INFORMATION RULES SHAPIRO PDF
Library of Congres§ Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Shapiro, Carl. Information rules: a strategic guide to the network economy /. Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Varian . PDF | On Jan 1, , Carl Shapiro and others published Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to The Network Economy. Shapiro, Carl and Varian, Hal R. Information Rules,. Harvard Business School Press. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Shapiro, Carl. Information rules: a strategic guide to the network economy /. Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Varian . The main thesis of this book is that while technology may change, economic laws do not. The authors, Carl Shapiro and Hal Varian point out that the information. ppti.info: Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy ( ): Carl Shapiro, Hal R. Varian: Books.
System Reliability and Free Riding [PDF] The reliability of a system may depend on the contribution of many people, and thus is potentially subject to incentive problems. I investigate incentives and system performance in the case where reliability depends on the total effort, the minimum effort, and the maximum effort.
Conditioning Prices on Purchase History with Alessandro Acquisti [PDF] [Slides] We examine the consequence of computer mediated transactions that allow sellers to condition pricing on the history of interactions with a particular consumer. Surprisingly, we find that when consumer valuations do not change with consumption the seller will not want to condition prices on past purchase behavior. But if consumer valuations change for subsequent purchases, perhaps due to the provision of personalized enhanced services, the seller may find it profitable to condition prices on purchase history.
Published in Marketing Science , , , Summer White paper describing some of the economic issues surrounding open source and open standards software and its adoption by the public sector. To appear in Journal of Economic Education, It is a substantially enlarged treatment of the issues described in the paper immediately below.
Published in Culture Machine , May Published version: [PDF]. Hal R. Varian was chair of the committee that drafted this report.
Prepared for Bank of Japan conference, June , Reprinted from Scientific American , September, , pages Economic Aspects of Personal Privacy [HTML] A brief overview of economic aspects of privacy and what appropriate policy might be in a networked society. Published in Journal of Electronic Publishing , September We use the data from this experiment to estimate the demand for bandwidth and the value of waiting time for users. The parameter estimates for the demand functions for bandwidth are plausible and well-behaved.
The parameter estimates for the value of time are, on average, very low, but there are some subjects with relatively high time values. The subgame-perfect equilibrium of this two-stage game is Pareto efficient. We examine experimentally whether subjects actually manage to achieve this efficient outcome. We find an encouraging level of support for the mechanism, but also find some evidence that subjects' tastes for cooperation and equity may have significant interactions with the incentives provided by the mechanism.
Versioning Information Goods [PDF] [PostScript] This paper describes the economic theory and practice of creating product lines of information goods, a practice known as versioning. Information is now nearly free to reproduce.
How do you price something that is free to reproduce? Information Rules argues to price information according to its value to the end user instead of its cost. Different versions of varying quality can be easily created that have different values to different segments. Segments with low price sensitivity can be given a higher value version for a higher value price.
Meanwhile, virtually the same information can be recast in a lower value format and given away or sold inexpensively to those who are price sensitive. Standards, lock-in and switching costs Standards wars are everywhere in the new economy and how to deal with different standards and how to understand the impact of competing standards on customers and competition is important.
But this is not new. The issues and economics are fundamentally the same. Standards are good for consumers because they make it easier to develop complementary products and make it safer to buy products that fit a standard.
They make things more complicated for inventors and innovators, because it becomes difficult to move people from an old standard to a new, non-conforming product. Customers can become locked-in to existing products and standards and have high switching costs when seeking to move to new products or standards. In order to accomplish this we're taking our task one step at a time, analyzing the questions we want answered at the current step, and then asking the SME how they'd go about it.
Through this process we have identified a number of external information tools to aid us, as well as constructed reasoning axioms that can answer the current questions under consideration. Presently, the process under consideration is determining if an INFERD attack track for a particular host is a false positive, or true-positive.
We have determined with the help of the SME this can be done by examining the vulnerabilities of the system using the Nessus security scanning tool Section 2.
Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy
Apart from the above reasoning rules, some general rules are provided to the system for the task at hand as well as in anticipation for future reasoning tasks. For example, if host h1 is part of network n1, and port p1 is part of h1, it can be concluded p1 is part of the network n1. The second rule is specifically tailored for properties the system believes are subsumed by parent parts expressed as SumbsumedProperty. This rule was selected as Nessus reports only that ports have a specific vulnerability on them, but our desired goal is to know if certain hosts have vulnerability.
By asserting that CVE, BID, and SID vulnerability identifiers are a subsumed property the system can know which hosts have a vulnerability, if it knows one of its ports has that same vulnerability. The first rule asserts that if some entity is a member of some class represented by the Isa predicate , and that class is a subclass, or a kind of, another class represented by the Ako predicate , then that entity is a member of the superclass as well.
The second rule provides a the transitivity rule to the Ako relationship.
Shapiro, Carl and Hal R. Varian (1998). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy
Reports on these vulnerabilities are generated as an XML file, which details ports on the scanned hosts and CVE identifiers for vulnerabilities detected on those ports.
Additional information can include the operating systems running on the hosts, network trace routes, host aliases, and severity of the vulnerability.
An example of the Nessus output is presented in Fig. These become facts in our knowledge base. The following proposition-valued terms are required to represent the 5 Nessus report: PropertyValue x,y,z - Entity x has a property y with value z Isa x,y - Entity x is a member of the category of y PartOf x,y - Object x is a part of object y About x,y - x contains information about y As are the following terms: Network - the category of networks Host - the category of hosts.
Alert - the category of alerts. As it encounters tags we have determined to refer to certain entities e. This identifier is merely the first letter of the entity in question followed by a number e. Note that Nessus doesn't explicitly have tags referencing the network, but the hosts in a Nessus file are a part of a network, so an identifier needs to be provided in order to form propositions about the scanned network.
PartOf h2, n1. Isa h2, Host. PropertyValue p45, Number, PropertyValue p45, Protocol, tcp. About a96, p Isa a96, Alert. PropertyValue a96, Severity, low.
It is available as an XML download, and is required for our purposes because it not only documents vulnerabilities across multiple operating systems, but also serves as a cross-reference for vulnerability referents.
This cross-referencing task is performed by the SNePS attached procedures facility. The size of the CVE repository prevents us from loading in all its information into a SNePS knowledge base without hindering the reasoning processes.SNePS is one such system, but also provides a number of other useful representational and functional facilities that can aid information fusion and reasoning in the cyber domain.
Although old, the examples described in the book are timeless and are completely relevant to the information economy of today.
SIQuizStudyGuide - Week 9(Information Economics"Information...
Language English. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. We find an encouraging level of support for the mechanism, but also find some evidence that subjects' tastes for cooperation and equity may have significant interactions with the incentives provided by the mechanism.