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Welcome to the Proficiency Masterclass Teacher's Site, which has extra resources to help you Complete audio for Proficiency Masterclass Student's Book. Proficiency Masterclass Teacher's ppti.info - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. Full text of "Proficiency Masterclass Teacher 39 S Book" Vocabulary Book expressions D Ask students to read through all six sentences before they choose a.

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Добавлен пользователем twirpx_ ; Отредактирован Proficiency Masterclass Teacher's Book. Oxford University Press . CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH: PROFICIENCY HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS. CONTENTS . publications such as fiction and non-fiction books, journals, newspapers. Скачать / Download: Cambridge Proficiency Masterclass. Student's Book. Teacher's Pack. Gude K., Duckworth M., Rogers L. (For the exam) (+ Audio) (pdf.

It's worth every penny. Dorca MussebFreelance Motion Designer dmusseb. It's not just the tutorials that help but also how responsive and engaging the classes are.

Getting to talk to other students from around the world and getting their feedback and perspective make SOM bootcamps unique.

The TA's are very knowledgable and extremely helpful in their feedback. The instructor was very hands on and technically experienced.

He answered questions quickly and was truly engaged in all the projects and with all the students. This experience has broaden my knowledge as a designer and animator.

It was worth every penny. The knowledge and confidence that I've gained absolutely shines thru when it's time to tackle client, agency and personal work. It is very clear that a lot of thought and love has been put into these courses and you'll see results within the first couple of weeks. Put in the hard work and participate with the great peers you'll meet and network with.

You won't regret it. I He winked knowingly at me. G Ask students which expression with do is illustrated doing the donkey work. Remind students that they need to be careful with the form of the verb do and that they may need to change the order of the words.

Key 1 I m fed up with doing the donkey work in the barracks. Extra vocabulary See page for ideas on how to exploit this vocabulary, abolish verb to officially end laws or systems to subject someone to something verb to force someone to experience something unpleasant harsh adjective very difficult, unkind or even cruel morbid adjective expressing strong interest in sad nr unpleasant tilings elation noun feeling of great happiness or excitement ferocious adjective very fierce or aggressive candidly adverb openly and honestly resentment noun feeling of anger about something considered unfair preserve verb to protect or keep something in good condition Language in use sb pages 41—43 Dizzy heights Introduce the activity by asking students how the title Dizzy heights is related to the picture.

Ask them to think of other adjectives they could use to describe how they might feel in this situation. Discuss answers as a class D'lbLUbs answers as a class. Ooeoiblo omowcio The picture shows a construction worker on a crane high above the ground.

It is a well-known symbol of Australia.

Proficiency Masterclass Teacher's Book.pdf

A Allow students a minute to read the text quickly. B This exercise serves as a quick revision of the different functions of modal verbs. Remind them to find two endings for each sentence stem. Ask students to read out whole sentences. Check answers and clarify changes of meaning as a class. C This exercise focuses on the meanings of past modals in context. The key includes hint questions to help clarify meaning.

G This is a freer activity to focus on making deductions about the past. Students read out their sentences for comparison. There is more than one possible answer for some situations. Possibility and speculation D E This exercise focuses on how could , might and may can change meaning according to the context of the sentence.

Was it really a mill pond? Was this a problem for the writer? Why were they worried? Why was it unnecessary? How sure is he about the height of the ladder? Was it possible for it to be more daunting? Making deductions F Check answers as a class. Ask students to read out the whole sentence when they give their answers.

The second half of the sentence gives the evidence for the deduction in the first half. The use of the phrase here also indicates that the speaker is annoyed.

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Key Id 2a 3b 4d 5c 6e 7a 8c Photocopiable activity 3. Prices may fall in the near future. Students work in small groups to discuss the risks as a group and note down their decisions. Encourage them to give justifications. Each group presents its decision. Compare them as a class.

E3 Extra activity Write this sentence from the article on the board: Our belts would be tethered to a cable to break a fall. Students work in pairs or small groups to make up two more sentences using fall as a noun. Encourage the use of dictionaries. Comprehension Paper 3 Part 5 Background notes Rehabilitation is special treatment or therapy to help someone return to a normal life.

Angina is a heart disease marked by a sharp pain in the chest. Personnel is a synonym for staff, the people who work somewhere. A Students read through the texts quickly. Ask students to justify their answers. Key Both articles describe the negative effects of stress and anxiety and mention ways of dealing with them. Key 1 We work better when we think creatively.

D Remind students of the importance of underlining parts of the text. B Remind students to look closely at the text to find suitable or correct answers. Diocuoo aiiotvuio ao a claoo. Key Text 1 1 powerful, important and emotional are wrong because they are not used in the article to describe the results of the research. The correct answer is: Text 2 3 negative and worst are insufficiently dramatic.

