloidal stabilization using polymeric surfactants. These new strategies, often called drug delivery systems DDS are based on interdisciplinary approaches that combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, bioconjugate chemistry and molecular biology.

An ideal drug delivery system possesses two elements i ability to target ii to control the drug release.

NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Targeting will make sure high efficiency of the drug and reduce the side effects especially when dealing with drugs that are presumed to kill cancer cells but can also kill healthy cells when delivered to them. The prevention of side effects is achieved by controlled release of drug. Therefore, different types of delivery system are used for variety of synthetic drugs, phytomolecules and herbal extracts to ensure better bioavailability and targeted delivery.

Liposomes: Liposomes are small artificial vesicles of spherical shape that can be created from cholesterol and natural nontoxic phospholipids.

Due to their size and hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, liposomes are promising systems for drug delivery. Liposome properties differ considerably with lipid composition, surface charge, size, and the method of preparation. It has been displayed that phospholipids impulsively form closed structures when they are hydrated in aqueous solutions.

Such vesicles which have one or more phospholipid bilayer membranes can transport aqueous or lipid drugs, depending on the nature of those drugs. Because lipids are amphipathic in aqueous media, their thermodynamic phase properties and self assembling characteristics influence entropically focused confiscation of their hydro-phobic sections into spherical bilayers.

Those layers are referred to as lamellae. Generally, liposomes are definite as spherical vesicles with particle sizes ranging from 30 nm to several micrometers. They consist of one or more lipid bilayers surrounding aqueous units, where the polar head groups are oriented in the pathway of the interior and exterior aqueous phases. On the other hand, self-aggregation of polar lipids is not limited to conventional bilayer structures which rely on molecular shape, temperature, and environmental and preparation conditions but may self-assemble into various types of colloidal particles [6].

Fig 1: Structure of liposme. The lipid soluble lipophilic materials are solubilized in the organic solution of the constitutive lipid and then evaporated to a dry drug containing lipid film followed by its hydration. These methods involve the loading of the entrapped agents before or during the manufacturing procedure Passive loading.

However, certain type of compounds with ionizable groups, and those which display both lipid and water solubility can be introduced into the liposomes after the formation of intact vesicles remote loading [7]. Fig 2: General method of liposomes preparation and drug loading. Colon delivery: Colon delivery refers to targeted delivery of drugs into the lower GI tract, which occurs primarily in the large intestine i.

Other potential applications of colonic delivery include chronotherapy, prophylaxis of colon cancer and treatment of nicotine addiction. It has www. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences also gained increased importance not just for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases, but also potential site for the systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides which are being delivery by injections.

Clinically relevant bioavailability may be achieved if the peptide can be protected from acid and enzymes in the stomach and upper intestine. Thus selective delivery of drugs to the colon could not only lower the required dose but also reduce the systemic side effects caused by high doses.

Colon specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for delivery of the drugs in the treatment associated with the colon, but also as a potential site for the systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins. To achieve successful colon targeted drug delivery, a drug need to be protected from degradation, release and absorption in the upper portion of the GI tract and then to be ensured abrupt or controlled release in the proximal colon.

This review mainly compares the primary approaches for CDDS Colon Specific Drug Delivery namely pro-drugs, pH and time dependent systems, and microbial triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery ORDS-CT which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process [8].

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3. Cubosomes: Cubosomes are the biocompatible novel approach for the drug delivery system. The controlled release application of these nanoparticles is of a great significance in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical fields.

Low cost of the raw materials, flexibility and the potential for controlled release through functionalization makes them an attractive vehicle for several in-vivo drug delivery routes. Precursor forms of cubosomes are among the modification possible to overcome its difficulty in loading of drugs. Cubosomes are the square and rounded particles with internal cubic lattices visible [9].

Cubosomes are discrete, sub-micron, nanostructured particles of bi-continuous cubic liquid crystalline phase. Cubosomes are typically produced by high-energy dispersion of bulk cubic phase, followed by colloidal stabilization using polymeric surfactants. Cubosomes offer a large surface area, low viscosity and can exist at almost any dilution level. They have high heat stability and are capable of carrying hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. Combined with the low cost of the raw materials and the potential for controlled release through functionalization, they are an attractive choice [9].

Bi-continuous cubic phases are optically isotropic, very viscous, and solid like liquid crystalline substance with cubic crystallographic symmetry.Polymeric supramolecular systems for drug delivery. The introduction of novel delivery systems to an existing molecule should significantly improve its safety, efficacy and improved patient compliance.

TABLE 8: These methods involve the loading of the entrapped agents before or during the manufacturing procedure Passive loading. This special issue would not have been possible without the timely submission and revision by the contributors, critical evaluations by the reviewers, the assistance provided by the Drug Delivery and Translational Research DDTR journal, and Springer editorial staff members.

Deliveries may be delayed or pulsed if desired. The drug delivery from this system is acid sensitive, in that drug levels are dependent on gastric acidity for release. Thus selective delivery of drugs to the colon could not only lower the required dose but also reduce the systemic side effects caused by high doses.

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