Summary writing Paper 3 Part 5 Shortening a summary C Check students have understood the instructions by asking them to explain the techniques for shortening me sentences to you. H illit Illullkl m. Discuss as a class why the phrases have been deleted. Students go through the rest of the summary and delete similar unnecessary phrases. Ask them to compare their deletions in pairs.

Key 1 o The first sentence is unnecessary as there is no need to introduce the subject of the summary. There is no need to qualify calm with 'quite'. Nevertheless, in staying healthy, own. Ask them to write their final summary then compare summaries in pairs. Sample summary Staying calm and remaining positive gives you a better chance of being healthy. How well you succeed depends on taking control of your emotions. Try to convince yourself that you can achieve more than you expect, even though others may have little faith in you.

Come to terms with your deepest fears and meet each challenge positively. Thus you can learn from your mistakes. When they have finished, discuss ideas as a class. Ask students to use the second listening to confirm or change their choices. The subject this week is Cindy Talbot, a final year college student, who was on the third day of her five-day solo-hiking trip through a forested wilderness when she was struck by lightning. Lightning kills nearly a hundred Americans each year, more than hurricanes or tornadoes, and to survive a direct hit is almost a miracle.

Luckily, Cindy was rescued and we are fortunate to have her with us in the studio today. Fortunately for me, Rod and Mark, the two guys who came to my rescue were driving back home in their pickup I must admit I thought the thunder sounded kinda ominous.

So I said to myself: But, I was too late, I guess. I remember when the downpour started But eventually the sun came out and the rain started to move away, so I came out from under the trees to dry off a little bit. And then, well.

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I realised that by some miracle I was still alive and had to get help. It sure was heavy going, but after about an hour I reached a wet, muddy kind of track in a clearing in the forest, and was found by Rod and Mark, the two guys with the fur business.

Rod told me later that he thought what I'd told him was a bit far-fetched, to say the least! I thought: Gee, thanks!

Thanks to the guys. And I'm scared to donth of lightning now death of lightning now. So do you feel the experience has had any long term effect on you? I'm not really a quitter and I'm determined, really determined to go on hiking.

Your views B Students discuss the questions in small groups. Ask them to try and come to an agreement as a group. Each group presents their decisions to the class for comparison. Key Student A risks, modern world Student B fewer dangers than previous generations Planning B This stage is to help students prepare for their presentation.

Draw their attention to the example and how the topic could be explored from the three different viewpoints. Now ask them to look at their own prompt card and consider how they can use the three viewpoints with their topics. Students make notes. This is a practice activity not a test so you can allow them a little time to prepare in order for them to develop good habits. In the exam, students are expected to give fluent and coherently linked responses to the prompts. Check that they have understood what they have to do by asking one or two individual students to explain the instructions to you.

While they are speaking, go round and monitor. Note down any errors you would like to deal with or any ways they could improve their fluency. When the students have finished the activity, write any errors on the board and discuss corrections as a whole class. Also discuss any points about the fluency of their presentations that you want to deal with. Exploring the topic D See TB page 22 Suggesting and disagreeing for the language of disagreeing politely.

Encourage students to discuss each of the questions. Groups report their conclusions to the class. The writer's opinions are expressed quite strongly. UNIT 3 Analysing the sample B Before students answer the questions, ask them to read through the sample and find out whether the writer agrees or disagrees with the opinions expressed writer agrees or disagrees wiiri die opinions expressed tri rhfc Wri-f-ing your lot-tor D Go through each of the stages in turn and discuss questjons and brainstorni ideas as a class.

Exam training in this unit Reading Multiple-choice questions on 4 texts: It refers to the fact that, as tourism opens up more and more destinations, the world seems smaller. I he overall theme of the unit is travel and tourism. Reading SB pages Wish you were here Introduce the activity by asking students where they would come across the phrase wish you were here it is a set phrase used on holiday postcards sent to i iends and family.

Small groups work out the word plays in the slogans. Ask them to note down the real phrases. Discuss the question as a class. Brainstorm ideas as to why the slogans may be effective and possible reasons why they may be ineffective. Round off the activity by asking students what holiday advertising is used in their countries.

Q Extra activity Ask students to write a holiday advertising slogan toi their own country in English. Multiple-choice questions Paper 1 Part 2 Background notes A pith helmet is a lightweight hat worn in tropical countries tor protection against the sun. A sanatorium is a kind ol hospital where people go to recover from long-term illnesses. A gite is a French word for a small cottage in the country which is rented out lor holidays.

An understanding of these elements is important for students at this level. Ask students to read through all lour texts quickly to get an idea of where they arc taken from. Discuss the reasons given for their choices.

Then ask students to read the texts again and underline the words which the writers use to create the mood. Key 1 Text 1 a newspaper article The writer is giving their opinions on the subject of travel and compares the past with the present.

Text 3 an insurance document The text mentions offering alternative holidays or a refund of money ir there is a cancellation. It also mentions promises on the part of the company and reads like a contract. Text 3 legalistic The text contains a number of words and phrases found in legal documents, e g. Remember, however, that these are holiday homes'. B Remind students to underline the part of the text that helped them make then choice.

Check answers as a class and discuss students justifications for their choices. Encourage them to get a feeling for how the word is used rather than concentrating on its exact meaning. Key 1 musty 2 perverse 3 obsessed 4 sordid 5 unattractive 6 infested 7 weary 8 arid Q Extra activity Ask students lu find positive adjectives, adverbs or I phrases in texts 2 and 4.

Then ask them to work in paiis and use as many o! Allow students 5 minutes lor this, then ask them to read out their descriptions to the class. Run of with and look down on are in text 1 , catch you unawares is in text 4. Key run off with means to steal something or take it away look down on means tn think you are better or superior to someone catch you unawares means to he surprised or unprepared for something 2 Allow students a few minutes to match the verbs to the phrases. Ask them to read out their sentences lor comparison as a class.

Photocopiable activity 4A Tfl pa fie Extra vocabulary See page for ideas on how to exploit this vocabulary, to be caught up in verb to be involved in something involuntarily eternal adjective existing or continuing tor ever sultry adjective weather that is hot and humid accumulated adjective increased in amount over a period of time dispel verb to make something go away commonplace adjective ordinary, not unusual scapegoat noun someone blamed tor something bad although it may not be their fault liability noun the slate of being legally responsible for something outstanding adjective not yet paid or done rustic adjective typical of the countryside, simple Languag e in use sb pages Into the unknown 1 Introduce the activity by asking students whether they would like to visit either of the two places in the pictures.

Ask them to give reasons why or why not. Divide the class into small groups and ask them to note down their ideas. Ask each group to present their ideas and discuss them as a class.

Proficiency Masterclass Teacher's Book.pdf

Round off the activity by asking students il they can think of any more unusual places to visit or take a holiday. Ask students to read through the questions before you play the recording.

Play the recording once. Key 1 days 2 He would have had to walk back to the base on Ins own. Remind them that they can choose several adjectives according to the impression they get of Uncle August. Key resigned resourceful optimistic courageous amateurish This is suggested at the beginning by mentioning his th day alone. He was smoking tea leaves. He never regarded it as an ordeal.

Possible, but it is mentioned that this was deceptive.

August Courtould. On that day, his paraffin primus stove gave Its last gasp Suddenly there was an appalling noise like a bus going by, followed by a confused yelling. If he hadn't been rescued, he would almost certainly have had to walk hack to his base alone, with no equipment whatsoever - that is if he'd been able to dig himself out. But August never regarded it as an ordeal; never said he wished he hadn't gone.

He had, after all. It was also important in considering the setting up of a regular air route over Greenland to North America, to see what the weather was like on the ice cap, particularly in winter. There was, however. Its members had an average age of But the air of gentlemanly amateurishness could be deceptive: A common error made by students is the confusion between a wish or regret about a present situation and a wish for a change in the situation.

In general ,t only expresses a strong regret or wish and can be more emphatic, especially in exclamations e g. Often the two are interchangable. Key 1 c 2 b 3 a C before students begin the exercise, remind them to consider whether the regret or wish refers to a past situation, a present situation or a change in the situation as discussed in B above. H Extra activity I Tell students they can have three wishes. It must be something outside your control, e.

Wish 3 must be something horn your past you would like to change, e. Collect in the pieces ol paper and distribute them round the class, making sure students don t get their own piece of paper. Each student reads out the three wishes and the rest of the class guess who wrote it. F Key 1C 2b 3a 4 d This exercise focuses on variations to the bastc conditional forms. Discuss answers to each of the questions in turn as a class.

But for, Were It not for d sentences 1, 4, 7, 8 and 9. This can sound more formal e sentenced Should you see Fred, give him my regards. Key 1 If it hadn't been for the bad weather, we could have gone camping. See G 5. SccG 4. See G 2.

Round off by asking students if they can rewrite sentence 1 in two other ways Had it not been for the bad weather Photocopiable activity 4. Remind students to think about the meaning and structure of the whole sentence rather than just what goes in the gap. Check that students have understood what to do in the exercise by asking one or two students to explain the instructions to you.

Check answers as a class by asking students to read out the whole sentence. Students work in small groups to make a list of the arguments for and against tourism based on the newspaper headlines and adding their own ideas. They compare lists as a class. Ask students how the headlines connect with the title n mixed blessing? A Ask students to read both texts first and find out what each is about the first text discusses both the positive and negative aspects of tourism and mentions one particular place, the second text gives advice about having a positive impact as a tourist.

Remind students to keep their answers to the questions as brief as possible. Key 1 to give an impression of the large number of connected footpaths 2 the negative effects of tourism 3 aware, sensitive 4 the potentially damaging impact of tourists in particular areas R Key American British traveler traveller behavior behaviour trash rubbish minimize minimise maximize maximise Summary writing Paper 3 Part 5 Unking C Key the positive effects that tourism can have on an area D Remind students that it is important for them to get into the habit of underlining the relevant parts of the texts as the first step in the summary writing process.

Ask them to compare what they have underlined in pairs and then check their work using the two sample summaries in E. Then ask them to put the linking phrases into the gaps.

The second summary begins with the positive effect on the local community and links it with conservation. The two economic benefits are mentioned last. The information has been organised into three areas: See G on SB page 3 1. Sample summary Tourists can cause traffic congestion in narrow roads and make it difficult for local people to do their work.

What is more, tourists can also cause harm to the environment not only by wearing down footpaths but hy wandering from trails and disturbing the wildlife. Finally, many tourists leave their rubbish behind, which makes areas of natural beauty look ugly. Invite one student from each group to give a summary of the discussion.

Ask them to read the six statements before they listen. Play the recording twice. Did you botti have a good day'? Really interesting! We travelled through history - 1 suppose you could say that we went in a rather different kind of time machine.

Basically, wc went into the centre of Oxford and visited a permanent exhibition called the Oxford Story and it sort of brings to life the history of the city. In fact in the guide book I bought the other day. But the really unusual thing about it is that you can experience the sights, the sounds, and even the smells of the past Mind you, we could have done without some of the more gruesome smells!

MIKE Oh, come on! They certainly had the desired effect made the whole thing seem more realistic. You can probably spend about just over an hour or so - depending on how long you want to spend in the gift shop, of course. You sec. Anyway, you travel into this world of academics, eccentrics It's certainly very informative and educational, if that's the kind of thing you're luuking for as a tourist, that isl But it also offers a glimpse of what student life must have been like in those days.

It really is a fascinating insight into huw education's changed since then. MIKE And we both enjoyed the short audio-visual presentation of what student life is like today. In fact, I d certainly recommend the visit. In any case, as the whole trip only lasts for about an hour, you can always go punting on the rivei afterwards. Mike insisted that if we were guing to spend some time in Oxford, then we would never forgive out selves if we didn't go punting.

I can t say it was the most relaxing thing I've ever done. I can tell you! Allow students a short time to consider their responses to the questions. Invite one student to begin the discussion by presenting their views. Elicit responses from other students and open up the discussion to the whole class. If you have a large class, divide them into groups for the discussion. Extra vocabulary bee page 17G for ideas on how to exploit this vocabulary, brawl noun a noisy and violent fight dreaded adjective causing fear unsightly adjective not pleasant to look at detrimental adjective harmful to something designated adjective given a particular role or job Speaking SB page 61 Themed discussion Paper 5 Part 2 Speculating A Encourage students to think of as many effects of the development of railways and air travel as possible, and to try to agree on which has had the greatest effect.

B Ask the groups to report back to the class. Fvaluating C Students should evaluate each picture in turn, concentrating on how well they think the picture relates to the topic of the magazine article.

Useful phrases for this task can be loinid on TB pages 21 and H Extra activity To give students further practice in evaluating pictures, bring into class a number ul pictures from magazines connected with travel that you have selected yourself.

Divide the class into small groups and give them 2 or 3 pic lures each. Analysing the sample B Key 1 Only the final paragraph mentions how the journey was spoiled hy a travelling companion. It doesn't connect with the rest of the description and seems to have been added on as an afterthought.

It is also well-organised with a clear beginning and end. Possible answers At the end of paragraph 2, replace the final sentence with: No sooner had we lound an empty seat and settled in than Emma began chatting. In paragraph 4: The train clanked on up to an empty plateau.

In paragiaph 6: Writing skills Descriptive language C Ask students to consider what they have discussed about the sample article as they read through the passage. Key The verb went is repeated too many times which makes the description less vivid and interesting to read. Ask students to rewrite the passage in pairs. Ask them to compare their work with another parr. Use the key to check their work.

Key We drove down the rough track towards the jungle until we reached the river that cut across the road. We parked in the shade of some rubber trees and got out. We waded across the river, which fortunately was not too deep, and then, as we were in no hurry, walked through the rice fields on the other side towards the forest. The path that led through the trees was entirely overgrown, so we hacked our way through it with considerable difficulty.

It was nearly mid-afternoon when we finally emerged from the thick undergrowth and reached the bottom of the mountain. Although we were all by now feeling extiausted, we clambered up the steep slope and arrived at the rendezvous point just as the sun was going down.

Writing your article E Go through each of the stages in lui o and discuss points and brainstorm ideas as a class. Extra vocabulary See page for ideas on how to exploit this vocabulary. The phrase means leading a more natural life without the aid of modern technology. The overall theme of the unit is the environment.

Reading SB pages In safe hands? Introduce the activity by asking students what is implied by the phrase in safe hands. It means that somebody has been taken care of well.

Picture 2 biodiversity, deforestation, medicine biodiversity refers to the range and variety of different species or types. Some species are disappearing thus reducing the range and variety. Picture 3 disposable, landfill sites, recyclable disposable is often used to describe everyday objects which can be thrown away once they have been used. Lexical cloze Paper 1 Part 1 A The questions aim to encourage students to read the whole text to get a general idea of the content before they attempt the Lexical cloze.

Students discuss their ideas in pairs before comparing them as a class. Key and possible answers Text 1 1 The purpose is to provide general information about terrapins. Key 1 hitterly 5 deeply 2 greatly B highly 3 seriously 7 most 4 perfectly 8 fully F Remind students to use each of the eight adverbs once only to complete the sentences. Ask each pair to read out their sentences to the class.

Expressions with light and dark G Ask students to make guesses if they are not sure of the meaning of some expressions. Key 1 a dark horse 2 came to light 3 makes light of 4 went out like a light 5 a leap In the dark illustrated 6 kept them in the dark 7 the light at the end of the tunnel 8 to see the light 9 the bright lights I In their pairs, students invent their sentences, then read their ideas out to the class for comparison.

Compare answers as a class. Students speculate about the purpose of the building. Put their ideas on the board. Direct students to read the text quickly and find out if their answers were close to the real purpose and location of the building. The picture shows the experimental building Biosphere 2 that the text describes. Cloze Paper 3 Part 1 Background notes hectares are units of measurement ol land.

A Remind students that the word which goes into the space may depend on the context. Ask them to check that the word they have chosen fits in with the meaning of the whole sentence and possibly the other sentences around it.

Check the answers as a class. Key l sentence 1 3b sentence 3 2 sentence 4 4a sentence 2 3a sentence 5 4b sentence 6 D This exercise focuses on both the form, meaning and use of more complex ways of referring to future time. Ask students to read through the five sentences and match one of the forms from the list to each sentence first.

Discuss each sentence in turn as a class, analysing the use ol each form. Key 1 future continuous This is used to refer to an action In progress at a particular point in the future, or to imply that something is part ot the normal course of events. Structure Future time B This exercise is a quick revision ol the basic future forms. Key 1 opens 4 2 will continue 5 3 is going to rain 6 E Ask students to underline the different future forms used in the paragraph and match them to a function from C and D.

Future perfect , future continuous and will as an auxiliary are all used. Ask students whether the views expiessed in the paragraph are optimistic or pessimistic. F Divide the class into small groups.

Ask them to write a similar paragraph using the same future forms. Tenses in fulure time clauses G Ask students to read through the three examples. Discuss questions I and 2 as a class. Key 1 The present simple is used in a future time clause to refer to the time of an event in the future.

H Remind students to consider the meaning of the whole sentence before they decide on the appropriate verb form. Key 1 am 4 have read 2 is leaving 5 want 3 have been swimming 6 are waiting Tuture phrases 1 Discuss the questions as a class. Key 1 is about to, is due to. Is expected to 2 is about to I Key will happen - certain to, bound to, sure to, set to may happen - likely to probably won't happen - unlikely to K In pairs, students write their paragraphs. Remind them to use as many phrases from parts 1 and 1 as they can.

Students read out their paragraphs for comparison as a class. Comprehension and sum mary SB pages Born to be wild Students works in groups to discuss questions Key 1 Picture 1 a fox, which can be found both in urban and rural environments in most regions of the world Picture 2 a giant panda, which originates in mountainous forests in Asia but is also found in many zoos Picture 3 a pair of male caribou, a species of deer found in the arctic regions of North America Picture 4 a herd of wildebeest migrating across the plains of Africa Comprehension Paper 3 Part 5 A Discuss answers to the questions as a class, focusing on relevant parts of the texts.

Key 1 Botti authors think that zoos play an important role in conservation and education. The second text also mentions relaxation as a benefit of zoos. The style is more like a warning. A short phrase or sometimes even one word is enough.

Students compare their answers in pairs. Key a statements 2. Remind ihem that they could approach the task by eliminating the irrelevant statements to leave the relevant ones. Students compare their corrections with a partner. Check corrections as a class. Key 1 provide - providing acted - act 2 in addition to - in addition the better scientific understanding - better scientific understanding 3 aspect - role jeopardised - endangered like - as 4 oportunities - opportunities were where.

F Ask students to describe to you the procedures they have followed for previous summaries. Draw iheir attention to the Exam lip. Furthermore, zoos face financial difficulties, partly due to expensive projects, but worsened by the fact that fewer people visit.

Finally, not enough has been done to promote the educational value of zoos. Elicit suggestions about what it might mean metaphorically. If they find this difficult, ask them if they have ever been in a situation requiring special sensitivity.

Walking on eggshells is an expression meaning that you have to behave carefully to avoid upsetting or angering somebody. Discuss the questions as a class. Elicit what they know about these animals and encourage them to speculate about what they are not sure ol. Key 1 The pictures show a sabretoothed tiger, a dodo, a mammoth and a brontosaurus. Mammoths lived in Africa and the northern hemisphere in the period up to 12, years ago.

The dodo lived on the island of Mauritius until the seventeenth century 3 The sabretouthed tiger and the mammoth became extinct due to climate and habitat change. The reasons for brontosaurus extinction are unknown, but may have been due to a meteorite strike.

The dodo was a flightless bird which was easily hunted for food by sailors. Sentence completion Paper 4 Part 2 Background notes Megafauna in this context refers to large extinct animals. A number of these animals are referred to in the listening text.

Reassure students that they don't need to know what these animals are in order to do the task. A Q Remind students that it is important to read through the sentences before they listen. Ask them if they can find out from any of the sentences why these animals became extinct.

Draw attention to the Exam tip, pointing out that the sentences are summaries of what the speaker says but that the missing words are the same as they will hear on the tape.

Alter playing the recording the first time, allow students some time to think about their answers. Continue to play the recording a second time. Ask students to compare answers with a partner and then check answers as a class.

Key 1 bones 2 preserved eggshells 3 climate 4 vegetation 5 flightless birds 6 evidence 7 beak 8 predators 9 ecology Tapescript professor Thousands of years ago, Australia was inhabited by huge animals such as the marsupial lion, the three-metre long diprotodon, the quinkana, a seven-metre crocodile, and the kangaroo of the Pleistocene which weighed in at kg. For more than a century, the timing of this extinction has been controversial.

However, new discoveries have been made UNIT 5 57 that may pinpoint this demise more precisely. The controversy has remained mainly because studies of bones become less accurate the further back you go. However, a new discovery has started to shed more light on the question.

Preserved eggshells from flightless birds are surprisingly common, and this breakthrough came when specimens from two species of birds were found in the same place. These were the emu and the two-metre tall Gcnyornis Newloni. Finding them together suggested these species co-existed and nested close to one another. That is until From that point on, there's an abrupt lack of genyornis egg shells, though the emu ones remain. This has provided the best evidence yet of an extinction date for this giant animal and the other megafauna.

But the most complete information tor this period comes from New South Wales, and suggests a landscape characterised by lush vegetation, an environment in which genyornis would have survived.

Could humans have killed off the megafauna? The dodo is the classic example, and, in New Zealand, the eradication of the moa has been well documented. In that case, it was due to people hunting the birds and starting fires.

Whether humans could have killed off the megafauna by hunting them for food depends on the date modern humans first arrived in Australia.

We do have evidence to suggest that their arrival coincides exactly with the demise of the genyornis. However, there is not a great deal ot evidence to suggest that these early peoples hunted the birds to extinction. One conclusion from this is that genyornis had a more limited range of food. A further clue has been found in a physiological study uf the genyornis. The shape of the beak shows that it was highly dependent on plants, and.

This stress, together with possible climate changes, led to their extinction and also to that of other species Of megafauna. Twenty-two out of thirty-eight species ot megafauna died out. The majority of those relied on plant matter tor food. As that went, predators were also unable to survive.

In addition, genyornis bones are found with other megafauna bones, such as the giant kangaroo and the marsupial lion, often crammed into the same sites, so it is likely that these creatures died out at the same time.

There must have been extraordinary demands on the ecology of this environment for the extinctions of the megafauna to have happened at the same time. Fortunately, scientists now have a new insight into the reasons behind this event. Your views B Refer students back to the listening task to make comparisons.

Invite one or two students from each gioup to summarise their discussion for comparison with the class. Vocabulary Animal expressions C Introduce the exercise by asking students to explain any animal expressions they have in their own languages.

Remind them to have a guess it they re not sure about some of the expressions by thinking about the meaning of the whole sentence. Check answers by asking students to read out the whole sentence. The expression in the dog-house is illustrated.

Key dog 5 frog whale 6 fish crocodile 7 horse wolf 8 snail Sp eaking sb page 75 Nole: Monitor all the activities and give leedback at the end focusing on any points of fluency or accuracy that you want to deal with. Compare opinions as a class. These are in italic in the text. Read the text twice if necessary. As far as litter is concerned , my area is good as the streets are cleaned icgularly and the rubbish is collected everyday.

However , this is not true for the noise levels and air quality which are both poor dtte to the fact that it is in the centre of the city and there is a great deal of traffic at all times. In terms of road safety and public transport, mine is a good area to live in on account of the Jail that the council has invested money on improving the system.

Unfortunately though , there are not enough green spaces owing to it being a built up area. On the other I hand the street lighting is guud because of this. Themed discussion Paper 5 Part 2 Speculating A Possible answers 1 pollution, litter, community responsibility, voluntary work 2 green spaces, community gardens, education Evaluating B Students remain in their pairs to discuss all four pictures. Encourage them to justify why they think the solutions are either effective or not, in relation to the purpose.

Invite one student from each pair to present their ideas to the class for comparison. Possible answers 1 See A above 2 See A above 3 traffic fumes and congestion, pedestrianisation 4 parks, dogs fouling parks, play areas for children Suggesting alternatives C Each pair decides on two more images.

Ask each group lo present their ideas to the rest of the class for comparison. Writing SB pages An essay Paper 2 Part 1 Understanding the task A Key 1 The essay is for a college, school or university tutor and the reason for writing it is that it could be part of your studies or a course requirement. Analysing the sample B Key 1 The first paragraph gives a general introduction to the subject and briefly presents the writer's point of view by referring to the idea in the original statement.

Key Introducing an opposing view It could be argued that It Is often suggested Some people would argue Discrediting the opposing view This is partly true but To a certain limited extent, there is some truth in this but This argument has a certain superficial logic to it, hut, on closer examination Proposing your own view It is clear that It is therefore quite wrong The real situation D Students look at the four ideas in D and consider how they could structure a paragraph according to the suggested outline.

Students write a short paragraph based on each idea. Remind them to add their own views and structure their paragraphs using phrases from C.

To a certain limited extent, there is some truth in this hut if everyone were to continue using cars instead of cycling, then the pollution levels would only gel higher and life in cities would become unbearable. It is clear that we must impose restrictions on the use of cars in the cities and encourage people to cycle by introducing car free zones. Only this way can we make our cities safer and less polluted for everyone.

Writing your essay Go llnough each of the stages in turn, discuss points and brainstorm ideas as a class. Exam training in this unit Reading Multiple-choice questions on four texts: Ask if they can imagine what a culture vulture is. A culture vulture is a colloquial phrase meaning a person who is eager to acquire culture. The overall theme of the unit is language and culture. Reading sb pages Speaking the same language? Explain that the phrase speak the same language can also mean to be able to communicate easily with another person since you share a similar outlook on life.

Encourage them to speculate. Ask students if there are any words or phrases they recognised in the passages from early English. Siey Extract A Extract B 8th century, taken from the Old English text Beowulfby an unknown author.

Extract D , taken from Lock , Stock and Barrel. Round off the activity by asking students whether they think English will remain as an international language or whether another language will take over in the future. Multiple-choice questions Paper l Part 2 Background The Transcaucasus is a region associated with the Caucasus mountains.

It includes parts of modern-day Russia, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The Tower of Babel comes from a biblical story in which the people of Babel attempted to build a tower to reach heaven. Displeased with this act, God made them all speak in different languages so as to be unable to communicate with each other and thus fail in their plan to build the tower. A neologism is a new word or expression which has been made up to suit the circumstances.

Recent examples are Walkman, internet, cybercafe, website etc. Carolingian refers to the period and territories of the dynasty descended from Charlemagne.

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A Remind students that some answers to the multiple-choice questions may seem correct in themselves but may not fit with the stem of the question. Students work individually. Encourage students to give reasons for their choices. Text 4 comes from an encyclopedia text on ear medieval literature. C Ask students what they think the differenc between these two texts and the other two text These two texts are less serious or academic in than the other two.

There is an element of hun irony in both these two texts.

To give an explanation of the origin and development of different languages from a common source. A university teacher, an expert in linguistics or a journalist from a specialist periodical. People interested in the history of languages or students of linguistics. In a book on the history of languages or in a specialist journal or magazine. Text 4 1 To give information about aspects of French literature before Text 3 1 ingenious 2 juvenile would sugge and immature Vocabulary D This activity focuses on connotation; the pi or negative associations of words with similar meanings.

Students read the sentences and find any words think might have negative associations. Ask the think about possible differences in meaning bet the other words. Background notes Text 1 comes from a specialist journal Scientific American. They are asking! Stude ig the college autl upporting the stu: S3 Extra activity Ask students to work in pairs and find as many words as they can with the negative prefixes dis-, non- and mis-.

Encourage them to use dictionaries to do this but remind them to choose words which they think will be useful, not obscure words. Alternatively, this could be set as a homework task. Structure Emphasis E Encourage students to say the sentences out loud. Key lb It was Dickens who captured the imagination of Victorian England.

This sentence emphasises that Dickens, rather than any other novelist, captured the imagination of Victorian England. This sentence emphasises the date of publication. Cleft sentences with what G Students analyse the example sentences and then discuss answers as a class.

Key Sentences lb and 2b focus on the information in italics more strongly than la and 2a. H This activity focuses on changes in the structure of cleft sentences when an action is emphasised. Students analyse the example sentences and then discuss answers as a class. Key 1 The verb to do is used.

Key 1 What really irritates me is his arrogance. It is his arrogance that really irritates me. I needed was a good holiday. The doctor said that what I needed was a good holiday. What put us off buying the house was the busy main road. It is because he works all the time that she hardly ever sees her husband.

She says that what upset her was your lies. Photocopiable activity 6. Monitor each pair or group by asking questions or making suggestions.

I This exercise practises all the cleft sentences. Before students begin the exercise, encourage them to look back at the activities and make a note of the different types of cleft sentences.

Remind them that sentences can be rewritten in more than one way. For this reason, the phrase 'to give the impression useful for answering this type of question. Remind students to consider the context in which words or expressions are used.

Comprehension Paper 3 Part 5 A This activity aims to encourage students to read through the texts in order to identify the main points before they attempt the comprehension questions and summary task which follow. B Remind students to keep their answers as brief as possible. Text 1 1 It is used iro so wonderfu 2 to show that important in reading. Ask students to underline the parts of the texts wh are relevant to the summary task.

Then ask them t compare what they have underlined with a partnei Check answers as a class. Furthermore, too much attention is paid to teaching reading through literature rather than for learning in the early stages. Also, the lack of higher level skills or schemata can cause a failure to understand texts properly, and differences in how readers process texts must be taken into account.

Multiple-choice questions Paper 4 Part 3 A G Students read through the multiple-choice questions before they listen and make guesses about any of the answers based on the notes they made in their discussions in the introduction above. After playing the recording the first time, allow students some time to think about their answers. Check answers as a class and discuss why the other options are not correct by referring to the tapescript.

Amanda, is it you? And what was it exactly? Burne Jones said he was determined that the King should look like a king and the beggar should look like a Queen, and he had certain details such as the crown and the maid's dress specially made for him so that he could capture the detail.

If you look at the clothing you can see what I mean. At the time he was doing this, Burne Jones had met and fallen in love with a girl called Frances Graham, but she then married someone else. Your views B Students discuss the questions in groups. Round off the activity by comparing opinions as a class. Speaking sb page 89 English words in their language. A Students discuss the questions in groups and then as a class. Key The first writer is discussing the advantages of having a global language.

The second writer is discussing the bad effects that can happen when a language dies out. The first writer considers a single language for international communication to be a good thing, whereas the second writer thinks the consequences would be negative. Remind students that they can present their responses to the questions more fluently by linking their ideas together rather than just reciting a list. Monitor and give feedback at the end on any aspects of fluency or accuracy you want to deal with.

Exploring the topic D Students discuss the questions in groups and then as a class. Ask them when someone might use the phrase mind your language.

The phrase is normally spoken as a warning when someone has used foul or abusive language. Students discuss the questions in groups. Discuss the other answers as a class. For question 3 ask students to consider differences in pronunciation of Writing SB pages A report Paper 2 Part 2 Understanding the task A Students read through the exam task and underline the parts that relate to the four questions. Discuss answers to the questions as a class. Key 1 The report is for the school principal.

Analysing the sample B Key 1 It is divided into sections with suitable headings. Present simple and will are used in the introduction. Some factual details of the festival are given. Writing skills Complex sentences C Students compare the notes with the sentence and underline words and phrases that have been added.

Discuss the answers as a class. Key Despite and although have been added to show contrast. A relative clause with which has been used to combine information. D Students work in pairs to arrange the sentences into the three areas. Check answers as a class before they write their sentences. Key a 1,5,8 b 2,4,9 c 3, 6, 7 Students work in pairs to write their sentences and then compare what they have written with another pair.Extra vocabulary bee page 17G for ideas on how to exploit this vocabulary, brawl noun a noisy and violent fight dreaded adjective causing fear unsightly adjective not pleasant to look at detrimental adjective harmful to something designated adjective given a particular role or job Speaking SB page 61 Themed discussion Paper 5 Part 2 Speculating A Encourage students to think of as many effects of the development of railways and air travel as possible, and to try to agree on which has had the greatest effect.

An advertisement tor a hypnosis technique. Critics have long said that projects such as the Bank's forestry management plans have done nothing but result in the destruction of environments such as the rainforests. He was the father of Caroline Herschel who also became an astronomer. Ask students whether the views expiessed in the paragraph are optimistic or pessimistic. But he died a year later. Use the notes in the key fbr part 1 as a guideline for you and your students.

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